Records 1 - 20 / 278
A schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors
Espín, Silvia ; Andevski, Jovan ; Duke, Guy ; Eulaers, Igor ; Gómez-Ramírez, Pilar ; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor ; Helander, Björn ; Herzke, Dorte ; Jaspers, Veerle L.B. ; Krone, Oliver ; Lourenço, Rui ; María-Mojica, Pedro ; Martínez-López, Emma ; Mateo, Rafael ; Movalli, Paola ; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo ; Shore, Richard F. ; Sonne, Christian ; Brink, Nico W. van den; Hattum, Bert van; Vrezec, Al ; Wernham, Chris ; García-Fernández, Antonio J. - \ 2021
Ambio 50 (2021). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 95 - 100.
Best practices - Birds of prey - Falcons - Large-scale biomonitoring - Owls - Pan-European network
Birds of prey, owls and falcons are widely used as sentinel species in raptor biomonitoring programmes. A major current challenge is to facilitate large-scale biomonitoring by coordinating contaminant monitoring activities and by building capacity across countries. This requires sharing, dissemination and adoption of best practices addressed by the Networking Programme Research and Monitoring for and with Raptors in Europe (EURAPMON) and now being advanced by the ongoing international COST Action European Raptor Biomonitoring Facility. The present perspective introduces a schematic sampling protocol for contaminant monitoring in raptors. We provide guidance on sample collection with a view to increasing sampling capacity across countries, ensuring appropriate quality of samples and facilitating harmonization of procedures to maximize the reliability, comparability and interoperability of data. The here presented protocol can be used by professionals and volunteers as a standard guide to ensure harmonised sampling methods for contaminant monitoring in raptors.
Synthetic Sequencing Standards : A Guide to Database Choice for Rumen Microbiota Amplicon Sequencing Analysis
Smith, Paul E. ; Waters, Sinead M. ; Gómez Expósito, Ruth ; Smidt, Hauke ; Carberry, Ciara A. ; McCabe, Matthew S. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-302X
amplicon sequencing - reference database - rRNA - rumen microbiota - sequencing standard
Our understanding of complex microbial communities, such as those residing in the rumen, has drastically advanced through the use of high throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. Indeed, with the use of barcoded amplicon sequencing, it is now cost effective and computationally feasible to identify individual rumen microbial genera associated with ruminant livestock nutrition, genetics, performance and greenhouse gas production. However, across all disciplines of microbial ecology, there is currently little reporting of the use of internal controls for validating HTS results. Furthermore, there is little consensus of the most appropriate reference database for analyzing rumen microbiota amplicon sequencing data. Therefore, in this study, a synthetic rumen-specific sequencing standard was used to assess the effects of database choice on results obtained from rumen microbial amplicon sequencing. Four DADA2 reference training sets (RDP, SILVA, GTDB, and RefSeq + RDP) were compared to assess their ability to correctly classify sequences included in the rumen-specific sequencing standard. In addition, two thresholds of phylogenetic bootstrapping, 50 and 80, were applied to investigate the effect of increasing stringency. Sequence classification differences were apparent amongst the databases. For example the classification of Clostridium differed between all databases, thus highlighting the need for a consistent approach to nomenclature amongst different reference databases. It is hoped the effect of database on taxonomic classification observed in this study, will encourage research groups across various microbial disciplines to develop and routinely use their own microbiome-specific reference standard to validate analysis pipelines and database choice.
