Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Lymphoid tissue in teleost gills : Variations on a theme
    Rességuier, Julien ; Dalum, Alf S. ; Pasquier, Louis Du; Zhang, Yaqing ; Koppang, Erling Olaf ; Boudinot, Pierre ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. - \ 2020
    Biology - open access biological sciences journal 9 (2020)6. - ISSN 2079-7737 - p. 1 - 14.
    Evolution - Fish - Gills - Ilt - Zap70

    In bony fish, the gill filaments are essential for gas exchanges, but also are vulnerable to infection by water‐borne microorganisms. Omnipresent across fish, gill‐associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT) regulate interactions with local microbiota and halt infection by pathogens. A special GIALT structure has recently been found in Salmonids, the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT). However, the structural variation of GIALT across bony fish remains largely unknown. Here, we show how this critical zone of interaction evolved across fishes. By labeling a conserved T‐cell epitope on tissue sections, we find that several basal groups of teleosts possess typical ILT, while modern teleosts have lymphoepithelium of different shape and size at the base of primary gill filaments. Within Cypriniformes, neither body size variation between two related species, zebrafish and common carp, nor morphotype variation, did have a drastic effect on the structure of ILT. Thereby this study is the first to describe the presence of ILT in zebrafish. The ILT variability across fish orders seems to represent different evolutionary solutions to balancing trade‐offs between multiple adaptations of jaws and pharyngeal region, and immune responses. Our data point to a wide structural variation in gill immunity between basal groups and modern teleosts.

    Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor activation during In vitro and in vivo digestion of raw and cooked broccoli (brassica oleracea var. Italica)
    Koper, Jonna E.B. ; Kortekaas, Maaike ; Loonen, Linda M.P. ; Huang, Zhan ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Gill, Chris I.R. ; Pourshahidi, L.K. ; McDougall, Gordon ; Rowland, Ian ; Pereira-Caro, Gema ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Capuano, Edoardo - \ 2020
    Food & Function 11 (2020)5. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 4026 - 4037.

    Broccoli is rich in glucosinolates, which can be converted upon chewing and processing into Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands. Activation of AhR plays an important role in overall gut homeostasis but the role of broccoli processing on the generation of AhR ligands is still largely unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature, cooking method (steaming versus boiling), gastric pH and further digestion of broccoli on AhR activation were investigated in vitro and in ileostomy subjects. For the in vitro study, raw, steamed (t = 3 min and t = 6 min) and boiled (t = 3 min and t = 6 min) broccoli were digested in vitro with different gastric pH. In the in vivo ileostomy study, 8 subjects received a broccoli soup or a broccoli soup plus an exogenous myrosinase source. AhR activation was measured in both in vitro and in vivo samples by using HepG2-Lucia™ AhR reporter cells. Cooking broccoli reduced the AhR activation measured after gastric digestion in vitro, but no effect of gastric pH was found. Indole AhR ligands were not detected or detected at very low levels both after intestinal in vitro digestion and in the ileostomy patient samples, which resulted in no AhR activation. This suggests that the evaluation of the relevance of glucosinolates for AhR modulation in the gut cannot prescind from the way broccoli is processed, and that broccoli consumption does not necessarily produce substantial amounts of AhR ligands in the large intestine.

    A comparison of high-throughput plasma NMR protocols for comparative untargeted metabolomics
    Bliziotis, Nikolaos G. ; Engelke, Udo F.H. ; Aspers, Ruud L.E.G. ; Engel, Jasper ; Deinum, Jaap ; Timmers, Henri J.L.M. ; Wevers, Ron A. ; Kluijtmans, Leo A.J. - \ 2020
    Metabolomics 16 (2020)5. - ISSN 1573-3882
    Classification - High-throughput - Large scale - LED - Metabolomics - NMR

