Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ode aan haver in Landbouwmuseum
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2019
Effect of fermentation on content, molecule weight distribution and viscosity of β-glucans in oat sourdough
Lu, Jun ; Shan, Lingke ; Xie, Yiting ; Min, Fangfang ; Gao, Jinyan ; Guo, Laichun ; Ren, Changzhong ; Yuan, Juanli ; Gilissen, Luud ; Chen, Hongbing - \ 2019
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 54 (2019)1. - ISSN 0950-5423 - p. 62 - 67.
Fermentation - Lactobacillus plantarum - Oat β-glucan - Sourdough - Viscosity

This study investigated the effect of fermentation on the physicochemical properties of β-glucans in oat sourdough. Sourdoughs were produced from oat using homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 22134. The contents of total β-glucan and soluble β-glucan, the molecular weight (MW) of β-glucan and the viscosity of the extracted β-glucans were determined at 0, 4, 8, 10 and 12 h of fermentation. The total β-glucan content decreased from 4.89% to 4.23% after 12 h of fermentation. The soluble β-glucan concentration increased from 1.89% to 2.18% and then decreased to 1.97% after 8 h of fermentation. The content of β-glucans with MW > 105 decreased from 0 to 4 h of fermentation, followed by an increase and then a decrease after 8 h. The oat sourdough fermented for 8 h had high viscosity, which could be more beneficial for health and bread texture quality, especially for gluten-free breads. International Journal of Food Science and Technology

Breeding for healthier wheat
Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. ; Broeck, Hetty C. van den - \ 2018
Cereal Foods World 63 (2018)4. - ISSN 0146-6283 - p. 132 - 136.
In this article wheat is described in its historical context, as a part of the Paleolithic diet and Neolithic “food package.” The health-promoting roles of wheat in the prevention of modern chronic diseases are described, as well as several wheat-related disorders. Celiac disease has particularly high negative economic and health effects. Several breeding strategies aimed at the reduction or elimination of celiac disease immunogenicity in wheat, such as selection, reconstitution, chemical- and irradiation-induced mutation, and the application of advanced techniques (including genetic modification and CRISPR-Cas9 [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9]), have been elaborated and evaluated.
Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 to modify or remove gliadins from wheat and produce coeliac disease epitope-free wheat
Smulders, M.J.M. ; Jouanin, A.A. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. - \ 2018
In: Proceedings of the 31st Meeting of the Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity / Koehler, Peter, Minden, Germany : - ISBN 9783000588020 - p. 63 - 68.
Oats in healthy gluten-free and regular diets : A perspective
Smulders, Marinus J.M. ; Wiel, Clemens C.M. van de; Broeck, Hetty C. van den; Meer, Ingrid M. van der; Israel-Hoevelaken, T.P.M. ; Timmer, Ruud D. ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Braun, Susanne ; Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. - \ 2018
Food Research International 110 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 3 - 10.
Approved health claim - Avena - Avenin - Beta-glucan - Coeliac disease - Healthy food - Prevention - Production chain
During the 20th century, the economic position of oats (Avena sativa L.) decreased strongly in favour of higher yielding crops including winter wheat and maize. Presently, oat represents only ∼. 1.3% of the total world grain production, and its production system is fragmented. Nonetheless, current interest is growing because of recent knowledge on its potential benefits in food, feed and agriculture. This perspective will serve as a further impetus, with special focus on the recently valued advantages of oats in human food and health.Five approved European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claims apply to oats. Four relate to the oat-specific soluble fibres, the beta-glucans, and concern the maintenance and reduction of blood cholesterol, better blood glucose balance and increased faecal bulk. The fifth claim concerns the high content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially present in the endosperm, which reduces the risks of heart and vascular diseases. Furthermore, oat starch has a low glycemic index, which is favourable for weight control. Oat-specific polyphenols and avenanthramides have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, oats can contribute significantly to the presently recommended whole-grain diet.Next to globulins, oats contain a small fraction of prolamin storage proteins, called 'avenins', but at a much lower quantity than gluten proteins in wheat, barley and rye. Oat avenins do not contain any of the known coeliac disease epitopes from gluten of wheat, barley and rye. Long-term food studies confirm the safety of oats for coeliac disease patients and the positive health effects of oat products in a gluten-free diet. These effects are general and independent of oat varieties. In the EU (since 2009), the USA (since 2013) and Canada (since 2015) oat products may be sold as gluten-free provided that any gluten contamination level is below 20. ppm. Oats are, however, generally not gluten-free when produced in a conventional production chain, because of regular contamination with wheat, barley or rye. Therefore, establishing a separate gluten-free oat production chain requires controlling all steps in the chain; the strict conditions will be discussed.Genomic tools, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker array and a dense genetic map, have recently been developed and will support marker-assisted breeding. In 2015, the Oat Global initiative emerged enabling a world-wide cooperation starting with a data sharing facility on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics. Further, the EU project TRAFOON (Traditional Food Networks) facilitated the transfer of knowledge to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to stimulate innovations in oat production, processing, products and marketing, among others with regard to gluten-free. Finally, with focus on counteracting market fragmentation of the global oat market and production chains, interactive innovation strategies between customers (consumers) and companies through co-creation are discussed.
