Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Body-fat indicators and kidney function decline in older post-myocardial infarction patients : The Alpha Omega Cohort Study
    Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giltay, Erik J. ; Stijnen, Theo ; Dekker, Friedo W. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2018
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 25 (2018)1. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 90 - 99.
    Cardiovascular disease - Kidney function - Obesity - Risk factors

    Background: Obesity increases risk of hypertension and diabetes, the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. The effect of obesity on kidney function decline in stable post-myocardial infarction patients is poorly documented. This relation was investigated in a large cohort of older post-myocardial infarction patients. Design: Data were analysed from 2410 post-myocardial infarction patients in the Alpha Omega Trial, aged 60–80 years receiving optimal pharmacotherapy treatment (79% men, 18% diabetes). Methods: Cystatin C based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcysC) was calculated at baseline and after 41 months, using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 and high waist circumference as ≥102 and ≥88 cm for men and women. The relation between body mass index, waist circumference and annual eGFRcysC decline was evaluated by linear regression. Results: At baseline, mean (standard deviation) eGFRcysC was 81.5 (19.6) ml/min/1.73 m2, 23% of all patients were obese. After multivariable adjustment, the annual mean (95% confidence interval) eGFRcysC decline in men and women was –1.45 (–1.59 to –1.31) and –0.92 (–1.20 to –0.63) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively (p = 0.001). Obese versus non-obese patients and patients with high versus normal waist circumference experienced greater annual eGFRcysC decline. Men and women showed an additional annual eGFRcysC decline of –0.35 (–0.56 to –0.14) and –0.21 (–0.55 to 0.14) ml/min/1.73 m2 per 5 kg/m2 body mass index increment (p for interaction 0.3). Conclusions: High compared to normal body mass index or waist circumference were associated with more rapid kidney function decline in older stable post-myocardial infarction patients receiving optimal drug therapy.

    Cardiovascular Risk Factors Accelerate Kidney Function Decline in Post−Myocardial Infarction Patients : The Alpha Omega Cohort Study
    Esmeijer, Kevin ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Fijter, Johan W. de; Giltay, Erik J. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. - \ 2018
    Kidney International Reports 3 (2018)4. - ISSN 2468-0249 - p. 879 - 888.
    cardiovascular risk factors - kidney function decline - lifestyle

    Introduction: Impaired kidney function is a robust risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Age-related annual kidney function decline of 1.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 after age 40 years is doubled in post−myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Methods: We investigated the impact of the number of cardiovascular risk factors (including unhealthy lifestyle) on annual kidney function decline, in 2426 post-MI patients (60−80 years) of the prospective Alpha Omega Cohort study. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by serum cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and combined creatinine−cystatin C (eGFRcr-cysC), using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations from 2012. Data were analyzed by multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results: At baseline, mean (SD) eGFRcysC and eGFRcr-cysC were 81.5 (19.6) and 78.5 (18.7) ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Of all patients, 79% were men, 19% had diabetes, 56% had high blood pressure (≥140/90 mm Hg), 16% were current smokers, 56% had high serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL of ≥2.5 mmol/l), and 23% were obese (body mass index of ≥30.0 kg/m2). After multivariable adjustment, the additional annual eGFRcysC decline (95% confidence interval) was as follows: in patients with versus without diabetes, −0.90 (−1.23 to −0.57) ml/min per 1.73 m2; in patients with high versus normal blood pressure, −0.50 (−0.76 to −0.24) ml/min per 1.73 m2; in obese versus nonobese patients, −0.31 (−0.61 to 0.01) ml/min per 1.73 m2; and in current smokers versus nonsmokers, −0.19 (−0.54 to 0.16) ml/min per 1.73 m2. High LDL was not associated with accelerated eGFRcysC decline. Similar results were obtained with eGFRcr-cysC. Conclusion: In older, stable post-MI patients without cardiovascular risk factors, the annual kidney function decline was −0.90 (−1.16 to −0.65) ml/min per 1.73 m2. In contrast, in post-MI patients with ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors, the annual kidney function decline was 2.5-fold faster, at −2.37 (−2.85 to −1.89) ml/min per 1.73 m2.

