Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    ForestGEO : Understanding forest diversity and dynamics through a global observatory network
    Davies, Stuart J. ; Abiem, Iveren ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Aguilar, Salomón ; Allen, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina ; Andrade, Ana ; Arellano, Gabriel ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Baker, Patrick J. ; Baker, Matthew E. ; Baltzer, Jennifer L. ; Basset, Yves ; Bissiengou, Pulchérie ; Bohlman, Stephanie ; Bourg, Norman A. ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Cao, Min ; Cárdenas, Dairon ; Chang, Li Wan ; Chang-Yang, Chia Hao ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Chapman, Hazel ; Chen, Yu Yun ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Chu, Chengjin ; Chuyong, George ; Clay, Keith ; Comita, Liza S. ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. ; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de; Ouden, Jan den; Detto, Matteo ; Dick, Christopher ; Du, Xiaojun ; Duque, Álvaro ; Ediriweera, Sisira ; Ellis, Erle C. ; Obiang, Nestor Laurier Engone ; Esufali, Shameema ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Fernando, Edwino S. ; Filip, Jonah ; Fischer, Gunter A. ; Foster, Robin ; Giambelluca, Thomas ; Giardina, Christian ; Gilbert, Gregory S. ; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Gunatilleke, C.V.S. ; Hao, Zhanqing ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Ni, Hongwei ; Howe, Robert W. ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Huth, Andreas ; Inman-Narahari, Faith ; Itoh, Akira ; Janík, David ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Jiang, Mingxi ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Jones, Andrew ; Kanzaki, Mamoru ; Kenfack, David ; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon ; Král, Kamil ; Krizel, Lauren ; Lao, Suzanne ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Yide ; Li, Xiankun ; Litton, Creighton M. ; Liu, Yu ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Luskin, Matthew S. ; Lutz, James A. ; Luu, Hong Truong ; Ma, Keping ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Martin, Adam ; McCarthy, Caly ; McMahon, Sean M. ; McShea, William J. ; Memiaghe, Hervé ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Mitre, David ; Mohamad, Mohizah ; Monks, Logan ; Muller-Landau, Helene C. ; Musili, Paul M. ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Ngo, Kang Min ; Norden, Natalia ; Novotny, Vojtech ; O'Brien, Michael J. ; Orwig, David ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos ; Parker, Geoffrey G. ; Pérez, Rolando ; Perfecto, Ivette ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ren, Haibo ; Reynolds, Glen ; Rodriguez, Lillian J. ; Russo, Sabrina E. ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shue, Jessica ; Singh, Anudeep ; Song, Guo Zhang M. ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sun, I.F. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu S. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Thomas, Duncan ; Thompson, Jill ; Turner, Benjamin L. ; Uowolo, Amanda ; Uriarte, María ; Valencia, Renato ; Vandermeer, John ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Visser, Marco ; Vrska, Tomas ; Wang, Xugao ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wolf, Amy ; Wright, Joseph ; Xu, Han ; Yao, Tze Leong ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Ye, Wanhui ; Yu, Mingjian ; Zhang, Minhua ; Zhu, Daoguang ; Zhu, Li ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Zuleta, Daniel - \ 2021
    Biological Conservation 253 (2021). - ISSN 0006-3207
    Capacity strengthening - Demography - Forest plots - Network science - Species diversity - Tree growth and mortality - Tropical forests