    Introduction: When analyzing the human plasma metabolome with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiment is commonly employed for large studies. However, this process can lead to compromised statistical analyses due to residual macromolecule signals. In addition, the utilization of Trimethylsilylpropanoic acid (TSP) as an internal standard often leads to quantification issues, and binning, as a spectral summarization step, can result in features not clearly assignable to metabolites. Objectives: Our aim was to establish a new complete protocol for large plasma cohorts collected with the purpose of describing the comparative metabolic profile of groups of samples. Methods: We compared the conventional CPMG approach to a novel procedure that involves diffusion NMR, using the Longitudinal Eddy-Current Delay (LED) experiment, maleic acid (MA) as the quantification reference and peak picking for spectral reduction. This comparison was carried out using the ultrafiltration method as a gold standard in a simple sample classification experiment, with Partial Least Squares–Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and the resulting metabolic signatures for multivariate data analysis. In addition, the quantification capabilities of the method were evaluated. Results: We found that the LED method applied was able to detect more metabolites than CPMG and suppress macromolecule signals more efficiently. The complete protocol was able to yield PLS-DA models with enhanced classification accuracy as well as a more reliable set of important features than the conventional CPMG approach. Assessment of the quantitative capabilities of the method resulted in good linearity, recovery and agreement with an established amino acid assay for the majority of the metabolites tested. Regarding repeatability, ~ 85% of all peaks had an adequately low coefficient of variation (< 30%) in replicate samples. Conclusion: Overall, our comparison yielded a high-throughput untargeted plasma NMR protocol for optimized data acquisition and processing that is expected to be a valuable contribution in the field of metabolic biomarker discovery.

    Molecular and physiological responses to long-term carbon dioxide exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
    Mota, Vasco C. ; Nilsen, Tom Ole ; Gerwins, Jascha ; Gallo, Michele ; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Krasnov, Aleksei ; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn - \ 2020
    Aquaculture 519 (2020). - ISSN 0044-8486
    CO - Differentially expressed genes - Hypercapnia - Recirculating aquaculture systems - Salmonids

    Optimal water quality is vital for the growth of Atlantic salmon aquaculture production. Recent data showed that Atlantic salmon feed intake and growth reduce linearly with increasing water carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, suggesting that even relatively low concentrations may impact fish performance. This study evaluated the molecular and physiological responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to long-term CO2 exposure. For this purpose, Atlantic salmon post-smolts (N = 900; 67 ± 8 g) were exposed to six CO2 treatments (5, 12, 19, 26, 33 and 40 mg/L) for 12-weeks (RAS phase) followed by non-CO2 exposure for a (<5 mg/L) period of 6-weeks (seawaterphase). Results from blood analysis of fish exposed to CO2 for 12 weeks showed that CO2 lead to significantly higher pH, K+, HCO3 and PCO2 and lower Na+ and Cl plasma concentrations. Whereas, haematocrit, Ca+, Mg2+, urea and glucose concentrations were similar among all CO2 treatments. After 6 weeks in the seawater phase, all the parameters that were previously altered, became similar among all CO2 treatments. Gill microarray results analysis showed 88 differentially expressed genes, resulting from the CO2 exposure. At the end of the RAS phase (week 12), fish exposed to high CO2 (40 mg/L) in comparison to fish exposed to low CO2 (5 mg/L), showed 60 down-regulated genes, including genes encoding proteins involved in immune responses, differentiation, and maintenance of tissue structure. There was no evidence for stress and metabolic changes directed to neutralization of disturbance caused with high CO2. After 6 weeks in the seawater phase, a switch of expression from down regulated to up-regulated was observed. In conclusion, the present study brings new insights on the molecular and physiological responses of Atlantic salmon post-smolts to long-term CO2 exposure. Several osmoregulation and acid-base balance parameters as well as gill gene expression levels were altered for as long as CO2 exposure persisted. Moreover, most of these parameters were linearly related with the environmental CO2 concentrations (5–40 mg/L range). The data from this study adds to recent findings that CO2 concentrations below the 15 mg/L threshold still have an impact on Atlantic salmon. This finding may be relevant for a better dimensioning and management of production systems where CO2 may accumulate in the water such as in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS).