    Kidney function and specific mortality in 60-80 years old post-myocardial infarction patients : A 10-year follow-up study
    Hoogeveen, Ellen K. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giltay, Erik J. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Goede, Janette de; Oude Griep, Linda M. ; Stijnen, Theo ; Kromhout, Daan - \ 2017
    PLoS ONE 12 (2017)2. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent among older post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. It is not known whether CKD is an independent risk factor for mortality in older post-MI patients with optimal cardiovascular drug-treatment. Therefore, we studied the relation between kidney function and all-cause and specific mortality among older post-MI patients, without severe heart failure, who are treated with state-of-the-art pharmacotherapy. From 2002-2006, 4,561 Dutch post-MI patients were enrolled and followed until death or January 2012. We estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (EGFR) with cystatin C (cysC) and creatinine (cr) using the CKD-EPI equations and analyzed the relation with any and major causes of death using Cox models and restricted cubic splines. Mean (SD) for age was 69 years (5.6), 79% were men, 17% smoked, 21% had diabetes, 90% used antihypertensive drugs, 98% used antithrombotic drugs and 85% used statins. Patients were divided into four categories of baseline EGFRcysC: ≥90 (33%; reference), 60-89 (47%), 30-59 (18%), and <30 (2%) ml/min/1.73m2. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. During follow-up, 873 (19%) patients died: 370 (42%) from cardiovascular causes, 309 (35%) from cancer, and 194 (22%) from other causes. After adjustment for age, sex and classic cardiovascular risk factor, hazard ratios (95%-confidence intervals) for any death according to the four EGFRcysC categories were: 1 (reference), 1.4 (1.1-1.7), 2.9 (2.3-3.6) and 4.4 (3.0-6.4). The hazard ratios of all-cause and cause-specific mortality increased linearly below kidney functions of 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. Weaker results were obtained for EGFRcr. To conclude, we found in optimal cardiovascular drug-treated post-MI patients an inverse graded relation between kidney function and mortality for both cardiovascular as well as non-cardiovascular causes. Risk of mortality increased linearly below kidney function of about 80 ml/min/1.73 m2.

    Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease : The alpha omega trial
    Borst, Martin H. de; Baia, Leandro C. ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. ; Giltay, Erik J. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. - \ 2017
    Nutrients 9 (2017)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Cardiovascular - Chronic kidney disease - Fibroblast growth factor 23 - Myocardial infarction - N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula), plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172) RU/mL (mean (95% CI)). After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p < 0.0001) to 212 (183 to 241) RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI) of −17 (−97, 62) RU/mL (p = 0.7). Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115) RU/mL) and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113) RU/mL). Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma FGF23 levels when added to cardiovascular medication in post-myocardial patients with chronic kidney disease.
    Dietary patterns and mental health after myocardial infarction
    Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly ; Kromhout, Daan ; Sijtsma, Femke P.C. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giltay, Erik J. - \ 2017
    PLoS ONE 12 (2017)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
    Background: Diet has been associated with better mental health in general populations, but less is known on this association in patients with a history of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and mental health in elderly patients with a history of myocardial infarction. Methods: Data were drawn from the final assessment of the Alpha Omega cohort that monitored patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age range 60–80 years). 2171 patients with complete data for diet and mental health were included in this study. Diet was assessed with the 203-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, and subsequently categorized into two scores: the Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score (DHNaFS) and the Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score (DUNaFS). Depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and dispositional optimism, assessed with the 4-item questionnaire (4Q), were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to dietary patterns using linear regression analysis. Results: Patients were on average 72.2 years old and 79.5% were male. The DHNaFS score was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher dispositional optimism (β = -0.108; P<0.001; and β = 0.074; P<0.001), whereas no associations were found with the DUNaFS score. Particularly, consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and low fat-dairy were associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. Similar associations were found when analyzing the association between average DHNaFS score over the preceding 41 months with depression β = -0.085; P<0.001) and higher dispositional optimism (β = 0.084; P<0.001). Conclusions: A healthy dietary pattern, in particular a higher consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairy, was associated with less depressive symptoms and higher optimism. However, given the cross-sectional nature of our analyses, our findings may also be explained by more optimistic participants making healthier food choices. Therefore, future prospective or interventions studies are needed to establish the direction of causality of this association. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03192410.