Food processing and breeding strategies for coeliac-safe and healthy wheat products
Jouanin, Aurélie ; Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. ; Boyd, Lesley A. ; Cockram, James ; Leigh, Fiona J. ; Wallington, Emma J. ; Broeck, Hetty C. van den; Meer, Ingrid M. van der; Schaart, Jan G. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Smulders, Rene - \ 2018
Food Research International 110 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 11 - 21.
Coeliac disease - Food processing - Genome editing - Gliadin - Gluten - Mutation breeding - Plant breeding - T cell epitope
A strict gluten-free diet is currently the only treatment for the 1-2% of the world population who suffer from coeliac disease (CD). However, due to the presence of wheat and wheat derivatives in many food products, avoiding gluten consumption is difficult. Gluten-free products, made without wheat, barley or rye, typically require the inclusion of numerous additives, resulting in products that are often less healthy than gluten-based equivalents. Here, we present and discuss two broad approaches to decrease wheat gluten immunogenicity for CD patients. The first approach is based on food processing strategies, which aim to remove gliadins or all gluten from edible products. We find that several of the candidate food processing techniques to produce low gluten-immunogenic products from wheat already exist. The second approach focuses on wheat breeding strategies to remove immunogenic epitopes from the gluten proteins, while maintaining their food-processing properties. A combination of breeding strategies, including mutation breeding and possibly genome editing, will be necessary to produce coeliac-safe wheat. Individuals suffering from CD and people genetically susceptible who may develop CD after prolonged gluten consumption would benefit from reduced CD-immunogenic wheat. Although the production of healthy and less CD-toxic wheat varieties and food products will be challenging, increasing global demand may require these issues to be addressed in the near future by food processing and cereal breeding companies.
The climate resilience of critical infrastructural network sectors. An interdisciplinary method for assessing the ‘expected effectiveness’ of the division of responsibilities for the management of climate risks in the Dutch electricity and internet sectors
Gilissen, H.K. ; Driessen, P. ; Mees, H. ; Rijswick, M. van; Runhaar, Hens ; Uittenbroek, C. ; Wörner, R. - \ 2017
In: The effectiveness of environmental law / Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine, Cambridge : Intersentia - ISBN 9781780684673 - p. 15 - 36.
This chapter presents and applies an interdisciplinary (law & governance) method for the assessment of the climate resilience of critical infrastructural network sectors. Broadly applicable, this methodological framework comprises three phases, within which six logically arranged steps are set out. The central assessment criterion for climate resilience, the ‘expected effectiveness’ of responsibilities for climate adaptation, is operationalized through six indicators. These are: awareness, proactivity, appropriateness, explicitness, transparency and legitimacy. Apart from academic purposes, this assessment framework can prove useful to law and policy makers in assessing and (re)developing the relevant arrangements that govern critical infrastructural network sectors. To give examples of the functioning of the assessment framework, this framework is applied in two case studies that address the Dutch electricity and internet sectors. These case studies show a rather low level of expected effectiveness of responsibilities for climate adaptation in both sectors. Apart from their exemplary purpose, these case studies provide insights into potential pitfalls which can be relevant for increasing the climate resilience of other network sectors in the Netherlands, in other EU Member States and abroad.