Addressing Learning Needs on the Use of Metagenomics in Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance
Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia ; Stärk, Katharina D.C. ; Munk, Patrick ; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimplapas ; Bossers, A. ; Luiken, Roosmarijn ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Lukjancenko, Oksana ; Pamp, Sünje Johanna ; Bortolaia, Valeria ; Nissen, Jakob Nybo ; Kirstahler, Philipp ; Gompel, Liese van; Poulsen, Casper Sahl ; Sommer Kaas, Rolf ; Hellmér, Maria ; Hansen, Rasmus Borup ; Munoz Gomez, Violeta ; Hald, Tine - \ 2020
Frontiers in Public Health 8 (2020)38. - ISSN 2296-2565
One Health surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) depends on a harmonized method for detection of AMR. Metagenomics-based surveillance offers the possibility to compare resistomes within and between different target populations. Its potential to be embedded into policy in the future calls for a timely and integrated knowledge dissemination strategy. We developed a blended training (e-learning and a workshop) on the use of metagenomics in surveillance of pathogens and AMR. The objectives were to highlight the potential of metagenomics in the context of integrated surveillance, to demonstrate its applicability through hands-on training and to raise awareness to bias factors1. The target participants included staff of competent authorities responsible for AMR monitoring and academic staff. The training was organized in modules covering the workflow, requirements, benefits and challenges of surveillance by metagenomics. The training had 41 participants. The face-to-face workshop was essential to understand the expectations of the participants about the transition to metagenomics-based surveillance. After revision of the e-learning, we released it as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), now available at https://www.coursera.org/learn/metagenomics. This course has run in more than 20 sessions, with more than 3,000 learners enrolled, from more than 120 countries. Blended learning and MOOCs are useful tools to deliver knowledge globally and across disciplines. The released MOOC can be a reference knowledge source for international players in the application of metagenomics in surveillance.
FACCE-JPI Strategic Research Agenda 2020
Stalb, H. ; Langthaler, G. ; McKhann, H. ; Berndt, A. ; Gomez, P. ; Domènech, A. ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, B. - \ 2020
FACCE-JPI - 40 p.
|From agroindustries to integrated biomass logistics centres. Agroinlog project : Summary of final results
Gómez, M. ; Zapata, S. ; Izquierdo, M. ; Jarauta-Córdoba, C. ; Annevelink, E. ; Snels, J. ; Urciuoli, L. ; Kougioumtzis, M.A. ; Karampinis, E. ; Grammelis, P. ; Gunnarsson, C. ; Lund, J. ; Pari, L. ; Suardi, A. ; Serrat, C. ; Boukis, I. ; Karlsson Boll, D. ; Gustafsson, T. ; Fernández, P. ; Rivera, S. ; Stavropoulou, C. ; Sanchez Falcon, B. ; Kravchenko, A. ; Stojiljkovic, D. ; Bartolomé, C. - \ 2020
In: Online Proceedings of the 28th EUBCE – Virtual (e-EUBCE 2020). - EUBCE (European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings ) - ISBN 9788889407202 - p. 941 - 952.
Agroindustry - Biobased economy - Biomass - Circular economy
AGROinLOG project has tested the integrated biomass logistics centres (IBLC) concept in three real agro-industries in Europe. The relevance of the IBLC strategy relies on the fact that it allows agro-industries to create a new activity with lower investment, increasing incomes, stabilizing their annual activity (avoiding idle periods) and maintaining or creating new jobs. The demos’ studies were performed in Spain at a fodder industry, in Greece at an olive oil industry, and in Sweden inside a cereal processing industry. AGROinLOG validated these demos´ business models from a holistic perspective, also studying the replicability of the IBLC business model in other agro-industries from different sectors (vegetable oil extraction, olive oil chain, feed & fodder, wine, grain chain and sugar industry). Sectorial analysis was carried out as well, allowing the identification of opportunities among the targeted sector to replicate the IBLC concept, drawing barriers to overcome in each case. Thus, technical, economic and environmental feasibility of integrated biomass logistics centers (IBLCs) for food and non-food products have been assessed in detail.
