Habitat banking and its challenges in a densely populated country : The case of the Netherlands
Gorissen, Mechtilde M.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Schaminée, Johannes H.J. - \ 2020
Sustainability 12 (2020)9. - ISSN 2071-1050
Evolving human-nature relationships - Habitat banking - Integral area development - Nature compensation - Socialization of nature - Socio-ecological learning - Sustainable development - Voluntary compensation
Due to a growing population, urbanization, industrialization and agriculture, the quality of nature and biodiversity globally has decreased enormously. This also applies to The Netherlands. Habitat banking is a market-based instrument for nature conservation and sustainable development to counteract this decrease. We analyze under which conditions habitat banking can indeed offer possibilities and opportunities for improving biodiversity, nature conservation and sustainable development in The Netherlands. For this, we first identify the shortcomings of mandatory nature compensation in The Netherlands and link them to current innovations in Dutch nature policy. In addition, we investigate three necessary instruments for a successful habitat banking system: (1) a system for nature valuation, (2) a method for creating ecological opportunity maps, and (3) the institutional setting in which habitat banking can be operationalized. We conclude that habitat banking contributes to solving the problems for nature and biodiversity and to sustainable development in The Netherlands, provided that this is primarily addressed (i) in the domain of voluntary nature compensation, (ii) in bottom-up pilots for integrated area development (in this article shortly referred to as area pilots) where the widest possible range of owners and users of these areas is involved, (iii) in a context of participatory decision-making and (iv) learning and experiment en route to social-ecological systems (SESs). To actually realize the added value of habitat banking for The Netherlands, further scientific research is required to collect and analyze empirical data from relevant stakeholders.
Protein Type, Protein Dose, and Age Modulate Dietary Protein Digestion and Phenylalanine Absorption Kinetics and Plasma Phenylalanine Availability in Humans
Gorissen, Stefan H.M. ; Trommelen, Jorn ; Kouw, Imre W.K. ; Holwerda, Andrew M. ; Pennings, Bart ; Groen, Bart B.L. ; Wall, Benjamin T. ; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A. ; Horstman, Astrid M.H. ; Koopman, René ; Burd, Nicholas A. ; Fuchs, Cas J. ; Dirks, Marlou L. ; Res, Peter T. ; Senden, Joan M.G. ; Steijns, Jan M.J.M. ; De groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. ; Verdijk, Lex B. ; van Loon, Luc J.C. - \ 2020
The Journal of Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0022-3166
Background Dietary protein ingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis by providing amino acids to the muscle. The magnitude and duration of the postprandial increase in muscle protein synthesis rates are largely determined by dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics. Objective We assessed the impact of protein type, protein dose, and age on dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics in vivo in humans. Methods We included data from 18 randomized controlled trials with a total of 602 participants [age: 53 ± 23 y; BMI (kg/m2): 24.8 ± 3.3] who consumed various quantities of intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine–labeled whey (n = 137), casein (n = 393), or milk (n = 72) protein and received intravenous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, which allowed us to assess protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics and the postprandial release of dietary protein–derived phenylalanine into the circulation. The effect of aging on these processes was assessed in a subset of 82 young (aged 22 ± 3 y) and 83 older (aged 71 ± 5 y) individuals. Results A total of 50% ± 14% of dietary protein–derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation over a 5-h postprandial period. Casein ingestion resulted in a smaller (45% ± 11%), whey protein ingestion in an intermediate (57% ± 10%), and milk protein ingestion in a greater (65% ± 13%) fraction of dietary protein–derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation (P < 0.001). The postprandial availability of dietary protein–derived phenylalanine in the circulation increased with the ingestion of greater protein doses (P < 0.05). Protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics were attenuated in older when compared with young individuals, with 45% ± 10% vs. 51% ± 14% of dietary protein–derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions Protein type, protein dose, and age modulate dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics and subsequent postprandial plasma amino acid availability in vivo in humans. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00557388, NCT00936039, NCT00991523, NCT01317511, NCT01473576, NCT01576848, NCT01578590, NCT01615276, NCT01680146, NCT01820975, NCT01986842, and NCT02596542, and at http://www.trialregister.nl as NTR3638, NTR3885, NTR4060, NTR4429, and NTR4492.