    ForestGEO is a network of scientists and long-term forest dynamics plots (FDPs) spanning the Earth's major forest types. ForestGEO's mission is to advance understanding of the diversity and dynamics of forests and to strengthen global capacity for forest science research. ForestGEO is unique among forest plot networks in its large-scale plot dimensions, censusing of all stems ≥1 cm in diameter, inclusion of tropical, temperate and boreal forests, and investigation of additional biotic (e.g., arthropods) and abiotic (e.g., soils) drivers, which together provide a holistic view of forest functioning. The 71 FDPs in 27 countries include approximately 7.33 million living trees and about 12,000 species, representing 20% of the world's known tree diversity. With >1300 published papers, ForestGEO researchers have made significant contributions in two fundamental areas: species coexistence and diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Specifically, defining the major biotic and abiotic controls on the distribution and coexistence of species and functional types and on variation in species' demography has led to improved understanding of how the multiple dimensions of forest diversity are structured across space and time and how this diversity relates to the processes controlling the role of forests in the Earth system. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps remain that impede our ability to predict how forest diversity and function will respond to climate change and other stressors. Meeting these global research challenges requires major advances in standardizing taxonomy of tropical species, resolving the main drivers of forest dynamics, and integrating plot-based ground and remote sensing observations to scale up estimates of forest diversity and function, coupled with improved predictive models. However, they cannot be met without greater financial commitment to sustain the long-term research of ForestGEO and other forest plot networks, greatly expanded scientific capacity across the world's forested nations, and increased collaboration and integration among research networks and disciplines addressing forest science.

    Achtergrond scoring dierenwelzijn
    Hopster, H. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Vries, M. de - \ 2020
    In: Scenariostudie perspectief voor ontwikkelrichtingen Nederlandse landbouw in 2050 / Lesschen, Jan Peter, Reijs, Joan, Verhagen, Jan, Kros, Hans, de Vries, Marion, Jongeneel, Roel, Slier, Thalisa, Gonzalez Martinez, Ana, Vermeij, Izak, Daatselaar, Co, Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research Rapport 2984) - p. 120 - 133.
    Melkvee, Varkens, Pluimvee
    Characterisation of traditional Dutch cattle breed specific copy number variations
    Gonzalez Prendes, Rayner - \ 2020
    Genomic analysis of european drosophila melanogaster populations reveals longitudinal structure, continent-wide selection, and previously unknown DNA viruses
    Kapun, Martin ; Barron, Maite G. ; Staubach, Fabian ; Obbard, Darren J. ; Axel, R. ; Vieira, Jorge ; Goubert, Clement ; Rota-Stabelli, Omar ; Kankare, Maaria ; Bogaerts-Marquez, Maria ; Haudry, Annabelle ; Waidele, Lena ; Kozeretska, Iryna ; Pasyukova, Elena G. ; Loeschcke, Volker ; Pascual, Marta ; Vieira, Cristina P. ; Serga, Svitlana ; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine ; Abbott, Jessica ; Gibert, Patricia ; Porcelli, Damiano ; Posnien, Nico ; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro ; Grath, Sonja ; Sucena, Elio ; Bergland, Alan O. ; Guerreiro, Maria Pilar Garcia ; Onder, Banu Sebnem ; Argyridou, Eliza ; Guio, Lain ; Schou, Mads Fristrup ; Deplancke, Bart ; Vieira, Cristina ; Ritchie, Michael G. ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Tauber, Eran ; Orengo, Dorcas J. ; Puerma, Eva ; Aguade, Montserrat ; Schmidt, Paul ; Parsch, John ; Betancourt, Andrea J. ; Flatt, Thomas ; Gonzalez, Josefa - \ 2020
    Molecular Biology and Evolution 37 (2020)9. - ISSN 0737-4038 - p. 2661 - 2678.
    Adaptation - Clines - Demography - Population genomics - Selection - SNPs - Structural variants

    Genetic variation is the fuel of evolution, with standing genetic variation especially important for short-term evolution and local adaptation. To date, studies of spatiotemporal patterns of genetic variation in natural populations have been challenging, as comprehensive sampling is logistically difficult, and sequencing of entire populations costly. Here, we address these issues using a collaborative approach, sequencing 48 pooled population samples from 32 locations, and perform the first continent-wide genomic analysis of genetic variation in European Drosophila melanogaster. Our analyses uncover longitudinal population structure, provide evidence for continent-wide selective sweeps, identify candidate genes for local climate adaptation, and document clines in chromosomal inversion and transposable element frequencies. We also characterize variation among populations in the composition of the fly microbiome, and identify five new DNA viruses in our samples.

    Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella Infantis in Ecuador : From Poultry Farms to Human Infections
    Mejía, Lorena ; Medina, José Luis ; Bayas, Rosa ; Salazar, Carolina Satan ; Villavicencio, Fernando ; Zapata, Sonia ; Matheu, Jorge ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; González-Candelas, Fernando ; Vinueza-Burgos, Christian - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
    broiler - Ecuador - megaplasmid - multidrug resistance (MDR) - Salmonella Infantis - ST32 - WGS

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most important foodborne pathogens around the world. In the last years, S. enterica serovar Infantis has become an important emerging pathogen in many countries, often as multidrug resistant clones. To understand the importance of S. enterica in the broiler industry in Ecuador, we performed a study based on phenotypic and WGS data of isolates from poultry farms, chicken carcasses and humans. We showed a high prevalence of S. enterica in poultry farms (41.4%) and chicken carcasses (55.5%), but a low prevalence (1.98%) in human samples. S. Infantis was shown to be the most prevalent serovar with a 98.2, 97.8, and 50% in farms, foods, and humans, respectively, presenting multidrug resistant patterns. All sequenced S. Infantis isolates belonged to ST32. For the first time, a pESI-related megaplasmid was identified in Ecuadorian samples. This plasmid contains genes of antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and environmental stress tolerance. Genomic analysis showed a low divergence of S. Infantis strains in the three analyzed components. The results from this study provide important information about genetic elements that may help understand the molecular epidemiology of S. Infantis in Ecuador.

    Vermiproductivity, maturation and microbiological changes derived from the use of liquid anaerobic digestate during the vermicomposting of market waste
    Crutchik, Dafne ; Rodríguez-Valdecantos, Gustavo ; Bustos, Gabriela ; Bravo, Javier ; González, Bernardo ; Pabón-Pereira, Claudia - \ 2020
    Water Science and Technology 82 (2020)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1781 - 1794.
    Anaerobic digestion - Digestate - Market waste - Microbial community - Residues valorization - Vermicomposting

    Recently, it has been suggested that the liquid fraction of anaerobic digestate, derived from the treatment of wastewater and solid wastes, could be used in vermicomposting as a solution to its disposal, and even for its valorization. Nevertheless, the literature does not provide enough information about its impact on the process of vermicomposting itself and on the final quality of the end-product. In this study, the effect of different doses of digestate in the vermicomposting process treating market waste is assessed measuring earthworm population dynamics, the bacterial community succession present in the vermibeds, as well as maturation and the end-quality of the vermicompost. Our results show that the addition of liquid digestate to the vermibeds increased the earthworms biomass, i.e. 71%, 94% and 168% in control, and vermibeds with 30% and 60% digestate, respectively. Further, the increase in the amount of N in the vermicompost decreased as the digestate addition increased, i.e. 75%, 8%, 3%. The maturity achieved was high in all treatments as shown by the C/N ratio, 7.98, 7.40 and 10.20, and the high seed germination rate, above 90%. Finally, the succession of the microbial community was not disturbed and compositional stabilization was reached after 92 days.

    A Community-Based Energy Market Design Using Decentralized Decision-Making under Uncertainty
    Crespo-Vazquez, Jose L. ; Skaif, Tarek Al ; Gonzalez-Rueda, Angel M. ; Gibescu, Madeleine - \ 2020
    IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2020). - ISSN 1949-3053
    decentralized decision making - Decision making - Electricity supply industry - energy community - Games - Indexes - Local energy markets - market clearing. - Microgrids - Real-time systems - Uncertainty

    Moving to a user-centric approach is seen as a key change of paradigm in order to increase the efficiency and sustainability of energy systems. Massive integration of new economic agents such as prosumers and mobile or stationary storage will play a key role in the energy transition. In this paper, a design of a community-based local energy market (CB-LEM) is proposed where the members are allowed to trade energy among each other through a local pool. The price is set on a day-ahead basis under the coordination of a Community Manager (CM). The novel aspect of this work is that every agent takes part in the determination of the local market price while deciding its own scheduling problem under uncertainty concerning renewable-energy generation and storage. After day-ahead clearing, real time operation and ex-post settlement of the local market by the CM are also explained in order to complete the proposed design. A real case study in a neighbourhood in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, is used for testing the proposed framework. In addition, the performance of the ADMM-based clearing process is analyzed in terms of scalability and convergence.