Prevalence of Celiac Disease Autoimmunity Among Adolescents and Young Adults in China
Yuan, Juanli ; Zhou, Chunyan ; Gao, Jinyan ; Li, Jingjing ; Yu, Fenglian ; Lu, Jun ; Li, Xin ; Wang, Xiaozhong ; Tong, Ping ; Wu, Zhihua ; Yang, Anshu ; Yao, Yonghong ; Nadif, S. ; Shu, Heng ; Jiang, Xu ; Wu, Yujie ; Gilissen, Luud ; Chen, Hongbing - \ 2017
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 15 (2017)10. - ISSN 1542-3565 - p. 1572 - 1579.e1.
Anti-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide - HLA Class II Gene - Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody

Background & Aims: In China, epidemiologic information on celiac disease autoimmunity is scarce and fragmented. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the general Chinese population. Methods: In a cross-sectional prospective study, 19,778 undiagnosed Chinese adolescents and young adults (age, 16-25 y) were recruited from consecutive new students who underwent routine physical examinations at 2 universities in Jiangxi, China, from September 2010 through October 2013; the students were from 27 geographic regions in China. All subjects were tested for serum IgG, IgG against deamidated gliadin peptides (IgG anti-DGP), and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA anti-tTG). We also analyzed HLA genotypes in subgroups of participants with different results from tests for serum markers of celiac disease. Results: A total of 434 students (2.19%) tested positive for serum markers for celiac disease (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99%-2.41%), 0.36% of the students tested positive for anti-tTG IgA (95% CI, 0.28%-0.46%), and 1.88% tested positive for anti-DGP IgG (95% CI, 1.70%-2.09%). The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity (positive results in assays for anti-tTG IgA and anti-DGP-IgG) was 0.06% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.10%). Celiac disease autoimmunity was associated with the consumption of wheat and female sex. The prevalence in the Shandong province in north China, where wheat is a staple in the diet, was 0.76% (95% CI, 0.21%-1.95%). The frequencies of the HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 genotypes associated with celiac disease were higher in subjects with celiac disease autoimmunity, based on detection of both serum markers, than in subjects with positive results from a single test (P < .01). All subjects with positive results from both assays carried the HLA-DQ2 genotype. Conclusions: Approximately 2% of adolescents or young adults in China had positive results from assays for serum markers for celiac disease. The prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity in the Shandong province in north China, where wheat is a staple in the diet, was 0.76%.

Guaranteed gluten-free
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Is spelt gezonder dan tarwe??
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Waarom haver past in een gezond glutenvrij diet (Why oats fit into a healthy gluten-free diet).
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
coeliac disease
4th International Symposium on Gluten-free Cereal Products and Beverages
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Why oats fit into a healthy gluten-free diet
Trafoon, TWS
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Oats 2020: Needs and lessons from an international perspective. Trafoon TWS: From Tradition to Innovation in Buckwheat, Oats and Gluten-free. Warsaw, Poland,29 June 2016
Oats, Healthy, Nutritious and sustainable
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Oats, healthy, nutritious and sustainable – and fit into a gluten-free diet. Invited lecture at Impulse, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands, 20 April 2016
Annual meeting of the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
Waarom haver past in een gezond glutenvrij dieet (Why oats fit into a healthy gluten-free diet). Invited lecture at Annual Meeting of the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society, Vianen, The Netherlands, 16 April 2016
XXXII International Congress of Genealogical and Heraldic Sciences in Glasgow
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016
poster: Origin, dispersal and life histories of a Campine community
Strategies to reduce or prevent wheat coeliacimmunogenicity and wheat sensitivity through food
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2016
In: Proceedings of the 29th Meeting, WORKING GROUP on PROLAMIN ANALYSIS and TOXICITY. - Freising : Verlag Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie - ISBN 9783946117025 - p. 41 - 55.
Cereals are among the oldest foods of humans. Wheat is one of these. In present times,several syndromes are, whether true or false, increasingly attributed to the consumption of wheat, with increasing costs for medical care and decreasing turnover for the food industry, especially the bakery sector. Many western societies show remarkable annual increases in their health care costs, often surmounting their economic growth rates. Governmental health policies should urgently revert towards the stimulation of disease prevention practices instead of maintaining the stimulation of expensive medical care.