Van dominee tot koopman? : Habitatbanking in Nederland
Gorissen, M.M.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Ruijs, A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2017-030) - ISBN 9789463431026 - 116
This report focuses on whether voluntary nature compensation has added value for biodiversity in the
Netherlands, and on whether habitat banking could be a supplement to the existing Dutch system of
mandatory nature compensation. In essence, habitat banking is the realisation of nature in exchange
for ‘rights’, which are subsequently traded and bought by parties who wish to compensate for their
detrimental effect on nature. The Netherlands does not have any practical experience with habitat
banking. It is recommended to facilitate room for learning and experimentation for habitat banking in
pilot areas. The required various instruments and frameworks are elaborated in this report.
Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial
Gorissen, S.H. ; Horstman, Astrid ; Franssen, Rinske ; Kouw, I.W. ; Wall, B.T. ; Burd, N.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2017
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 105 (2017)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 332 - 342.
Background: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. Objective: We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Design: Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg–1 · d−1; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg–1 · d–1; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and l-[1-13C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine– and l-[1-13C]-leucine–labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Results: Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P < 0.01) with no differences between treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P < 0.01), with no differences between treatments (P = 0.25). Conclusion: Habituation to LOW PRO (0.7 g · kg–1 · d–1) compared with HIGH PRO (1.5 g · kg–1 · d–1) augments the postprandial availability of dietary protein–derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01986842.
Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus : Differences between day and night
Manuel, R. ; Boerrigter, J.G.J. ; Cloosterman, M. ; Gorissen, M. ; Flik, G. ; Bos, R. van den; Vis, H. van de - \ 2016
Journal of Fish Biology 88 (2016)6. - ISSN 0022-1112 - p. 2175 - 2187.
Behaviour - Clarias gariepinus - Photoperiod - Skin lesions
African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1lx) or 12L:12D (350-0lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower.
Effects on aggression and the cortisol response following acute stress in the African catfish: differences between day and night
Manuel, R. ; Boerrigter, J.G.J. ; Cloosterman, Myrdhin ; Gorissen, M. ; Flik, G. ; Bos, Ruud van den; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2015
- 2 p.
The impact of habitual protein intake on dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in older males
Gorissen, S.H. ; Horstman, A. ; Franssen, R. ; Kouw, I.W. ; Kramer, I.F. ; Wall, B.T. ; Burd, N.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2015
In: Abstracts of the ESPEN Congress 2015. - - p. S4 - S4.
The effects of environmental enrichment and age-related differences on inhibitory avoidance in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton)
Manuel, R. ; Gorissen, M. ; Stokkermans, M. ; Zethof, J. ; Ebbesson, L.O.E. ; Vis, J.W. van de; Flik, G. ; Bos, R. van den - \ 2015
Zebrafish 12 (2015)2. - ISSN 1545-8547 - p. 152 - 165.
corticotropin-releasing-factor - binding-protein - rearing environment - neurotrophic factor - emotional memory - factor crf - rat-brain - stress - fish - expression
The inhibitory avoidance paradigm allows the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton). For zebrafish, the physiology and behavior associated with this paradigm are as yet poorly understood. We therefore assessed the effects of environmental enrichment and fish age on inhibitory avoidance learning. Fish raised in an environmentally enriched tank showed decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploration. Enrichment greatly reduced inhibitory avoidance in 6-month (6M)- and 12-month (12M)-old fish. Following inhibitory avoidance, telencephalic mRNA levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), neurogenic differentiation (neurod), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript 4 (cart4), and cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1) were lower in enriched-housed fish, while the ratios of mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2)/glucocorticoid receptor a [nr3c1(a)] and glucocorticoid receptor ß [nr3c1(ß)]/glucocorticoid receptor a [nr3c1(a)] were higher. This was observed for 6M-old fish only, not for 24-month (24M) old fish. Instead, 24M-old fish showed delayed inhibitory avoidance, no effects of enrichment, and reduced expression of neuroplasticity genes. Overall, our data show strong differences in inhibitory avoidance behavior between zebrafish of different ages and a clear reduction in avoidance behavior following housing under environmental enrichment.