Restoring degraded microbiome function with self-assembled communities
Landazuri, Carlos Fernando Gutierrez ; Gomez, Janeth Sanabria ; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Oyserman, Ben O. - \ 2020
FEMS microbiology ecology 96 (2020)12. - ISSN 0168-6496
biofertilization - biological nitrogen fixation - biotechnology - community assembly - diazotrophs - microbial ecology - restoration ecology - soil fertilization
The natural microbial functions of many soils are severely degraded. Current state-of-the-art technology to restore these functions is through the isolation, screening, formulation and application of microbial inoculants and synthetic consortia. These approaches have inconsistent success, in part due to the incompatibility between the biofertilizer, crop, climate, existing soil microbiome and physicochemical characteristics of the soils. Here, we review the current state of the art in biofertilization and identify two key deficiencies in current strategies: the difficulty in designing complex multispecies biofertilizers and the bottleneck in scaling the production of complex multispecies biofertilizers. To address the challenge of producing scalable, multispecies biofertilizers, we propose to merge ecological theory with bioprocess engineering to produce 'self-assembled communities' enriched for particular functional guilds and adapted to a target soil and host plant. Using the nitrogen problem as an anchor, we review relevant ecology (microbial, plant and environmental), as well as reactor design strategies and operational parameters for the production of functionally enriched self-assembled communities. The use of self-assembled communities for biofertilization addresses two major hurdles in microbiome engineering: the importance of enriching microbes indigenous to (and targeted for) a specific environment and the recognized potential benefits of microbial consortia over isolates (e.g. functional redundancy). The proposed community enrichment model could also be instrumental for other microbial functions such as phosphorus solubilization, plant growth promotion or disease suppression.
Results of the contingent valuation to estimate the environmental impacts caused by rock-ash discharge in the Dominican Republic
Gómez-Valenzuela, Víctor ; Alpizar Rodriguez, F. - \ 2020
Ciencia, Economía y Negocios 4 (2020)1. - p. 5 - 24.
contingent valuation - rock ash - Samaná - Montecristi - Dominican Republic
This paper shows the results of a contingent valuation exercise carried out to assess the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of 56,000 tons of rock ash in the Dominican Republic in 2003 and 2004. In March 2007, the Dominican government and AES Corporation reached a legal settlement for US$6 million in penalties to avoid a lengthy legal process. The willingness to pay for a watching and monitoring program to prevent and mitigate environmental impacts caused by rock ash was estimated at US$194 million in 2007, reflecting the welfare losses experienced by the Dominican society at that moment.
Genetic basis of falling risk susceptibility in the UK Biobank Study
Trajanoska, Katerina ; Seppala, Lotta J. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Zhou, Sirui ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Karasik, David ; Richards, J.B. ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Uitterlinden, Andre G. ; Perry, John R.B. ; Velde, Nathalie van der; Day, Felix R. ; Rivadeneira, Fernando - \ 2020
Communications Biology 3 (2020). - ISSN 2399-3642
Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual’s fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (Pcombined ≤ 5 × 10−8). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.
Modelagem de cenários para o manejo sustentável de produtos florestais não-madeireiros em ecossistemas tropicais
Bondé, Loyapin ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Benavides-Gordillo, Sandra ; Canales-Gomez, Erendira ; Fajardo, Javier ; Marrón-Becerra, Aurora ; Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A. ; Weidlich, Emanuela W.A. ; Ament, Judith M. - \ 2020
Biota Neotropica 20 (2020)supl. 1. - ISSN 1676-0611 - 14 p.
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - Conceptual model - Drivers of change - Shea tree - Tropical tree species
Ecosystems degradation, and consequently biodiversity loss, has severe impacts on people around the world. The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is one of the international initiatives that have emerged to inform policy makers and aid decisions to prevent further global biodiversity loss, focusing on the interdependence between natural systems and human culture. IPBES promotes the use of scenarios and modelling approaches as a fundamental tool to advance the understanding of the relationships between drivers of change, Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP), and social systems. Local-scale case studies with a system approach demonstrating how current knowledge can be used to inform decision-making are still scarce. Here, we present a comprehensive conceptual model and a series of four scenarios under different policies for shea tree species management, as a case-study of applying systems thinking and the NCP concept to a local-scale socio-ecological system. We first characterized the central processes, NCP, drivers and pressures affecting the shea tree system, to investigate the impacts of the multiple uses of the shea tree species on the system as a whole. We then described potential policy options, developed four scenarios, and evaluated them by a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). We predicted qualitative outcomes of the proposed scenarios: Business-as-usual (BAU), “Conservation and fair trade”, “Agroforestry and fair trade” and “Industrial development”. We found that the scenarios focussing on conservation, fair trade and agroforestry, can improve the conservation status of shea trees, and enhance wellbeing in the local communities. In this case study, we demonstrate that the development of a comprehensive conceptual model at a local scale can be a useful exercise to identify opportunities for effective policy strategies and social innovation. The shea tree case study can provide an example for modelling non-timber forest products in other regions around the world that face similar drivers and pressures. Species for which this model could be adapted include Central and South American species such as the Brazilian nut (Bertholletia excelsa), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), açai (Euterpe oleracea) and the wax palm (Ceroxylon quindiuense). The model and workflow applied here may thus be used to understand similar socio-ecological systems with local and international economic value across the Neotropical region.