    Kidney dysfunction, systemic inflammation and mental well-being in elderly post-myocardial infarction patients
    Heeres, Rick H.M. ; Hoogeveen, Ellen K. ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Goede, Janette De; Kromhout, Daan ; Giltay, Erik J. - \ 2017
    BMC Psychology 5 (2017). - ISSN 2050-7283
    Background The aim was to investigate whether mild kidney dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in post-myocardial infarction patients are independently associated with markers of mental well-being (i.e. depressive and apathy symptoms, and dispositional optimism). Methods In post-myocardial infarction patients, kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated from the combined CKD-EPI formula based on serum levels of both creatinine and cystatine C. Systemic inflammation was assessed using high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the 3-item apathy subscale and the 4-item optimism questionnaire (4Q) were used to measure mental well-being and were analyzed using linear multivariable regression analysis. Results Of the 2355 patients, mean age was 72.3 (range 63–84) years and 80.1% were men. After multivariable adjustment, a poorer kidney function was associated with more depressive symptoms (β = -0.084, p < 0.001), more apathy symptoms (β = -0.101, p < 0.001), and less dispositional optimism (β = 0.072, p = 0.002). Moreover, higher levels of hs-CRP were associated with more depressive symptoms (β = 0.051, p = 0.013), more apathy symptoms (β = 0.083, p < 0.001) and less dispositional optimism (β = -0.047 p = 0.024). Apathy showed the strongest independent relation with both low eGFR and high hs-CRP. Conclusions In post-myocardial infarction patients, impaired kidney function and systemic inflammation showed a stronger association with apathy than with depressive symptoms and dispositional optimism.
    Reply to: “Loneliness and Mortality in Older Men: Causal Association”
    Julsing, Jolien ; Kromhout, Daan ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Giltay, Erik - \ 2017
    The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 25 (2017)1. - ISSN 1064-7481 - p. 103 - 104.
    Major Depression as a Complex Dynamic System
    Cramer, Angélique O.J. ; Borkulo, Claudia D. van; Giltay, Erik J. ; Maas, Han L.J. van der; Kendler, Kenneth S. ; Scheffer, Marten ; Borsboom, Denny - \ 2016
    PLoS ONE 11 (2016)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.
    In this paper, we characterize major depression (MD) as a complex dynamic system in which symptoms (e.g., insomnia and fatigue) are directly connected to one another in a network structure. We hypothesize that individuals can be characterized by their own network with unique architecture and resulting dynamics. With respect to architecture, we show that individuals vulnerable to developing MD are those with strong connections between symptoms: e.g., only one night of poor sleep suffices to make a particular person feel tired. Such vulnerable networks, when pushed by forces external to the system such as stress, are more likely to end up in a depressed state; whereas networks with weaker connections tend to remain in or return to a non-depressed state. We show this with a simulation in which we model the probability of a symptom becoming 'active' as a logistic function of the activity of its neighboring symptoms. Additionally, we show that this model potentially explains some well-known empirical phenomena such as spontaneous recovery as well as accommodates existing theories about the various subtypes of MD. To our knowledge, we offer the first intra-individual, symptom-based, process model with the potential to explain the pathogenesis and maintenance of major depression. © 2016 Cramer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    Loneliness and All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Noncardiovascular Mortality in Older Men : The Zutphen Elderly Study
    Julsing, Jolien E. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Giltay, Erik J. - \ 2016
    The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 24 (2016)6. - ISSN 1064-7481 - p. 475 - 484.