Unpredictable chronic stress decreases inhibitory avoidance learning in Tuebingen long-fin zebrafish: stronger effects in the resting phase than in the active phase
Manuel, Remy ; Gorissen, Marnix ; Zethof, Jan ; Ebbesson, Lars O.E. ; Vis, Hans van de; Flik, Gert ; Bos, Ruud van den - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Biology 217 (2014)21. - ISSN 0022-0949 - p. 3919 - 3928.
Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton) are increasingly used as a model to study the effects of chronic stress on brain and behaviour. In rodents, unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) has a stronger effect on physiology and behaviour during the active phase than during the resting phase. Here, we applied UCS during the daytime (active phase) for 7 and 14 days or during the night-time (resting phase) for 7 nights in an in-house-reared Tuebingen long-fin (TLF) zebrafish strain. Following UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning was assessed using a 3 day protocol where fish learn to avoid swimming from a white to a black compartment where they will receive a 3 V shock. Latencies of entering the black compartment were recorded before training (day 1; first shock) and after training on day 2 (second shock) and day 3 (no shock, tissue sampling). Fish whole-body cortisol content and expression levels of genes related to stress, fear and anxiety in the telencephalon were quantified. Following 14 days of UCS during the day, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latencies on days 2 and 3); minor effects were found following 7 days of UCS. Following 7 nights of UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latency on day 3). Whole-body cortisol levels showed a steady increase compared with controls (100%) from 7 days of UCS (139%), to 14 days of UCS (174%) to 7 nights of UCS (231%), suggestive of an increasing stress load. Only in the 7 nights of UCS group did expression levels of corticoid receptor genes (mr, grα, grβ) and of bdnf increase. These changes are discussed as adaptive mechanisms to maintain neuronal integrity and prevent overload, and as being indicative of a state of high stress load. Overall, our data suggest that stressors during the resting phase have a stronger impact than during the active phase. Our data warrant further studies on the effect of UCS on stress axis-related genes, especially grβ; in mammals this receptor has been implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and depression.
Inhibitory Avoidance Learning in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio): Effects of Shock Intensity and Unraveling Differences in Task Performance
Manuel, Remy ; Gorissen, Marnix ; Piza Roca, Carme ; Zethof, Jan ; Vis, Hans van de; Flik, Gert ; Bos, Ruud van den - \ 2014
Zebrafish 11 (2014)4. - ISSN 1545-8547 - p. 341 - 352.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly used as a model in neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine studies. The inhibitory avoidance paradigm has been proposed as tool to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory in zebrafish. In this paradigm subjects receive a shock after entering the black compartment of a black-white box. On the next day, latency to enter the black compartment is assessed; higher latencies are indicative of increased avoidance learning. Here, we aimed to understand the effects of different shock intensities (0, 1, 3, and 9V) and to unravel variation in inhibitory avoidance learning in an in-house reared Tuebingen Long-Fin zebrafish (D. rerio) strain. While median latencies had increased in the 1, 3, and 9V groups, no increase in median latency was found in the 0V group. In addition, higher shock intensities resulted in a higher number of avoiders (latency ‡180 s) over nonavoiders (latency <60 s). Both changes are indicative of increased avoidance learning. We assessed whole-body cortisol content and the expression levels of genes relevant to stress, anxiety, fear, and learning 2 h after testing. Shock intensity was associated with whole-body cortisol content and the expression of glucocorticoid receptor alpha [nr3c1(alpha)], cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart4), and mineralocorticoid receptor (nr3c2), while avoidance behavior was associated with whole-body cortisol content only. The inhibitory avoidance paradigm in combination with measuring whole-body cortisol content and gene expression is suitable to unravel (genetic) mechanisms of fear avoidance learning. Our data further show differences in brain-behavior relationships underlying fear avoidance learning and memory in zebrafish. These findings serve as starting point for further unraveling differences in brain-behavior relationships underlying (fear avoidance) learning and memory in zebrafish.