Examples of regional bio-based business models : Power4Bio Deliverable 4.1
Hatvani, Nora ; Koós, Ákos ; Mateffy, Kornel ; Gomez Palmero, Maider ; Marcos Gonzalez, Javier ; Garcia Laverde, Laura ; Yuan, Bomin ; Garcia Chavez, Lesly - \ 2020
POWER4BIO - 2 p.
biobased economy - businesses - economics
Highly Stable Perovskite Supercrystals via Oil-in-Oil Templating
Tang, Yingying ; Gomez, Leyre ; Lesage, Arnon ; Marino, Emanuele ; Kodger, Thomas E. ; Meijer, Janne Mieke ; Kolpakov, Paul ; Meng, Jie ; Zheng, Kaibo ; Gregorkiewicz, Tom ; Schall, Peter - \ 2020
Nano Letters 20 (2020)8. - ISSN 1530-6984 - p. 5997 - 6004.
assembly - emulsion-droplet templating - perovskite films - stability - supercrystals
Inorganic perovskites display an enticing foreground for their wide range of optoelectronic applications. Recently, supercrystals (SCs) of inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have been reported to possess highly ordered structure as well as novel collective optical properties, opening new opportunities for efficient films. Here, we report the large-scale assembly control of spherical, cubic, and hexagonal SCs of inorganic perovskite NCs through templating by oil-in-oil emulsions. We show that an interplay between the roundness of the cubic NCs and the tension of the confining droplet surface sets the superstructure morphology, and we exploit this interplay to design dense hyperlattices of SCs. The SC films show strongly enhanced stability for at least two months without obvious structural degradation and minor optical changes. Our results on the controlled large-scale assembly of perovskite NC superstructures provide new prospects for the bottom-up production of optoelectronic devices based on the microfluidic production of mesoscopic building blocks.
Maternal exposure to mixtures of dienestrol, linuron and flutamide. Part II: Endocrine-related gene expression assessment on male offspring rat testes
Katsanou, Efrosini S. ; Batakis, Petros ; Spyropoulou, Anastasia ; Schreiber, Elga ; Bovee, Toine ; Torrente, Margarita ; Gómez, Maria Mercedes ; Kumar, Vikas ; Domingo, José Luis ; Machera, Kyriaki - \ 2020
Food and Chemical Toxicology 144 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
Dienestrol - Endocrine genes - Feminization - Flutamide - Linuron - Mixtures
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) during pregnancy and early development can lead to adverse developmental outcomes in offspring. One of the endpoints of concern is feminization. The present study aimed to investigate for any possible correlations with endocrine sensitive parameters in the testes of male rat offspring following dam exposure to three EDCs by assessing the expression of endocrine-related genes. Dienestrol (DIES) [0.37–6.25 μg/kg bw/day], linuron (LIN) [1.5–50 mg/kg bw/day], flutamide (FLU) [3.5–50 mg/kg bw/day] as well as their binary mixtures were administered to sexually mature female rats from gestation day (GD) 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression analysis of Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Hsd3b2, Pgr and Insl3 was performed by RT-qPCR. Administration of the anti-androgen FLU alone significantly upregulated Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1 gene expression while administration of LIN and DIES alone did not alter significantly gene expression. The effects of the binary mixtures on gene expression were not as marked as those seen after single compound administrations. Deregulation of Cyp17a1 in rat pup testis, following administration of FLU alone or in mixtures to dams, was significantly correlated with the observed feminization endpoints in male pups.