    First Field-Based Evidence That the Seagrass-Lucinid Mutualism Can Mitigate Sulfide Stress in Seagrasses
    Geest, Matthijs Van Der; Heide, Tjisse Van Der; Holmer, Marianne ; Wit, Rutger De - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-7745 - 13 p.
    seagrass - performance - environmental changen - sediment sulfide stress - seagrass-lucinid mutualism - lucinid bivalves - mutualistic
    Seagrass meadows form vital ecological components of coastal zones worldwide, but are rapidly declining. Large-scale seagrass diebacks have been related to accumulation of toxic sulfide in the sediment, a phenomenon predicted to occur more frequently in the near future due to ongoing global warming and increasing organic loading of coastal systems worldwide. Recently, a facultative mutualism between seagrasses and lucinid bivalves with endosymbiotic sulfide-consuming gill bacteria was discovered that may prevent toxic sulfide accumulation in seagrass sediments. Yet, direct field-based evidence for the importance of this mutualism in alleviating sulfide stress in seagrasses is currently lacking, as well as how its role may change when sediment sulfide levels increase due to environmental change. Here, we investigated the sulfide detoxification
    function of this seagrass-lucinid mutualism and its resilience to organic-loading induced sulfide stress in a temperate lagoon system (Thau lagoon, France), using a correlative field survey and a full factorial field experiment. The field survey revealed a strong positive correlation between seagrass above-ground biomass and lucinid densities, and pore water sulfide concentrations close to zero at all sites. Furthermore, the field experiment revealed that addition of organic matter (starch mixed with sucrose) increased sedimentary sulfide intrusion into seagrass (Zostera noltei) leaves (a proxy for sulfide stress), while experimentally enhanced lucinid densities reduced sulfide intrusion, regardless of addition of organic matter. Moreover, addition of organic matter reduced seagrass rhizome biomass and increased pore water sulfide levels, lucinid tissue sulfur content, lucinid condition (expressed as flesh/shell dry weight ratio), and total lucinid
    biomass, while enhancement of lucinid densities reduced lucinid condition. These results provide the first field-based evidence that lucinid bivalves and their sulfide-oxidizing gill symbionts mitigate sulfide stress in seagrasses, and suggests that the dependence of seagrass on this seagrass-lucinid mutualism will increase under conditions of enhanced sediment sulfide production, as predicted for the near future. Therefore, we suggest that awareness of the ecological importance of the seagrass-lucinid mutualism may be instrumental for designing new measures for improving long-term restoration success and seagrass resilience to global change.
    Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research
    Dannheim, Jennifer ; Bergström, Lena ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Brzana, Radosław ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Mesel, Ilse De; Derweduwen, Jozefien ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Hutchison, Zoë L. ; Jackson, Angus C. ; Janas, Urszula ; Martin, Georg ; Raoux, Aurore ; Reubens, Jan ; Rostin, Liis ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Wilding, Thomas A. ; Wilhelmsson, Dan ; Degraer, Steven ; Norkko, Joanna - \ 2020
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 77 (2020)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1092 - 1108.
    benthos - environmental impact - knowlegde gaps - marine ecology - offshore wind farms - renewable energy
    As the EU's commitment to renewable energy is projected to grow to 20% of energy generation by 2020, the use of marine renewable energy from wind, wave and tidal resources is increasing. This literature review (233 studies) (i) summarizes knowledge on how marine renewable energy devices affect benthic environments, (ii) explains how these effects could alter ecosystem processes that support major ecosystem services and (iii) provides an approach to determine urgent research needs. Conceptual diagrams were set up to structure hypothesized cause-effect relationships (i.e. paths). Paths were scored for (i) temporal and spatial scale of the effect, (ii) benthic sensitivity to these effects, (iii) the effect consistency and iv) scoring confidence, and consecutively ranked. This approach identified prominent knowledge gaps and research needs about (a) hydrodynamic changes possibly resulting in altered primary production with potential consequences for filter feeders, (b) the introduction and range expansion of non-native species (through stepping stone effects) and, (c) noise and vibration effects on benthic organisms. Our results further provide evidence that benthic sensitivity to offshore renewable effects is higher than previously indicated. Knowledge on changes of ecological functioning through cascading effects is limited and requires distinct hypothesis-driven research combined with integrative ecological modelling.
    The kinetics of cellular and humoral immune responses of common carp to presporogonic development of the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari
    Korytář, Tomáš ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. ; Zusková, Eliška ; Tomanová, Anna ; Lisnerová, Martina ; Patra, Sneha ; Sieranski, Viktor ; Šíma, Radek ; Born-Torrijos, Ana ; Wentzel, Annelieke S. ; Blasco-Monleon, Sandra ; Yanes-Roca, Carlos ; Policar, Tomáš ; Holzer, Astrid S. - \ 2019
    Parasites & Vectors 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1756-3305 - 1 p.
    B cells - Cyprinus carpio - Cytokines - Host–parasite interaction - IgM - Myxozoa - Sphaerospora molnari - Teleost