    Aged - Cardiovascular death - Cohort studies - Loneliness - Mortality

    Objective Loneliness, defined as the discrepancy between one's desired and actual relationships, is prevalent in the elderly and can be both emotional and social loneliness. We aimed to determine whether loneliness is independently related to higher all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in elderly men. Methods Using a population-based cohort study with 25 years of follow-up from 1985, the Zutphen Study, 719 of 939 men (76.2%; age range: 64-84 years) who had complete data on loneliness at baseline and at least 2 years of survival were studied. Loneliness was assessed using a validated 11-item questionnaire in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. Results At baseline, point prevalence of moderate and severe loneliness was, respectively, 38.8% (N = 279) and 3.2% (N = 23). Loneliness, especially emotional loneliness, did significantly increase over 15 years with an overall reliability coefficient of 0.50. All-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality were not higher among moderately lonely participants (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.17; HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.78-1.25; and HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.79-1.24, respectively) and severely lonely participants (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.85-2.31; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.58-2.39; and HR: 1.63; 95% CIH 0.80-3.31, respectively). Conclusion Loneliness is common and increases during aging, due to the increase in its component emotional loneliness over time. No independent associations with risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular death were found.

    Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease
    Hees, Nathalie J.M. van; Giltay, E.J. ; Tielemans, S.M.A.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Puvill, Thomas ; Janssen, Nadine ; Does, Willem van der - \ 2015
    Leiden University
    Coeliac disease - gluten intolerance - psychopathology - depression - diet adherence - gluten-free diet - amino acids - tryptophan - tyrosine - Trp/LNAA ratio
    Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters) are depleted in the diet and serum of CD patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: In a cross-sectional study we assessed dietary intake of amino acids and serum levels of amino acids, including in 77 CD patients on a gluten-free diet and in 33 healthy controls. , major depressive disorder was assessed with structured interviews (using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus). Dietary intake of amino acids was assessed (using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire), and serum levels of amino acids were assessed. Results: Participants had a mean age of 55 years and 74% were women. The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7 - 10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p < 0.005). However, within the CD patient groups, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids. Conclusions: We found that patients with CD on a long-term successful gluten-free diet, with good adherence, consume significantly less vegetable protein than controls, and their serum levels of several essential amino acids were also lower in CD versus controls. Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.
    Essential amino acids in the gluten-free diet and serum in relation to depression in patients with celiac disease
    Hees, Nathalie J.M. van; Giltay, E.J. ; Tielemans, Susanne M.A.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Puvill, Thomas ; Janssen, Nadine ; Does, Willem van der - \ 2015
    PLoS ONE 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.

    Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, possibly due to deficiencies in micronutrients in the gluten-free diet. We aimed to investigate whether essential amino acids (i.e., the precursors of serotonin, dopamine and other neurotransmitters) are depleted in the diet and serum of CD patients with major depressive disorder. Methods: In a cross-sectional study we assessed dietary intake of amino acids and serum levels of amino acids, in 77 CD patients on a gluten-free diet and in 33 healthy controls. Major depressive disorder was assessed with structured interviews (using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus). Dietary intake was assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire. Results: Participants had a mean age of 55 years and 74% were women. The intake of vegetable protein was significantly lower in CD patients than in healthy controls (mean difference of 7.8 g/d; 95% CI: 4.7-10.8), as were serum concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan (all p <0.005). However, within the CD patient group, the presence of major depressive disorder (n = 42) was not associated with intake or serum levels of essential amino acids. Conclusions: Patients with CD on a long-term gluten-free diet, with good adherence, consume significantly less vegetable protein than controls, and their serum levels of several essential amino acids were also lower. Despite its potential adverse effect, intake and serum levels of essential amino acids were not related to major depression.

