Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Individual and cohort-specific gut microbiota patterns associated with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese males
    Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Reijnders, Dorien ; Kootte, Ruud S. ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Blaak, Ellen E. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the human gut microbiota plays a role in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, there is little consensus between studies, which could be due to biological as well as technical variation. In addition, little human data are available to investigate whether tissue-specific insulin sensitivity is related to specific microbial patterns. We examined this relation in two independent cohorts of overweight and obese pre-diabetic men, using phylogenetic microarray data and hepatic, peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity that were determined by a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]-glucose tracer infusion. Despite a prominent subject-specific microbiota, we found significant associations of microbial taxa with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity using regression analysis. Using random forests we found moderate associations with other measures of glucose homeostasis in only one of the cohorts (fasting glucose concentrations AUC = 0.66 and HbA1c AUC = 0.65). However, all findings were cohort-specific due to pronounced variation in microbiota between cohorts, suggesting the existence of alternative states for dysbiosis in metabolic syndrome patients. Our findings suggest individual or group related dynamics, instead of universal microbiota signals, related to the host when the overweight or obese state has already developed and argue that care should be taken with extrapolating significant correlations from single cohorts, into generalized biological relevance.

    Evaluating the SandFlow, an acoustic sediment transport sensor
    Rezaei, Mahrooz ; Goossens, Dirk ; Riksen, Michel J.P.M. - \ 2020
    Aeolian Research 42 (2020). - ISSN 1875-9637
    Acoustic sensor - Sand transport - SandFlow - Wind

    The SandFlow is an acoustic device for detecting and measuring aeolian sand transport. It is based on the FlowCapt sensor, an instrument developed to measure aeolian snow transport. This study investigates the performance of the SandFlow in relation to the Saltiphone and the Modified Wilson and Cooke sampler, two devices frequently used in aeolian sand transport. The performance of the SandFlow was tested during three wind erosion events on the Dutch barrier island Terschelling and also in laboratory tests. Results show that the SandFlow adequately registers the periods of aeolian sand transport provided sand transport is sufficiently intense. For low sand transport the SandFlow is less accurate, although the periods with sand transport may still be detected. The sand transport fluxes measured by the SandFlow were lower than those measured by the MWAC although they remained within the same order of magnitude. Laboratory measurements showed that the efficiency of the SandFlow to register sand transport is close to 100% for sand coarser than 300 µm. For finer sand, efficiency decreases rapidly although the instrument remains usable for particles coarser than 150 µm provided appropriate corrections for efficiency are made. This study shows that the SandFlow can be used for aeolian sand transport provided the erosion event is strong enough and the particles are not too fine.

    Acquisition and regeneration of Spinacia turkestanica Iljin and S. tetrandra Steven ex M. Bieb. to improve a spinach gene bank collection
    Treuren, R. van; Groot, E.C. de; Hisoriev, H. ; Khassanov, F. ; Farzaliyev, V. ; Melyan, G. ; Gabrielyan, I. ; Soest, L.J.M. ; Tulmans, C. ; Courand, D. de; Visser, J. de; Kimura, R. ; Boshoven, J.C. ; Kanda, T. ; Goossens, R. ; Verhoef, M. ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Kik, C. - \ 2020
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 67 (2020). - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 549 - 559.
    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a highly nutritious leafy vegetable and an economically important food crop. The wild species S. turkestanica Iljin and S. tetrandra Steven ex M. Bieb. are inter-fertile with cultivated spinach and constitute important sources of novel characters to improve spinach varieties, such as for their resistance to pests and diseases. Despite their relevance in plant breeding, S. turkestanica and S. tetrandra are poorly represented in genetic resources collections. Among the reasons for these collection gaps are the difficulties in propagating these species ex situ. Here we report on the results of collecting expeditions for S. turkestanica in Central Asia and for S. tetrandra in the Trans-Caucasus, which were organized by the Dutch gene bank in collaboration with several breeding companies. Furthermore, we also present efficient protocols for the ex situ regeneration of these species. These protocols were used to successfully regenerate 66 S. turkestanica and 36 S. tetrandra samples from the collecting expeditions. These new accessions fill up important collection gaps in ex situ conserved genetic resources of spinach and can be used for exploitation in crop improvement.
    Butyrate affects broiler gut health, depending on its presence in distinct digestive tract segments
    Goossens, Tim ; Moquet, P.C.A. ; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2019
    Dispatch from the field II: The mystery of the red and blue Opadometa male (Araneae, Tetragnathidae, Opadometa sarawakensis)
    Miller, Jeremy A. ; Freund, Christian ; Rambonnet, Liselotte ; Koets, Lianne ; Barth, Nadine ; Linden, Corné van der; Geml, József ; Schilthuizen, Menno ; Burger, Richard ; Goossens, Benoit - \ 2018
    Biodiversity Data Journal 6 (2018). - ISSN 1314-2828
    Borneo - Orb web - Sexual size dimorphism - Spider - Tropical field course