A step towards underpinning the molecular signalling events regulating muscle protein loss in critically ill patients
Kouw, I.W. ; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Gorissen, S.H. - \ 2011
Journal of Physiology 589 (2011)24. - ISSN 0022-3751 - p. 5925 - 5926.
skeletal-muscle - turnover
Carbon and nitrogen balances for six shrublands across Europe
Beier, C. ; Emmett, B.A. ; Tietema, A. ; Schmidt, I.K. ; Penuelas, J. ; Lang, E.K. ; Duce, P. ; Angelis, P. de; Gorissen, A. ; Estiarte, M. ; Dato, G.D. de; Sowerby, A. ; Kroel-Dulay, G. ; Lellei-Kovacs, E. ; Kull, O. ; Mand, P. ; Petersen, H. ; Gjelstrup, P. ; Spano, D. - \ 2009
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009). - ISSN 0886-6236 - 13 p.
microbial biomass-c - climate-change - terrestrial ecosystems - soil respiration - forest ecosystems - extraction method - global patterns - elevated co2 - drought - responses
Shrublands constitute significant and important parts of European landscapes providing a large number of important ecosystem services. Biogeochemical cycles in these ecosystems have gained little attention relative to forests and grassland systems, but data on such cycles are required for developing and testing ecosystem models. As climate change progresses, the potential feedback from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere through changes in carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and general knowledge on biogeochemical cycles becomes increasingly important. Here we present carbon and nitrogen balances of six shrublands along a climatic gradient across the European continent. The aim of the study was to provide a basis for assessing the range and variability in carbon storage in European shrublands. Across the sites the net carbon storage in the systems ranged from 1,163 g C m(-2) to 18,546 g C m(-2), and the systems ranged from being net sinks (126 g C m(-2) a(-1)) to being net sources (-536 g C m(-2) a(-1)) of carbon with the largest storage and sink of carbon at wet and cold climatic conditions. The soil carbon store dominates the carbon budget at all sites and in particular at the site with a cold and wet climate where soil C constitutes 95% of the total carbon in the ecosystem. Respiration of carbon from the soil organic matter pool dominated the carbon loss at all sites while carbon loss from aboveground litter decomposition appeared less important. Total belowground carbon allocation was more than 5 times aboveground litterfall carbon which is significantly greater than the factor of 2 reported in a global analysis of forest data. Nitrogen storage was also dominated by the soil pools generally showing small losses except when atmospheric N input was high. The study shows that in the future a climate-driven land cover change between grasslands and shrublands in Europe will likely lead to increased ecosystem C where shrublands are promoted and less where grasses are promoted. However, it also emphasizes that if feedbacks on the global carbon cycle are to be predicted it is critically important to quantify and understand belowground carbon allocation and processes as well as soil carbon pools, particularly on wet organic soils, rather than plant functional change as the soil stores dominate the overall budget and fluxes of carbon
Influence of foot conformation on length of competitive life in a Dutch warmblood horse population.
Ducro, B.J. ; Gorissen, B.M.C. ; Eldik, P. van; Back, W. - \ 2009
Equine Veterinary Journal 41 (2009)2. - ISSN 0425-1644 - p. 144 - 148.
swedish warmblood - longevity - traits
Reasons for performing study: Warmblood horse studbooks aim to breed horses with a conformation that will enable elite future sports performance, but reduce the risk of early retirement due to lameness. Negative conformational traits, such as asymmetrical or 'uneven' forefeet may possibly shorten the career of sporthorses. Objectives: To investigate the significance of foot conformation at young age to duration of the career of sporthorses. Methods: Databases of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) and of the Royal Dutch Equestrian Sports Federation (KNHS) were matched and resulted in a dataset comprising 23,116 records of horses for which their conformation scores and duration of their sports career were available. Survival analysis was used to determine which of the conformation traits had a significant effect on duration of sports career in dressage and jumping at basic and elite level.Results: Duration of competitive life was shorter for jumping than for dressage. A different set of risk factors was found for each level and discipline. The trait 'uneven feet' tended to shorten the competitive life in dressage, but was a significant risk factor at the elite level of jumping. Conclusions: Limb conformation and, in particular, the conformation of the distal limb, are important for duration of competitive life. From the prevalence of uneven feet in sports disciplines, it may be concluded that this is an undesirable trait, particularly at the elite level of jumping, since uneven feet have a detrimental effect on the duration of competitive life in a sporthorse population. Potential relevance: This study provided evidence that the conformation trait uneven feet has a negative effect on Warmblood jumping performance and, therefore, breeders should be encouraged to avoid this phenomenon at foal age.