    BACKGROUND: Sphaerospora molnari is a myxozoan parasite causing skin and gill sphaerosporosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in central Europe. For most myxozoans, little is known about the early development and the expansion of the infection in the fish host, prior to spore formation. A major reason for this lack of information is the absence of laboratory model organisms, whose life-cycle stages are available throughout the year. RESULTS: We have established a laboratory infection model for early proliferative stages of myxozoans, based on separation and intraperitoneal injection of motile and dividing S. molnari stages isolated from the blood of carp. In the present study we characterize the kinetics of the presporogonic development of S. molnari, while analyzing cellular host responses, cytokine and systemic immunoglobulin expression, over a 63-day period. Our study shows activation of innate immune responses followed by B cell-mediated immune responses. We observed rapid parasite efflux from the peritoneal cavity (< 40 hours), an initial covert infection period with a moderate proinflammatory response for about 1-2 weeks, followed by a period of parasite multiplication in the blood which peaked at 28 days post-infection (dpi) and was associated with a massive lymphocyte response. Our data further revealed a switch to a massive anti-inflammatory response (up to 1456-fold expression of il-10), a strong increase in the expression of IgM transcripts and increased number of IgM+ B lymphocytes, which produce specific antibodies for the elimination of most of the parasites from the fish at 35 dpi. However, despite the presence of these antibodies, S. molnari invades the liver 42 dpi, where an increase in parasite cell number and indistinguishable outer cell membranes are indicative of effective exploitation and disguise mechanisms. From 49 dpi onwards, the acute infection changes to a chronic one, with low parasite numbers remaining in the fish. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time myxozoan early development and immune modulation mechanisms have been analyzed along with innate and adaptive immune responses of its fish host, in a controlled laboratory system. Our study adds important information on host-parasite interaction and co-evolutionary adaptation of early metazoans (Cnidaria) with basic vertebrate (fish) immune systems and the evolution of host adaptation and parasite immune evasion strategies.