    Background Males of Opadometa are difficult to associate with conspecific females, and sex-matching errors may persist in the taxonomic literature. Recommended best practices for definitive sex matching in this genus suggest finding a male in the web of a female, or better yet, mating pairs. New information A male Opadometa was observed hanging on a frame line of the web of a female Opadometa sarawakensis, a species for which the male was previously undescribed. This occurred during a tropical ecology field course held at the Danau Girang Field Centre in Sabah, Malaysia. A taxonomic description was completed as a course activity.

    Effects of gut microbiota manipulation on ex vivo lipolysis in human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes
    Jocken, Johan W.E. ; Reijnders, Dorien ; Canfora, Emanuel E. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Plat, Joghum ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2018
    Adipocyte 7 (2018)2. - ISSN 2162-3945 - p. 106 - 112.
    Adipose Tissue - Fatty acid metabolism - Insulin resistance - Lipolysis - Microbiota - Obesity

    The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by affecting host lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. To investigate the effects of microbiota manipulation on ex vivo basal and β-adrenergically-stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes, 36 obese men were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic) or placebo treatment (7 d, 1500 mg/d). Before and after treatment, ex vivo adipose tissue lipolysis was assessed under basal conditions and during stimulation with the non-selective β-agonist isoprenaline using freshly isolated mature adipocytes. Gene (targeted microarray) and protein expression were analyzed to investigate underlying pathways. Antibiotics treatment did not significantly affect basal and maximal isoprenaline-mediated glycerol release from adipocytes. Adipose tissue β-adrenoceptor expression or post-receptor signalling was also not different between groups. In conclusion, 7 d oral antibiotics treatment has no effect on ex vivo lipolysis in mature adipocytes derived from adipose tissue of obese insulin resistant men.

    The effects of polyphenol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression in overweight and obese humans
    Most, Jasper ; Warnke, Ines ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Jocken, Johan W.E. ; Groot, Philip de; Friedel, Angelika ; Bendik, Igor ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2018
    Adipocyte 7 (2018)3. - ISSN 2162-397X - p. 190 - 196.
    Adipose tissue - EGCG - Morphology - Obesity - Resveratrol - Transcriptomics

    Dietary polyphenols have beneficial effects on adipose tissue mass and function in rodents, but human studies are scarce. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 25 (10 women) overweight and obese humans received a combination of the polyphenols epigallocatechin-gallate and resveratrol (282 mg/d, 80 mg/d, respectively, EGCG+RES, n = 11) or placebo (PLA, n = 14) supplementation for 12 weeks. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies were collected for assessment of adipocyte morphology and micro-array analysis. EGCG+RES had no effects on adipocyte size and distribution compared with PLA. However, we identified pathways contributing to adipogenesis, cell cycle and apoptosis were significantly downregulated by EGCG+RES versus PLA. Furthermore, EGCG+RES significantly decreased expression of pathways related to energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune defense as compared with PLA. In conclusion, the SAT gene expression profile indicates a reduced cell turnover after 12-week EGCG+RES in overweight-obese subjects. It remains to be elucidated whether these alterations translate into long-term metabolic effects.