    No effect on n-3 fatty acids supplementation on NT-proBNP after myocardial infaction: THe Alpha Omega Trial
    Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Sant, P. van 't; Gemen, E.F. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2015
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 648 - 655.
    brain natriuretic peptide - chronic heart-failure - glomerular-filtration-rate - serum creatinine - cystatin c - stability - risk - omega-3-fatty-acids - metaanalysis - mortality
    BACKGROUND: heart failure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, for which n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial effects. We examined the effect of marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on N-Terminal-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP), a biomarker of heart failure. METHODS: we randomly assigned 4837 post-myocardial infarction patients, aged 60-80 years (82% men), to margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400¿mg/day EPA and DHA, 2¿g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 40 months. In a random selection of 639 patients, NT-proBNP was determined both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. NT-proBNP was loge-transformed and analysed by type of treatment using analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline NT-proNBP. RESULTS: patients consumed on average 19.8¿g margarine/day, providing an additional amount of 238¿mg/day EPA with 158¿mg/day DHA, 1.98¿g/day ALA, or both, in the active-treatment groups. In the placebo group, the geometric mean level NT-proBNP increased from 245¿ng/l (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 207-290) to 294¿ng/l (95%-CI: 244-352) after 40 months (p¿=¿0.001). NT-proBNP levels were not affected by ALA (+8% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.34), EPA-DHA (+2% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -14% to +18%; p¿=¿0.78), nor EPA-DHA plus ALA (+9% versus placebo; 95%-CI: -8% to +25%; p¿=¿0.31) treatment. CONCLUSIONS: supplementation with modest amounts of EPA-DHA, with or without ALA, did not have a significant effect on NT-proBNP levels in patients with a history of myocardial infarction.
    Poster: Impaired Kidney Function is a Risk Factor for 40 Months All-cause Mortality in post-myocardial infarction patients
    Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Goede, J. de; Kromhout, D. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2014
    Reducing aggression among chronic psychiatric inpatients through nutritional supplementation
    Schat, A.A. ; Hubers, M.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Rest, O. van de; Hout, W.B. van den; Bogers, J.P.A.M. ; Mouton, C. ; Hemert, B.M. van; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2014
    In: Book of abstracts Fourth International Conference on Violence in the Health Sector. - www.icn.ch - p. 360 - 360.
    DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression
    Hees, N.J.M. van; Giltay, E.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Janssen, N. ; Does, A.J.W. van der - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
    gluten-free diet - fatty-acid-composition - major depression - body-composition - children - omega-3-fatty-acids - adolescents - prevalence - disorders - diagnosis
    Objectives: Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results: Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p = 0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions: Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.
    Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on kidney function after myocardial infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial
    Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Stijnen, T. ; Gemen, E.F. ; Kusters, R. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2014
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1555-9041 - p. 1676 - 1683.
    patients receiving hemodialysis - dialysis - ownership - mortality
    Background and objectives Kidney function gradually decreases with age, and myocardial infarction accelerates this deterioration. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may slow down the decline of kidney function. The effect of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids on kidney function in patients after myocardial infarction was examined. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In the Alpha Omega Trial, 2344 patients with history of myocardial infarction ages 60–80 years old (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines. The patients received an additional targeted amount of 400 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 2 g/d a-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid plus a-linolenic acid, or placebo for 40 months. Serum cystatin C and serum creatinine were assessed at baseline and after 40 months. Creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Results Patients consumed 19.9 g margarine/d, providing an additional 239 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid with 159 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid, 1.99 g/d a-linolenic acid, or both in the active treatment groups. After 40 months, compared with baseline, mean (±SD) creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was -6.9 (±12.6), -4.8 (±13.4), -6.2 (±12.8), and -6.0 (±13.0) ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the placebo, eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid, a-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid plus a-linolenic acid groups, respectively. After 40 months, in patients receiving eicosapentaenoic acid–docosahexaenoic acid compared with placebo, the decline in creatinine–cystatin C-based GFR was 2.1 less (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 3.6; P
    Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset and termination of depression
    Leemput, I.A. van de; Wichers, M. ; Cramer, C. ; Borsboom, P. ; Kuppens, C. ; Nes, E.H. van; Viechtbauer, W. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Derom, C. ; Jacobs, N. ; Maas, H.L.J. van der; Neale, M. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)1. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 87 - 92.