Relationship of weather types on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield in the western Mediterranean basin
Peña-Angulo, D. ; Nadal-Romero, E. ; González-Hidalgo, J.C. ; Albaladejo, J. ; Andreu, V. ; Barhi, H. ; Bernal, S. ; Biddoccu, M. ; Bienes, R. ; Campo, J. ; Campo-Bescós, M.A. ; Canatário-Duarte, A. ; Cantón, Y. ; Casali, J. ; Castillo, V. ; Cavallo, E. ; Cerdà, A. ; Cid, P. ; Cortesi, N. ; Desir, G. ; Díaz-Pereira, E. ; Espigares, T. ; Estrany, J. ; Farguell, J. ; Fernández-Raga, M. ; Ferreira, C.S. ; Ferro, V. ; Gallart, F. ; Giménez, R. ; Gimeno, E. ; Gómez, J.A. ; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A. ; Gómez-Macpherson, H. ; González-Pelayo, O. ; Kairis, O. ; Karatzas, G.P. ; Keesstra, S. ; Klotz, S. ; Kosmas, C. ; Lana-Renault, N. ; Lasanta, T. ; Latron, J. ; Lázaro, R. ; Bissonnais, Y. Le; Bouteiller, C. Le; Licciardello, F. ; López-Tarazón, J.A. ; Lucía, A. ; Marín-Moreno, V.M. ; Marín, C. ; Marqués, M.J. ; Martínez-Fernández, J. ; Martínez-Mena, M. ; Mateos, L. ; Mathys, N. ; Merino-Martín, L. ; Moreno-de las Heras, M. ; Moustakas, N. ; Nicolau, J.M. ; Pampalone, V. ; Raclot, D. ; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L. ; Rodrigo-Comino, J. ; Romero-Díaz, A. ; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D. ; Rubio, J.L. ; Schnabel, S. ; Senciales-González, J.M. ; Solé-Benet, A. ; Taguas, E.V. ; Taboada-Castro, M.T. ; Taboada-Castro, M.M. ; Todisco, F. ; Úbeda, X. ; Varouchakis, E.A. ; Wittenberg, L. ; Zabaleta, A. ; Zorn, M. - \ 2020
Atmosphere 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 2073-4433
Erosion - Mediterraneanbasin - Rainfall - Runoff - Seasonal analyses - Sediment yield - Weather types
Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations.
Flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating enzymes : distribution and application
Mügge, Carolin ; Heine, Thomas ; Baraibar, Alvaro Gomez ; Berkel, Willem J.H. van; Paul, Caroline E. ; Tischler, Dirk - \ 2020
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 104 (2020). - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 6481 - 6499.
Bioactive compounds - Biocatalysis - Biotransformation - Flavoproteins - Monooxygenases - N-Hydroxylases - Phylogenetics - Siderophores
Amino groups derived from naturally abundant amino acids or (di)amines can be used as “shuttles” in nature for oxygen transfer to provide intermediates or products comprising N-O functional groups such as N-hydroxy, oxazine, isoxazolidine, nitro, nitrone, oxime, C-, S-, or N-nitroso, and azoxy units. To this end, molecular oxygen is activated by flavin, heme, or metal cofactor-containing enzymes and transferred to initially obtain N-hydroxy compounds, which can be further functionalized. In this review, we focus on flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating enzymes, which play a major role in the production of secondary metabolites, such as siderophores or antimicrobial agents. Flavoprotein monooxygenases of higher organisms (among others, in humans) can interact with nitrogen-bearing secondary metabolites or are relevant with respect to detoxification metabolism and are thus of importance to understand potential medical applications. Many enzymes that catalyze N-hydroxylation reactions have specific substrate scopes and others are rather relaxed. The subsequent conversion towards various N-O or N-N comprising molecules is also described. Overall, flavin-dependent N-hydroxylating enzymes can accept amines, diamines, amino acids, amino sugars, and amino aromatic compounds and thus provide access to versatile families of compounds containing the N-O motif. Natural roles as well as synthetic applications are highlighted.• N-O and N-N comprising natural and (semi)synthetic products are highlighted.• Flavin-based NMOs with respect to mechanism, structure, and phylogeny are reviewed.• Applications in natural product formation and synthetic approaches are provided. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Maternal exposure to mixtures of dienestrol, linuron and flutamide. Part I: Feminization effects on male rat offspring