    Short-Term Microbiota Manipulation and Forearm Substrate Metabolism in Obese Men : A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
    Reijnders, Dorien ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2018
    Obesity Facts 11 (2018). - ISSN 1662-4025 - p. 318 - 326.

    Objective: To investigate the impact of gut microbiota manipulation on fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle metabolism in humans. Methods: 40 obese, insulin-resistant males were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic), or placebo (7 days, 1,500 mg/day). Before and after treatment, forearm blood flow and metabolite fluxes across forearm muscle were measured under fasting and postprandial (high-fat mixed-meal) conditions. Results: Vancomycin decreased bacterial diversity, reduced the abundance of Gram-positive Firmicutes, and increased the abundance of Gram-negative Proteobacteria, whereas amoxicillin did not affect microbial composition. Neither vancomycin nor amoxicillin treatment affected fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), glycerol, lactate, and insulin concentrations or forearm blood flow. Fasting and postprandial net forearm muscle glucose uptake and the release of lactate were not significantly altered by antibiotic treatment as compared to placebo. Finally, antibiotic treatment did not change fasting and postprandial glycerol, FFA, and TAG fluxes across forearm muscle. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that short-term antibiotic treatment has no effects on fasting and postprandial forearm substrate metabolism and blood flow in obese men with impaired glucose metabolism. These data suggest that short-term strategies targeting the gut microbiota to improve metabolic health may not be effective in obese humans.

    Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operation on different measuring priciples
    Goossens, Dirk ; Nolet, C. ; Etyemezian, Vicken ; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo ; Bakker, G. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. - \ 2018
    Aeolian Research 32 (2018). - ISSN 1875-9637 - p. 1 - 13.
    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as hey pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The
    strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.
    A translational synthetic biology platform for rapid access to gram-scale quantities of novel drug-like molecules
    Reed, James ; Stephenson, Michael J. ; Miettinen, K. ; Brouwer, Bas ; Leveau, Aymeric ; Brett, Paul ; Goss, Rebecca J.M. ; Goossens, A. ; O'Connell, M. ; Osbourn, Anne - \ 2017
    Metabolic Engineering 42 (2017). - ISSN 1096-7176 - p. 185 - 193.
    Plants are an excellent source of drug leads. However availability is limited by access to source species, low abundance and recalcitrance to chemical synthesis. Although plant genomics is yielding a wealth of genes for natural product biosynthesis, the translation of this genetic information into small molecules for evaluation as drug leads represents a major bottleneck. For example, the yeast platform for artemisinic acid production is estimated to have taken >150 person years to develop. Here we demonstrate the power of plant transient transfection technology for rapid, scalable biosynthesis and isolation of triterpenes, one of the largest and most structurally diverse families of plant natural products. Using pathway engineering and improved agro-infiltration methodology we are able to generate gram-scale quantities of purified triterpene in just a few weeks. In contrast to heterologous expression in microbes, this system does not depend on re-engineering of the host. We next exploit agro-infection for quick and easy combinatorial biosynthesis without the need for generation of multi-gene constructs, so affording an easy entrée to suites of molecules, some new-to-nature, that are recalcitrant to chemical synthesis. We use this platform to purify a suite of bespoke triterpene analogs and demonstrate differences in anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activity in bioassays, providing proof of concept of this system for accessing and evaluating medicinally important bioactives. Together with new genome mining algorithms for plant pathway discovery and advances in plant synthetic biology, this advance provides new routes to synthesize and access previously inaccessible natural products and analogs and has the potential to reinvigorate drug discovery pipelines.
    60 procent meldingen op essentaksterfte.nu betreft zieke bomen
    Copini, P. ; Buiteveld, J. ; Wiersma, Hinke ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Goossens, Sander - \ 2017
    Nature Today (2017).
    Supplementation of Diet With Galacto-oligosaccharides Increases Bifidobacteria, but Not Insulin Sensitivity, in Obese Prediabetic Individuals
    Canfora, Emanuel E. ; Beek, Christina M. van der; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Jocken, Johan W.E. ; Holst, Jens J. ; Eijk, Hans M. van; Venema, Koen ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Dejong, Cornelis H.C. ; Lenaerts, Kaatje ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2017
    Gastroenterology 153 (2017)1. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 87 - 97.
    Metabolic Control - Microbial Obesity - Prebiotics - Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    Background & Aims: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigated the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. Methods: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 y) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands. The participants were assigned randomly to groups who ingested 15 g GOS or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin) daily with their regular meals for 12 weeks. Before and after this period, we collected data on peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, fecal microbiota composition, plasma and fecal SCFA, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation, body composition, and hormonal and inflammatory responses. The primary outcome was the effect of GOS on peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. Results: Supplementation of diets with GOS, but not placebo, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium species in feces by 5-fold (P = .009; q = 0.144). Microbial richness or diversity in fecal samples were not affected. We did not observe any differences in fecal or fasting plasma SCFA concentrations or in systemic concentrations of gut-derived hormones, incretins, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, or other markers of inflammation. In addition, no significant alterations in peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, body composition, and energy and substrate metabolism were found. Conclusions: Twelve-week supplementation of GOS selectively increased fecal Bifidobacterium species abundance, but this did not produce significant changes in insulin sensitivity or related substrate and energy metabolism in overweight or obese prediabetic men and women. ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT02271776.