    Data from Sullivan et al. (2020) Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth’s tropical forests. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7578.
    Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
    University of Leeds
    ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (−9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater rate of decline in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth’s climate.
    A systems biology framework integrating GWAS and RNA-seq to shed light on the molecular basis of sperm quality in swine
    Gòdia, Marta ; Reverter, Antonio ; González-Prendes, Rayner ; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis ; Castelló, Anna ; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric ; Sánchez, Armand ; Clop, Alex - \ 2020
    Genetics, Selection, Evolution 52 (2020)1. - ISSN 0999-193X

    Background: Genetic pressure in animal breeding is sparking the interest of breeders for selecting elite boars with higher sperm quality to optimize ejaculate doses and fertility rates. However, the molecular basis of sperm quality is not yet fully understood. Our aim was to identify candidate genes, pathways and DNA variants associated to sperm quality in swine by analysing 25 sperm-related phenotypes and integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and RNA-seq under a systems biology framework. Results: By GWAS, we identified 12 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to the percentage of head and neck abnormalities, abnormal acrosomes and motile spermatozoa. Candidate genes included CHD2, KATNAL2, SLC14A2 and ABCA1. By RNA-seq, we identified a wide repertoire of mRNAs (e.g. PRM1, OAZ3, DNAJB8, TPPP2 and TNP1) and miRNAs (e.g. ssc-miR-30d, ssc-miR-34c, ssc-miR-30c-5p, ssc-miR-191, members of the let-7 family and ssc-miR-425-5p) with functions related to sperm biology. We detected 6128 significant correlations (P-value ≤ 0.05) between sperm traits and mRNA abundances. By expression (e)GWAS, we identified three trans-expression QTL involving the genes IQCJ, ACTR2 and HARS. Using the GWAS and RNA-seq data, we built a gene interaction network. We considered that the genes and interactions that were present in both the GWAS and RNA-seq networks had a higher probability of being actually involved in sperm quality and used them to build a robust gene interaction network. In addition, in the final network we included genes with RNA abundances correlated with more than four semen traits and miRNAs interacting with the genes on the network. The final network was enriched for genes involved in gamete generation and development, meiotic cell cycle, DNA repair or embryo implantation. Finally, we designed a panel of 73 SNPs based on the GWAS, eGWAS and final network data, that explains between 5% (for sperm cell concentration) and 36% (for percentage of neck abnormalities) of the phenotypic variance of the sperm traits. Conclusions: By applying a systems biology approach, we identified genes that potentially affect sperm quality and constructed a SNP panel that explains a substantial part of the phenotypic variance for semen quality in our study and that should be tested in other swine populations to evaluate its relevance for the pig breeding sector.

    Plant diversity enhances production and downward transport of biodegradable dissolved organic matter
    Lange, Markus ; Roth, Vanessa Nina ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Roscher, Christiane ; Dittmar, Thorsten ; Fischer-Bedtke, Christine ; González Macé, Odette ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Milcu, Alexandru ; Mommer, Liesje ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Scheu, Stefan ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Strecker, Tanja ; Wagg, Cameron ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Gleixner, Gerd - \ 2020
    Journal of Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0022-0477
    biodiversity - decomposition - dissolved organic carbon - ecosystem functions and services - plant–soil interactions - subsoil - vegetation