Here we review and discuss possible strategies to prevent or reduce the incidence of wheat-related conditions through application of breeding and food-related technologies. Breeding includes selection and crossing for low-immunogenic wheat varieties using varieties, accessions, and wild relatives, silencing the expression of gluten genes, and advanced genome editing techniques to eliminate gluten genes, such as CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Food-related approaches include the reduced application of vital gluten, exclusion of gliadin from isolated gluten by separation, increased use of sourdough fermentation and malting, utilisation of patient-specific gluten epitopesensitivity
profiles, introduction of the gluten contamination elimination diet (GCED)
especially in individuals that are non-responsive to the gluten-free diet, to acquire more fundamental knowledge on immune modulating factors, and the design of an intervention study to learn about the medical and mental motives of people to switch towards a ‘gluten-free’ diet. Finally, we discuss the development, testing and promoting of efficient disease prevention measures within the societal context.
Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2016
Medical Sciences 4 (2016)4. - ISSN 2076-3271 - 5 p.
The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins) are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes). Avenins are present at a lower concentration (10%–15% of total protein content) in oat as compared to gluten in wheat (80%–85%). The avenins in the genus Avena (cultivated oat as well as various wild species of which gene bank accessions were analyzed) are free of the known CD immunogenic epitopes from wheat, barley, and rye. T cells that recognize avenin-specific epitopes have been found very rarely in CD patients. CD patients that consume oats daily do not show significantly increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocyte (EIL) cells. The safety and the positive health effects of the long-term inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet have been confirmed in long-term studies. Since 2009 (EC 41/2009) and 2013 (FDA) oat products may be sold as gluten-free in several countries provided a gluten contamination level below 20 ppm. Introduction of oats in the gluten-free diet of celiac patients is advised after the recovery of the intestine. Health effects of oat consumption are reflected in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)- and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved health claims. Oats can form a healthy, nutritious, fiber-rich, and safe complement to the gluten-free diet.
Strategies to reduce or prevent wheat coeliac- immunogenicity and wheat sensitivity through food
Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2016
In: Proceedings of the 29th Meeting Working Group on Prolamin Analysis and Toxicity (PWG) / Koehler, Peter, Tulln, Austria : WGPAT - ISBN 9783946117025
Cereals are among the oldest foods of humans. Wheat is one of these. In present times, several syndromes are, whether true or false, increasingly attributed to the consumption of wheat, with increasing costs for medical care and decreasing turnover for the food industry, especially the bakery sector. Many western societies show remarkable annual increases in their health care costs, often surmounting their economic growth rates. Governmental health policies should urgently revert towards the stimulation of disease prevention practices instead of maintaining the stimulation of expensive medical care.
Here we review and discuss possible strategies to prevent or reduce the incidence of wheat-related conditions through application of breeding and food-related
technologies. Breeding includes selection and crossing for low-immunogenic wheat varieties using varieties, accessions, and wild relatives, silencing the expression of gluten genes, and advanced genome editing techniques to eliminate gluten genes, such as CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Food-related approaches include the reduced application of vital gluten, exclusion of gliadin from isolated gluten by separation, increased use of sourdough fermentation and malting, utilisation of patient-specific gluten epitopesensitivity profiles, introduction of the gluten contamination elimination diet (GCED) especially in individuals that are non-responsive to the gluten-free diet, to acquire more fundamental knowledge on immune modulating factors, and the design of an
intervention study to learn about the medical and mental motives of people to switch towards a ‘gluten-free’ diet. Finally, we discuss the development, testing and promoting of efficient disease prevention measures within the societal context.
Gegarandeerd glutenvrije haver
Gilissen, Luud - \ 2016

Sinds 2011 zijn in West-Europa glutenvrije haverproducten op de markt; een uitkomst voor mensen het glutenintolerantie. Zaaizaadbedrijf Vandinter semo in Scheemda ontwikkelde daarvoor de eerste gecertificeerde glutenvrije haverketen. Wageningen deed onderzoek en stelde de spelregels op.

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