    Diet-induced weight loss decreases adipose tissue oxygen tension with parallel changes in adipose tissue phenotype and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans
    Vink, R.G. ; Roumans, N.J. ; Čajlaković, M. ; Cleutjens, J.P.M. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Fazelzadeh, P. ; Vogel, M.A.A. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Mariman, E.C. ; Baak, M.A. van; Goossens, G.H. - \ 2017
    International Journal of Obesity 41 (2017)5. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 722 - 728.

    Background/objectives: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss (WL) on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO 2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary density, AT morphology and transcriptome, systemic inflammatory markers and insulin sensitivity in humans. Subjects/methods: Fifteen overweight and obese individuals underwent a dietary intervention (DI), consisting of a 5-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, 500 kcal day -1; WL), and a subsequent 4-week weight stable diet (WS). Body composition, AT pO 2 (optochemical monitoring), ATBF (133 Xe washout), and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined, and AT biopsies were collected at baseline, end of WL (week 5) and end of WS (week 9). Result: Body weight, body fat percentage and adipocyte size decreased significantly during the DI period. The DI markedly decreased AT pO 2 and improved insulin sensitivity, but did not alter ATBF. Finally, the DI increased AT gene expression of pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Conclusions: VLCD-induced WL markedly decreases abdominal subcutaneous AT pO 2, which is paralleled by a reduction in adipocyte size, increased AT gene expression of mitochondrial biogenesis markers and non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption pathways, and improved whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans.

    Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) prevalence in associated populations of humans and small ruminants in The Gambia
    Bok, Jeroen ; Hogerwerf, L. ; Germeraad, Eveline A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Faye-Joof, Tisbeh ; Jeng, M. ; Nwakanma, D. ; Secka, A. ; Stegeman, A. ; Goossens, B. ; Wegmüller, Rita ; Sande, M.T. van der; Hoek, W. ; Secka, A. - \ 2017
    Tropical Medicine and International Health 22 (2017)3. - ISSN 1360-2276 - p. 323 - 331.
    Objectives To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. Methods Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C. burnetii. Results 3.8% to 9.7% of adults, depending on ELISA test cutoff, and 24.9% of small ruminants in Kiang West were seropositive. Having at least one seropositive animal in one's compound was a risk factor for human seropositivity (OR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.09-14.44). A grazing area within a village was a risk factor for seropositivity in small ruminants (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26-3.50); others were having lambed (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76), and older age of the animals (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.37-5.76 for 1-3 years and OR 5.84, 95% CI: 3.10-11.64 for >3 years). 57.4% of sampled small ruminants were shedding C. burnetii. Conclusion C. burnetii infection is endemic among both humans and small ruminants in this area of The Gambia. Human and animal exposure to C. burnetii were related at compound-level. Further research into the clinical relevance of C. burnetii infection in West Africa is needed.
    Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil
    Martins Bento, Celia ; Goossens, Dirk ; Rezaei, Mahrooz ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2017
    Environmental Pollution 220 (2017)Part B. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 1079 - 1089.
    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 μm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application. Granulometrical extraction was done using a wind tunnel and a Soil Fine Particle Extractor. Extractions were conducted on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after glyphosate application. Results indicated that glyphosate and AMPA contents were significantly higher in the finest particle fractions (median diameters between 8 and 18 μm), and lowered significantly with the increase in particle size. However, their content remained constant when aggregates were present in the sample. Glyphosate and AMPA contents correlated positively with clay, organic matter, and silt content. The dissipation of glyphosate over time was very low, which was most probably due to the low soil moisture content of the sediment. Consequently, the formation of AMPA was also very low. The low dissipation of glyphosate in our study indicates that the risk of glyphosate transport in dry sediment to off-target areas by wind can be very high. The highest glyphosate and AMPA contents were found in the smallest soil fractions (PM10 and less), which are easily inhaled and, therefore, contribute to human exposure.
    Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: a Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial
    Reijnders, Dorien ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Neis, Evelien P.J.G. ; Beek, Christina M. van der; Most, Jasper ; Holst, Jens J. ; Lenaerts, Kaatje ; Kootte, Ruud S. ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Groen, Albert K. ; Boekschoten, Mark ; Hermes, Gerben ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Dejong, Cornelis H.C. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University
    Homo sapiens - GSE76003 - Homo sapiens - GSE76003 - PRJNA305937
    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans.
    Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans : A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
    Reijnders, Dorien ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Neis, Evelien P.J.G. ; Beek, Christina M. van der; Most, Jasper ; Holst, Jens J. ; Lenaerts, Kaatje ; Kootte, Ruud S. ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Groen, Albert K. ; Olde Damink, Steven W.M. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Dejong, Cornelis H.C. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2016
    Cell Metabolism 24 (2016)1. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 63 - 74.

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans.

    Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 and Postprandial Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in Overweight and Obese Prediabetics
    Kolk, Birgitta W. van der; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Jocken, Johan W. ; Kersten, Sander ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2016
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 101 (2016)6. - ISSN 0021-972X - p. 2332 - 2339.
    Context: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) decreases plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) clearance by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and may contribute to impairments in lipid metabolism under compromised metabolic conditions. Objectives: To investigate the effects of a high-saturated fatty acid (SFA) mixed meal on plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in relation to in vivo muscle LPL activity, to study the effects of dietary fat quality, and to examine skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 release. Design, Participants, Setting, and Interventions: We used a dual stable-isotope tracer technique in combination with measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences across forearm muscle to investigate muscle ANGPTL4 secretion and fatty acid handling under fasting conditions and after a high-SFA mixed meal in 73 overweight and obese humans at the Metabolic Research Unit of Maastricht University. The effect of dietary fat quality manipulation on plasma ANGPTL4 was investigated in 10 obese insulin-resistant participants. Results: The high-SFA meal decreased circulating ANGPTL4 concentrations (fasting, 5.2 ng/mL; vs 4 hours postprandial, 4.0 ng/mL; P < .001). Furthermore, skeletal muscle ANGPTL4 secretion into the circulation was observed (AUC0–4 h, P = .048). However, no association was observed between plasma ANGPTL4 and skeletal muscle very low-density lipoprotein or dietary (chylomicron) TAG extraction (AUC0–4 h, P = .372 and P = .139, respectively). In contrast to a high-SFA or high-monounsaturated fat meal, plasma ANGPTL4 remained unchanged after a high-polyunsaturated fat meal. Conclusions: ANGPTL4 is secreted by human forearm muscle in postprandial conditions after a high-SFA meal. Plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations were not associated with in vivo skeletal muscle LPL activity after a high-SFA meal. Dietary fat quality affects plasma ANGPTL4, but it remains to be elucidated whether this influences short-term skeletal muscle lipid handling. “This human in vivo study showed ANGPTL4 secretion from forearm muscle after a high-fat meal. Plasma ANGPTL4 was not associated with muscle LPL activity, but was affected by dietary fat quality
    Combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol supplementation for 12 wk increases mitochondrial capacity and fat oxidation, but not insulin sensitivity, in obese humans: a randomized controlled trial
    Most, Jasper ; Timmers, S. ; Warnke, I. ; Jocken, J.J.W. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Groot, Philip de; Bendik, Igor ; Schrauwen, Patrick ; Goossens, Gijs H. ; Blaak, Ellen E. - \ 2016
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104 (2016)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 215 - 227.
    Background: The obese insulin-resistant state is characterized by
    impairments in lipid metabolism.We previously showed that 3-d supplementation
    of combined epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol
    (EGCG+RES) increased energy expenditure and improved the
    capacity to switch from fat toward carbohydrate oxidation with
    a high-fat mixed meal (HFMM) test in men.
    Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the longer-term
    effect of EGCG+RES supplementation on metabolic profile, mitochondrial
    capacity, fat oxidation, lipolysis, and tissue-specific insulin
    sensitivity.
    Design: In this randomized double-blind study, 38 overweight
    and obese subjects [18 men; aged 38 6 2 y; body mass index
    (kg/m2): 29.7 6 0.5] received either EGCG+RES (282 and
    80 mg/d, respectively) or placebo for 12 wk. Before and after the
    intervention, oxidative capacity and gene expression were assessed
    in skeletal muscle. Fasting and postprandial (HFMM) lipid metabolism
    was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, blood sampling,
    and microdialysis. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed
    by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with [6,6-2H2]-glucose
    infusion.
    Results: EGCG+RES supplementation did not affect the fasting
    plasma metabolic profile. Although whole-body fat mass was not
    affected, visceral adipose tissue mass tended to decrease after the
    intervention compared with placebo (P-time 3 treatment = 0.09).
    EGCG+RES supplementation significantly increased oxidative capacity
    in permeabilized muscle fibers (P-time 3 treatment ,
    0.05, P-EGCG+RES , 0.05). Moreover, EGCG+RES reduced fasting
    (P-time 3 treatment = 0.03) and postprandial respiratory quotient
    (P-time 3 treatment = 0.01) compared with placebo. Fasting and
    postprandial fat oxidation was not significantly affected by EGCG
    +RES (P-EGCG+RES = 0.46 and 0.38, respectively) but declined
    after placebo (P-placebo = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively). Energy expenditure
    was not altered (P-time 3 treatment = 0.96). Furthermore,
    EGCG+RES supplementation attenuated the increase in plasma
    triacylglycerol concentrations during the HFMM test that was observed
    after placebo (P-time 3 treatment = 0.04, P-placebo =
    0.01). Finally, EGCG+RES had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose
    disposal, suppression of endogenous glucose production, or
    lipolysis.
    Conclusion: Twelve weeks of EGCG+RES supplementation increased
    mitochondrial capacity and stimulated fat oxidation compared
    with placebo, but this did not translate into increased tissue-specific
    insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese subjects. This trial was
    registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02381145. Am J Clin Nutr
    doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.122937.
    Keywords: insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial capacity, obesity,
    polyphenols, resveratrol
    Designing green and blue infrastructure to support healthy urban living
    Gehrels, H. ; Meulen, Suzanne van der; Schasfoort, F. ; Bosch, Peter ; Brolsma, R. ; Dinther, D. van; Geerling, G.J. ; Goossens, M. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; jong, de, Merijn ; Kok, Sien ; Massop, H.T.L. - \ 2016
    TO2 Federatie - 109
    This report focuses on developing concepts and design principles for blue and green infrastructure that not only support climate resilience but also contribute to a healthy and liveable urban environment. We will first assess the effectiveness of blue and green infrastructure on the basis of available literature and experience from the city of Utrecht. Secondly, we will formulate principles for the design of blue and green infrastructure in the urban landscape.
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