    Plant diversity is an important driver of below-ground ecosystem functions, such as root growth, soil organic matter (SOM) storage and microbial metabolism, mainly by influencing the interactions between plant roots and soil. Dissolved organic matter (DOM), as the most mobile form of SOM, plays a crucial role for a multitude of soil processes that are central for ecosystem functioning. Thus, DOM is likely to be an important mediator of plant diversity effects on soil processes. However, the relationships between plant diversity and DOM have not been studied so far. We investigated the mechanisms underlying plant diversity effects on concentrations of DOM using continuous soil water sampling across 6 years and 62 plant communities in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment in Jena, Germany. Furthermore, we investigated plant diversity effects on the molecular properties of DOM in a subset of the samples. Although DOM concentrations were highly variable over the course of the year with highest concentrations in summer and autumn, we found that DOM concentrations consistently increased with plant diversity across seasons. The positive plant diversity effect on DOM concentrations was mainly mediated by increased microbial activity and newly sequestered carbon in topsoil. However, the effect of soil microbial activity on DOM concentrations differed between seasons, indicating DOM consumption in winter and spring, and DOM production in summer and autumn. Furthermore, we found increased contents of small and easily decomposable DOM molecules reaching deeper soil layers with high plant diversity. Synthesis. Our findings suggest that plant diversity enhances the continuous downward transport of DOM in multiple ways. On the one hand, higher plant diversity results in higher DOM concentrations, on the other hand, this DOM is less degraded. This study indicates, for the first time, that higher plant diversity enhances the downward transport of dissolved molecules that likely stimulate soil development in deeper layers and therefore increase soil fertility.

    Chemically informed analyses of metabolomics mass spectrometry data with Qemistree
    Tripathi, Anupriya ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Wang, Mingxun ; Dührkop, Kai ; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa ; Acharya, Deepa D. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Zhu, Qiyun ; McDonald, Daniel ; Brejnrod, Asker D. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Handelsman, Jo ; Fleischauer, Markus ; Ludwig, Marcus ; Böcker, Sebastian ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Knight, Rob ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2020
    Nature Chemical Biology (2020). - ISSN 1552-4450

    Untargeted mass spectrometry is employed to detect small molecules in complex biospecimens, generating data that are difficult to interpret. We developed Qemistree, a data exploration strategy based on the hierarchical organization of molecular fingerprints predicted from fragmentation spectra. Qemistree allows mass spectrometry data to be represented in the context of sample metadata and chemical ontologies. By expressing molecular relationships as a tree, we can apply ecological tools that are designed to analyze and visualize the relatedness of DNA sequences to metabolomics data. Here we demonstrate the use of tree-guided data exploration tools to compare metabolomics samples across different experimental conditions such as chromatographic shifts. Additionally, we leverage a tree representation to visualize chemical diversity in a heterogeneous collection of samples. The Qemistree software pipeline is freely available to the microbiome and metabolomics communities in the form of a QIIME2 plugin, and a global natural products social molecular networking workflow. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Increased (Antibiotic-resistant) pathogen indicator organism removal during (hyper)thermophilic anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water for safe nutrient recovery
    Moerland, Marinus J. ; Borneman, Alicia ; Chatzopoulos, Paraschos ; Fraile, Adrian Gonzalez ; Eekert, Miriam H.A. van; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)22. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 13 p.
    (hyper-)thermophilic anaerobic digestion - Antibiotics resistance - Black water - Nutrient recovery - Pathogen removal - Source separation