Schreiber, Elga ; Garcia, Tània ; González, Neus ; Esplugas, Roser ; Sharma, Raju Prasad ; Torrente, Margarita ; Kumar, Vikas ; Bovee, Toine ; Katsanou, Efrosini S. ; Machera, Kyriaki ; Domingo, José Luis ; Gómez, Mercedes - \ 2020
Food and Chemical Toxicology 139 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
Dienestrol - Feminization effects - Flutamide - Linuron - Male rats - Mixtures
Exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) during pregnancy can result in negative health effects in later generations, including sex changes and feminization. The present study assessed the feminization effects on male offspring rats of three EDCs: Dienestrol (DIES), Linuron (LIN), and Flutamide (FLU). Sexually mature female rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21 to: 0.37, 0.75, 1.5, 3.12 or 6.25 μg/kg/day of DIES, 1.5, 3, 6, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day of LIN, 3.5, 6.7, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day of FLU, and the following mixtures: FLU + DIES (mg/kg/day+μg/kg/day), 3.5 + 0.37, or 3.5 + 3, 25 + 0.37, or 25 + 3; FLU + LIN (mg/kg/day + mg/kg/day), 3.5 + 12.5, or 25 + 12.5; and DIES + LIN (μg/kg/day + mg/kg/day), 0.37 + 12.5, or 3 + 12.5. Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR) and cryptorchidism were evaluated. FLU produced a decrease of AGD, an increase of NR, and an increase of cryptorchidism at the highest dose. None of these three endpoints were significantly affected by LIN or DIES treatments alone. Combinations of FLU + LIN and FLU + DIES increased NR, and decreased AGD, while DIES + LIN did not produce any effects in male pups. Results show that FLU is able to induce feminization in male pups, while binary combinations of LIN and DIES did not modify the effects produced by FLU.
Mining conflict in the Dominican Republic : The case of Loma Miranda
Gómez-Valenzuela, Víctor ; Alpízar, Francisco ; Bonilla, Solhanlle ; Franco-Billini, Carol - \ 2020
Resources Policy 66 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4207
Contingent valuation - Dominican Republic - Loma miranda - Mining conflict
This paper assesses the willingness to pay (WTP) of the Dominican Republican society for a restoration and conservation program in Loma Miranda, an area rich in natural resources that is also proposed as a mining exploitation site. Loma Miranda is located in the Quisqueya mining concession, approximately 100 km from the country's capital, Santo Domingo, making the decision to exploit or conserve a national dilemma. A national face-to-face survey was conducted during the first quarter of 2019, reaching a representative sample of 1200 individuals. The estimation of the WTP was performed using a non-parametric and a parametric, logistic estimation by way of robustness check. The average WTP estimated by the parametric method was $DOP 159.00 (≈US$3.15) per month per household. The aggregate WTP reached a total amount of US$87.2 million per year. The WTP in favor of the conservation of Loma Miranda is higher in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo but lower in the vicinity of Loma Miranda.