    Effecten van mogelijke maatregelen ter beheer van de bestanden van brasem, blankvoorn, snoekbaars en baars in het IJssel- en Markermeer
    Zaalmink, Wim ; Tien, Nicola ; Prins, Henri ; Leeuw, Joep de; Janssens, Bas - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research nota 2019-007) - 55
    The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature, and Food Quality wants to achieve a 36% catch reduction of roach and bream for the gill net and seine fishery on the IJsselmeer and the Markermeer. This catch reduction should contribute to the preservation of the scaly-fish stocks of roach, bream, perch, and pike-perch. Ten measures were researched with the potential to contribute to the 36% catch reduction. The measures which can be implemented in the short term and which are easily enforceable are a 36% reduction of the current fishing effort and a closure of the fisheries during the period of 1 January to 15 March, or a shorter period within that time-span. Because the gill net fishery is a mixed fishery, no measure will lead to a proportional, effective impact for all four stocks. The abovementioned measures will lead to a loss of income which may be unevenly distributed among the fishermen.
    International Advances in Pesticide Application
    Balsari, P. ; Cooper, S.E. ; Gill, E. ; Magri, B. ; Mountford-Smith, C. ; Miller, P.C.H. ; Nuyttens, D. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Wood, A. - \ 2018
    Warwick, United Kingdom : Association of Applied Biologists (Aspects of Applied Biology - International Advances in Pesticide Application ) - 392 p.
    Appreciating the fine details of the fish' immune system
    Wiegertjes, Geert - \ 2018
    Fish represent the first vertebrate group in evolution with well-developed adaptive immune responses comparable with those found in mammals, including diverse roles for immunoglobulin subtypes. Innate immune responses of fish may be relatively important and include important roles for natural antibodies, Toll-like receptors, phagocytic B cells and thrombocytes and polarized macrophages, among others. Fish typically live in highly diverse environments including fresh versus seawater and cold versus warm water with gut, skin, nose and gill as important organs for mucosal defense. Although fish are highly diverse with >30,000 different species including cartilaginous and bony representatives, zebrafish are considered an excellent vertebrate animal model species. In this lecture I will first summarize conserved aspects of the fish’ immune system, including characteristics of macrophage polarization and trained immunity and subsequently highlight a number of unique aspects. I will conclude with new insights in the function of fish gills, which not only are extremely important for a range of physiological processes including gas and nitrogenous waste exchange between blood and water, but have an associated large surface area and thin epithelial layer that makes fish gills highly vulnerable to infection, with organized lymphoid tissue within the mucosal linings of fish gills waiting to fight water-borne microorganisms.
    Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) : 6-9 March 2018, Galway, Ireland
    Dannheim, Jennifer ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Boon, Arjen ; Brzana, Radoslaw ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Degraer, Steven ; Jackson, Angus ; Janas, Urszula ; Mesel, I.G. de; O'Beirn, Francis ; Pezy, Jean-Philippe ; Raoux, Aurore ; Sheehan, Emma ; Vanaverbeke, Jan - \ 2018
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES WGMBRED Report 2018/HAPISG:02) - 68 p.
    Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean
    Fowler, Ashley M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Svendsen, Jon C. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Jones, Daniel O.B. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Booth, David J. ; Brabant, Robin ; Callahan, Emily ; Claisse, Jeremy T. ; Dahlgren, Thomas G. ; Degraer, Steven ; Dokken, Quenton R. ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Johns, David G. ; Leewis, Robert J. ; Lindeboom, Han J. ; Linden, Olof ; May, Roel ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Ottersen, Geir ; Schroeder, Donna M. ; Shastri, Sunil M. ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Todd, Victoria ; Hoey, Gert Van; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16 (2018)10. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 571 - 578.
    The removal of thousands of structures associated with oil and gas development from the world’s oceans is well underway, yet the environmental impacts of this decommissioning practice remain unknown. Similar impacts will be associated with the eventual removal of offshore wind turbines. We conducted a global survey of environmental experts to guide best decommissioning practices in the North Sea, a region with a substantial removal burden. In contrast to current regulations, 94.7% of experts (36 out of 38) agreed that a more flexible case-by- case approach to decommissioning could benefit the North Sea environment. Partial removal options were considered to deliver better environmental outcomes than complete removal for platforms, but both approaches were equally supported for wind turbines. Key considerations identified for
    decommissioning were biodiversity enhancement, provision of reef habitat, and protection from bottom trawling, all of which are negatively affected by complete removal. We provide recommendations to guide the revision of offshore decommissioning policy, including a temporary suspension of obligatory removal.
    Upcoming earth observation missions
    Mora, B. ; Szantoi, Z. ; Heiden, U. - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 183 - 189.
    Time-series analysis for forest cover change
    Reiche, J. ; Vries, B. de - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 215 - 222.
    The value and opportunities of community- and citizen-based approaches to tropical forest biodiversity monitoring
    Chandler, Mark ; See, Linda ; Andrianandrasana, Herizo ; Becker, Dusti ; Berardi, Andrea ; Bodmer, Richard ; Brofeldt, S. ; Araujo Lima Constantino, Pedro de; Cousins, Jenny ; Crimmins, Theresa M. ; Danielsen, Finn ; Giorgi, Ana Paula ; Huxham, Mark ; Leslie, Alison ; Mistry, Jayalaxshmi ; Mora, B. ; Nelson, M. ; Poulsen, Michael ; Pratihast, A.K. ; Theilade, I. ; Vakil, Thrity ; Williams, John N. - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 223 - 281.
    Synergies between biodiversity monitoring and REDD+
    Goetz, Scott ; Mora, B. - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 292 - 299.
    A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing
    Gill, M. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Luque, S. ; Mora, B. ; Paganini, Marc ; Szantoi, Z. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - 299 p.
    Introduction
    Gill, M. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Mora, B. ; Paganini, Marc - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 9 - 21.
    Ecosystem structure
    Mücher, C.A. ; Calders, K. ; Petrou, Z.I. ; Reiche, J. - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 67 - 82.
    Drivers of biodiversity loss
    Anaya, J.A. ; Anderson, L.O. ; Mora, B. - \ 2017
    In: A Sourcebook of Methods and Procedures for Monitoring Essential Biodiversity Variables in Tropical Forests with Remote Sensing / Gill, Mike, Jongman, Rob, Luque, Sandra, Mora, Brice, Paganini, Marc, Szantoi, Zoltan, Wageningen : GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands (Report version UNCBD COP-13 ) - p. 100 - 109.
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