    Source separated toilet water is a valuable resource for energy and fertilizers as it has a high concentration of organics and nutrients, which can be reused in agriculture. Recovery of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) decreases the dependency on energy-intensive processes or processes that rely on depleting natural resources. In new sanitation systems, concentrated black water (BW) is obtained by source-separated collection of toilet water. BW-derived products are often associated with safety issues, amongst which pathogens and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This study presents results showing that thermophilic (55–60C) and hyperthermophilic (70C) anaerobic treatments had higher (antibiotic-resistant) culturable pathogen indicators removal than mesophilic anaerobic treatment. Hyperthermophilic and thermophilic anaerobic treatment successfully removed Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing E. coli from source-separated vacuum collected BW at retention times of 6–11 days and reached significantly higher removal rates than mesophilic (35C) anaerobic treatment (p < 0.05). The difference between thermophilic and hyperthermophilic treatment was insignificant, which justifies operation at 55C rather than 70C. This study is the first to quantify (antibiotic-resistant) E. coli in concentrated BW (10–40 gCOD/L) and to show that both thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic treatment can adequately remove these pathogen indicators.

    Tree-ring chronologies, stable strontium isotopes and biochemical compounds: Towards reference datasets to provenance Iberian shipwreck timbers
    Domínguez-Delmás, Marta ; Rich, Sarah ; Traore, Mohamed ; Hajj, Fadi ; Poszwa, Anne ; Akhmetzyanov, L. ; García-González, Ignacio ; Groenendijk, P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2020)A. - ISSN 0305-4403 - 17 p.
    Studies on the provenance of wood for shipbuilding contribute widely to the fields of archaeology, anthropology, environmental history, cultural geography, and palaeoclimatology. The development of reference datasets to determine the date and provenance of shipwreck timbers is therefore a paramount undertaking. Here we compile and present recent advances in the development of tree-ring chronologies, stable strontium isotope ratios and chemical biomarkers aimed to determine the date and provenance of Iberian shipwreck timbers. A set of oak and pine tree-ring chronologies have been developed from living trees covering the past 500 and 800 years, respectively, and have served to confirm the provenance of the wood used in an 18th-century Spanish ship of the Royal Navy. Stable strontium isotopic signatures have been obtained from soil and living trees at 26 sites throughout the Iberian Peninsula, providing a climate-independent geochemical network to source the origin of historic timbers. However, retrieving the original isotopic signature from waterlogged samples remains unsuccessful, stressing the need to develop effective protocols to separate the seawater signal from the original strontium isotope ratios in the wood. Analyses of organic compounds in wood of living trees have proven suitable to discriminate species and provenances, but results on shipwreck timbers are inconclusive and should be further explored. Our regional approach has the potential to be expanded to other areas and archaeological timbers from different periods throughout the Anthropocene. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques presented when applied to waterlogged wood, propose GIS tools to interpret and visualize combined results, and stress the need to expand these type of reference datasets to allow for multiproxy dendroprovenancing approaches.
    Auto-deconvolution and molecular networking of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data
    Aksenov, Alexander A. ; Laponogov, Ivan ; Zhang, Zheng ; Doran, Sophie L.F. ; Belluomo, Ilaria ; Veselkov, Dennis ; Bittremieux, Wout ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Nothias-Esposito, Mélissa ; Maloney, Katherine N. ; Misra, Biswapriya B. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Smirnov, Aleksandr ; Du, Xiuxia ; Jones, Kenneth L. ; Dorrestein, Kathleen ; Panitchpakdi, Morgan ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Gonzalez, Mabel ; Carazzone, Chiara ; Amézquita, Adolfo ; Callewaert, Chris ; Morton, James T. ; Quinn, Robert A. ; Bouslimani, Amina ; Orio, Andrea Albarracín ; Petras, Daniel ; Smania, Andrea M. ; Couvillion, Sneha P. ; Burnet, Meagan C. ; Nicora, Carrie D. ; Zink, Erika ; Metz, Thomas O. ; Artaev, Viatcheslav ; Humston-Fulmer, Elizabeth ; Gregor, Rachel ; Meijler, Michael M. ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Eyal, Stav ; Anderson, Brooke ; Dutton, Rachel ; Lugan, Raphaël ; Boulch, Pauline Le ; Guitton, Yann ; Prevost, Stephanie ; Poirier, Audrey ; Dervilly, Gaud ; Bizec, Bruno Le; Fait, Aaron ; Persi, Noga Sikron ; Song, Chao ; Gashu, Kelem ; Coras, Roxana ; Guma, Monica ; Manasson, Julia ; Scher, Jose U. ; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar ; Alseekh, Saleh ; Fernie, Alisdair R. ; Mirnezami, Reza ; Vasiliou, Vasilis ; Schmid, Robin ; Borisov, Roman S. ; Kulikova, Larisa N. ; Knight, Rob ; Wang, Mingxun ; Hanna, George B. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Veselkov, Kirill - \ 2020
    Nature Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 1087-0156