    population-based sample - daily-life - psychiatric-disorders - critical transitions - emotional inertia - negative affect - tipping point - comorbidity - signals - psychopathology
    About 17% of humanity goes through an episode of major depression at some point in their lifetime. Despite the enormous societal costs of this incapacitating disorder, it is largely unknown how the likelihood of falling into a depressive episode can be assessed. Here, we show for a large group of healthy individuals and patients that the probability of an upcoming shift between a depressed and a normal state is related to elevated temporal autocorrelation, variance, and correlation between emotions in fluctuations of autorecorded emotions. These are indicators of the general phenomenon of critical slowing down, which is expected to occur when a system approaches a tipping point. Our results support the hypothesis that mood may have alternative stable states separated by tipping points, and suggest an approach for assessing the likelihood of transitions into and out of depression.
    No effect of n-3 fatty acids on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein after myocardial infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial
    Hoogeveen, E.K. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21 (2014)11. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 1429 - 1436.
    soluble adhesion molecules - coronary-heart-disease - necrosis-factor-alpha - cardiovascular risk - fish-oil - docosahexaenoic acid - inflammatory markers - serum concentrations - supplementation - men
    Background Persistent inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. n-3 Fatty acids may have anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a systemic marker of (low-grade) inflammation. Design/Methods A supplementary study in the Alpha Omega Trial: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose n-3 fatty acids. Patients were enrolled from 2002 to 2006 and followed for 40 months. A total of 2425 patients, aged 60–80 years (79% men), with a history of myocardial infarction, were randomly assigned to margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400¿mg/day EPA and DHA, 2¿g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 40 months. Results Patients consumed on average 19.8¿g margarine/day, providing an additional amount of 238¿mg/day EPA with 158¿mg/day DHA, 1.98¿g/day ALA, or both, in the active treatment groups. In the placebo group, the geometric mean hsCRP (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 1.84¿mg/l (95% CI: +1.70 to +2.00) at baseline and 1.98¿mg/l (95% CI: 1.82 to 2.15) after 40 months (p¿
    Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial
    Brouwer, I.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Klaasen, V.M. ; Smit, L.A. ; Giltay, E.J. ; Goede, J. de; Heijboer, A.C. ; Kromhout, D. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203
    n-3 fatty-acids - cancer risk - dietary-fat - metaanalysis - men - disease
    Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. Methods: The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 262 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration,4 ng/mL. They received either 2 g per day of ALA or placebo in margarine spreads for 40 months. T-tests and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of ALA supplementation on changes in serum PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Findings: Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: 20.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0.12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). Interpretation: An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from 20.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.
    Physical activity after myocardial infarction: is it related to mental health?
    Rius-Ottenheim, N. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. ; Mast, R.C. van der; Zitman, F.G. ; Giltay, E.J. - \ 2013
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 20 (2013)3. - ISSN 2047-4873 - p. 399 - 408.
    coronary-heart-disease - doubly labeled water - depressive symptoms - older-adults - dispositional optimism - cardiovascular mortality - follow-up - cardiac rehabilitation - activity scale - elderly pase
    Background: Physical inactivity and poor mental wellbeing are associated with poorer prognoses in patients with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to analyse the cross-sectional and prospective associations between physical activity and mental wellbeing in patients with a history of myocardial infarction. Design: Longitudinal, observational study. Methods: We investigated 600 older subjects with a history of myocardial infarction (age range 60–80 years) who participated in the Alpha Omega Trial (AOT). They were tested twice at baseline and at 40 months follow-up for physical activity – with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE); depressive symptoms – with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15); and dispositional optimism – with the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Linear (multilevel) and logistic regression analyses were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Results: Physical activity was cross-sectionally associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted beta = -0.143; p = 0.001), but not with dispositional optimism (adjusted beta = 0.074; p = 0.07). We found a synchrony of change between physical activity and depressive symptoms (adjusted beta = -0.155; p <0.001), but not with dispositional optimism (adjusted beta = 0.049; p = 0.24). Baseline physical activity did not predict depressive symptoms at 40 months follow-up. Conclusions: Concordant inverse associations were observed for (changes) in physical activity and depressive symptoms. Physical activity did not predict depressive symptoms or low optimism.
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