Impact of genotype, body weight and sex on the prenatal muscle transcriptome of Iberian pigs
García-Contreras, Consolación ; Madsen, Ole ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; López-García, Adrián ; Vázquez-Gómez, Marta ; Astiz, Susana ; Núñez, Yolanda ; Benítez, Rita ; Fernández, Almudena ; Isabel, Beatriz ; Rey, Ana Isabel ; González-Bulnes, Antonio ; Óvilo, Cristina - \ 2020
PLoS ONE 15 (2020)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
Growth is dependent on genotype and diet, even at early developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the effects of genotype, sex, and body weight on the fetal muscle transcriptome of purebred Iberian and crossbred Iberian x Large White pigs sharing the same uterine environment. RNA sequencing was performed on 16 purebred and crossbred fetuses with high body weight (340±14g and 415±14g, respectively) and 16 with low body weight (246±14g and 311±14g, respectively), on gestational day 77. Genotype had the greatest effect on gene expression, with 645 genes identified as differentially expressed (DE) between purebred and crossbred animals. Functional analysis showed differential regulation of pathways involved in energy and lipid metabolism, muscle development, and tissue disorders. In purebred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 35 DE genes involved in development, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. In crossbred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 60 DE genes involved in muscle development, viability, and immunity. Interestingly, the results suggested an interaction genotype∗weight for some DE genes. Fetal sex had only a modest effect on gene expression. This study allowed the identification of genes, metabolic pathways, biological functions and regulators related to fetal genotype, weight and sex, in animals sharing the same uterine environment. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events that influence prenatal muscle development and highlight the complex interactions affecting transcriptional regulation during development.
Natural variation in HsfA2 pre-mRNA splicing is associated with changes in thermotolerance during tomato domestication
Hu, Yangjie ; Mesihovic, Anida ; Jiménez-Gómez, José M. ; Röth, Sascha ; Gebhardt, Philipp ; Bublak, Daniela ; Bovy, Arnaud ; Scharf, Klaus Dieter ; Schleiff, Enrico ; Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios - \ 2020
New Phytologist 225 (2020)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1297 - 1310.
acclimation - high temperature - polymorphism - pre-mRNA splicing - Solanum - stress response
Wild relatives of crops thrive in habitats where environmental conditions can be restrictive for productivity and survival of cultivated species. The genetic basis of this variability, particularly for tolerance to high temperatures, is not well understood. We examined the capacity of wild and cultivated accessions to acclimate to rapid temperature elevations that cause heat stress (HS). We investigated genotypic variation in thermotolerance of seedlings of wild and cultivated accessions. The contribution of polymorphisms associated with thermotolerance variation was examined regarding alterations in function of the identified gene. We show that tomato germplasm underwent a progressive loss of acclimation to strong temperature elevations. Sensitivity is associated with intronic polymorphisms in the HS transcription factor HsfA2 which affect the splicing efficiency of its pre-mRNA. Intron splicing in wild species results in increased synthesis of isoform HsfA2-II, implicated in the early stress response, at the expense of HsfA2-I which is involved in establishing short-term acclimation and thermotolerance. We propose that the selection for modern HsfA2 haplotypes reduced the ability of cultivated tomatoes to rapidly acclimate to temperature elevations, but enhanced their short-term acclimation capacity. Hence, we provide evidence that alternative splicing has a central role in the definition of plant fitness plasticity to stressful conditions.
Nanoparticles as Biosensors for Food Quality and Safety Assessment
Ragavan, K.V. ; Neethirajan, Suresh - \ 2019
In: Nanomaterials for Food Applications / Lopez Rubio, Amparo, Fabra Rovira, Maria Jose, Martinez Sanz, Marta, Gomez Gomez-Mascaraque, Laura, Elsevier (Micro and Nano Technologies ) - ISBN 9780128141304 - p. 147 - 202.
Aptamers - Biosensors - Enzymes - Food quality - Food safety - Nanomaterials - Nanoparticles
Increased consumption of processed foods, globalization, and spiraling food prices have led to many challenges such as food quality, food safety, food adulteration, and food contamination. Food quality and food safety are the two most important aspects focused in food processing industry. Analytical procedures and instrumentation are sufficiently equipped for the detection of ions, molecules, or microorganisms with good sensitivity and selectivity. However, these instruments and their services are expensive and cannot be operated by the common man without instrumentation knowledge. Hence, there is a need for simple, affordable, field applicable sensor systems with sufficient analytical performance for the evaluation of food safety and quality. Biosensors are capable of fulfilling the above requirements, and with the advent of nanotechnology, their scope for application in multiple fields has been revived. Different classes of nanomaterials are integrated into various biosensor platforms and found to enhance their analytical performance.