    We engineered a machine learning approach, MSHub, to enable auto-deconvolution of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) data. We then designed workflows to enable the community to store, process, share, annotate, compare and perform molecular networking of GC–MS data within the Global Natural Product Social (GNPS) Molecular Networking analysis platform. MSHub/GNPS performs auto-deconvolution of compound fragmentation patterns via unsupervised non-negative matrix factorization and quantifies the reproducibility of fragmentation patterns across samples.

    Tree mode of death and mortality risk factors across Amazon forests
    Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Higuchi, Niro ; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanne ; Lloyd, Jon ; Liu, Haiyan ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Silveira, Marcos ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez ; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon del; Almeida, Everton ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baisie, Michel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Blanc, Lilian ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, René ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerome ; Comiskey, James ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Erwin, Terry ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Herrera, Rafael ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Ladvocat, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Meir, Patrick ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Morandi, Paulo ; Neill, David ; Nogueira Lima, Adriano José ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Pardo, Guido ; Peacock, Julie ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Prieto, Adriana ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Quesada, Carlos ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Rejou-Machain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Rudas, Agustín ; Salomão, Rafael ; Serrano, Julio ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Silva, Natalino ; Singh, James ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Swamy, Varun ; Talbot, Joey ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Meer, Peter van der; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Vos, Vincent ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zuidema, Pieter ; Galbraith, David - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    The carbon sink capacity of tropical forests is substantially affected by tree mortality. However, the main drivers of tropical tree death remain largely unknown. Here we present a pan-Amazonian assessment of how and why trees die, analysing over 120,000 trees representing > 3800 species from 189 long-term RAINFOR forest plots. While tree mortality rates vary greatly Amazon-wide, on average trees are as likely to die standing as they are broken or uprooted—modes of death with different ecological consequences. Species-level growth rate is the single most important predictor of tree death in Amazonia, with faster-growing species being at higher risk. Within species, however, the slowest-growing trees are at greatest risk while the effect of tree size varies across the basin. In the driest Amazonian region species-level bioclimatic distributional patterns also predict the risk of death, suggesting that these forests are experiencing climatic conditions beyond their adaptative limits. These results provide not only a holistic pan-Amazonian picture of tree death but large-scale evidence for the overarching importance of the growth–survival trade-off in driving tropical tree mortality.

    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    IPM-recommended insecticides harm beneficial insects through contaminated honeydew
    Calvo-Agudo, Miguel ; González-Cabrera, Joel ; Sadutto, Daniele ; Picó, Yolanda ; Urbaneja, Alberto ; Dicke, Marcel ; Tena, Alejandro - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 267 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Biological control - Ecotoxicology - Pesticides - Pollinator - Sublethal effects

    The use of some systemic insecticides has been banned in Europe because they are toxic to beneficial insects when these feed on nectar. A recent study shows that systemic insecticides can also kill beneficial insects when they feed on honeydew. Honeydew is the sugar-rich excretion of hemipterans and is the most abundant carbohydrate source for beneficial insects such as pollinators and biological control agents in agroecosystems. Here, we investigated whether the toxicity of contaminated honeydew depends on i) the hemipteran species that excretes the honeydew; ii) the active ingredient, and iii) the beneficial insect that feeds on it. HPLC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated that the systemic insecticides pymetrozine and flonicamid, which are commonly used in Integrated Pest Management programs, were present in honeydew excreted by the mealybug Planococcus citri. However, only pymetrozine was detected in honeydew excreted by the whitefly Aleurothixus floccosus. Toxicological studies demonstrated that honeydew excreted by mealybugs feeding on trees treated either with flonicamid or pymetrozine increased the mortality of the hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii, but did not affect the parasitic wasp Anagyrus vladimiri. Honeydew contaminated with flonicamid was more toxic for the hoverfly than that contaminated with pymetrozine. Collectively, our data demonstrate that systemic insecticides commonly used in IPM programs can contaminate honeydew and kill beneficial insects that feed on it, with their toxicity being dependent on the active ingredient and hemipteran species that excretes the honeydew. Insecticides recommended in Integrated Pest Management programs reach honeydew and kill beneficial insects that feed on it.

    IWMPRAISE - An EU horizon 2020 project providing integrated weed management solutions to European farmers
    Kudsk, P. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Bonin, L. ; Gonzalez-Andujar, J.L. ; Jensen, J.E. ; Melander, B. ; Moonen, C. ; Riemens, M.M. ; Sattin, M. ; Schaffner, U. ; Storkey, J. - \ 2020
    Outlooks on Pest Management 31 (2020)4. - ISSN 1743-1026 - p. 152 - 159.
    IWMPRAISE is the first EU Framework Research project focusing solely on weed management. Thirty-eight partners in eight European countries are working together on developing integrated weed management strategies for agricultural and horticultural crops. Per Kudsk, the coordinator of IWMPRAISE, and the work package leaders present the project, the on-going studies and some of the early outputs. Weeds are ubiquitous and cause substantial yield losses across all arable and horticultural systems. Currently, the reliance on herbicides is very high in conventional farming systems and in many European countries herbicides are the single most used group of pesticides (https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=aei_fm_salpest09&lang=en). There are several reasons for the high herbicide use, such as lack of threshold-based spraying decisions and lack of any single sufficiently effective, readily applicable, cost-effective non-chemical method. Nonetheless, two factors are driving an immediate need to change weed control practices in conventional farming: the rapidly increasing problem of herbicide resistance, exacerbated by the fact that no new herbicide sites of action have been marketed since the early 1980s, and the expectation that many of the currently used herbicides will be withdrawn from the EU market as they do not meet the human and environmental toxicity criteria set out in EU Regulation 1109/2009. In addition to these two immediate concerns, it has also been shown that herbicides have partly been responsible for recent declines in farmland biodiversity and hence a negative impact on the associated ecosystem services. The over-reliance on chemical control of weeds has highlighted the need for Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies that combine non-chemical management options that reduce either weed density or competition with the crop.
    Ein ungewisses Schicksal für den EU-Schweinesektor : mögliche Folgen des Ausbruchs der Afrikanischen Schweinpest im Jahr 2019 in Ostasien
    Jongeneel, Roel ; Gonzalez-Martinez, Ana ; Hoste, Robert - \ 2020
    EuroChoices (2020). - ISSN 1478-0917

    The presence of African Swine Fever (ASF) and its impacts on the global pig meat market has been gaining increased attention in recent times. Although more than 2,400 ASF events have been observed across the world since 2016, none of them have had the unprecedented consequences of the current outbreak in China. In an attempt to control the disease that has been spreading through East Asia since 2018, massive slaughtering has been taking place, with important consequences for both Chinese and international pork prices. With around half of the Chinese herd having to be slaughtered, a number of questions arise with regard to the prospects for the pork market and the uncertainties about the paths that prices will follow in responding to long-term market fundamentals. This article focuses on the impact of the ASF outbreak in East Asia on the European pig sector. In particular it analyses potential global pork market developments under two different recovery paths, employing a combination of an Equilibrium Displacement Model and the AGMEMOD modelling system, to provide results at EU and global levels to 2030. Our simulation results point to a short to medium-term expansion of production capacity in response to higher market prices.

    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology 165 (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 3023 - 3072.

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

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