|Stress-axis, thyroid-axis and immune system: the very first triunvirate in vertebrates
Flik, G. ; Klaren, P.H.M. ; Metz, J. ; Gorissen, M. ; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L. ; Huising, M.O. - \ 2008
In: Abstract Book Conference 24th European Comparative Endocrinologists, Genoa, Italy, 2 - 6 September, 2008. - - p. 50 - 50.
Carbon and nitrogen cycles in European ecosystems respond differently to global warming
Beier, C. ; Emmett, B.A. ; Penuelas, J. ; Schmidt, I.K. ; Tietema, A. ; Estiarte, M. ; Gundersen, P. ; Llorens, L. ; Riis-Nielsen, T. ; Sowerby, A. ; Gorissen, A. - \ 2008
Science of the Total Environment 407 (2008)1. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 692 - 697.
climate-change - soil respiration - drought - temperature - forests - feedbacks - gradient - dioxide - impacts - plants
The global climate is predicted to become significantly warmer over the next century. This will affect ecosystem processes and the functioning of semi natural and natural ecosystems in many parts of the world. However, as various ecosystem processes may be affected to a different extent, balances between different ecosystem processes as well as between different ecosystems may shift and lead to major unpredicted changes. In this study four European shrubland ecosystems along a north¿south temperature gradient were experimentally warmed by a novel nighttime warming technique. Biogeochemical cycling of both carbon and nitrogen was affected at the colder sites with increased carbon uptake for plant growth as well as increased carbon loss through soil respiration. Carbon uptake by plant growth was more sensitive to warming than expected from the temperature response across the sites while carbon loss through soil respiration reacted to warming in agreement with the overall Q10 and response functions to temperature across the sites. Opposite to carbon, the nitrogen mineralization was relatively insensitive to the temperature increase and was mainly affected by changes in soil moisture. The results suggest that C and N cycles respond asymmetrically to warming, which may lead to progressive nitrogen limitation and thereby acclimation in plant production. This further suggests that in many temperate zones nitrogen deposition has to be accounted for, not only with respect to the impact on water quality through increased nitrogen leaching where N deposition is high, but also in predictions of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems under future climatic conditions. Finally the results indicate that on the short term the above-ground processes are more sensitive to temperature changes than the below ground processes
Mycorrhizal responses under elevated CO2 : combining fungal and plant perspectives
Alberton, O. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper, co-promotor(en): Ton Gorissen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049104 - 148
mycorrhizae - kooldioxide - mycorrhizaschimmels - klimaatverandering - stikstof - biologische mededinging - pinus sylvestris - ectomycorrhiza - mycorrhizas - carbon dioxide - mycorrhizal fungi - climatic change - nitrogen - biological competition - pinus sylvestris - ectomycorrhizas
The rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) combined with increased nutrient (especially nitrogen) availability are predicted to have substantial impacts on plant growth and the functioning of ecosystems. Soil micro-organisms, especially mycorrhizal fungi that form mutualistic associations with plant roots, are key factors in the functioning of ecosystems. Studies of plant responses are therefore of limited realism, if the mycorrhizal symbiosis is ignored. It is therefore important to understand the diversity, extent and dynamics of the mycelia of mycorrhizal fungi in soils. This thesis focuses on the interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizal plants, elevated CO2, and nutrient availability.
In conclusion, it is clear the need for a conceptual separation between a mycocentric and phytocentric view is evident for ectomycorrhizal associations. Extraradical hyphal length can cause mycorrhizal fungal-induced Progressive Nitrogen Limitation (PNL) and generate negative feedback with plant growth under elevated CO2. Increasing N supply potentially relieves mycorrhiza-induced PNL under elevated CO2.
Response of plant species richness and primary productivity in shrublands along a north-south gradient in Europe to seven years of experimental warming and drought: reductions in primary productivity in the heat and drought year of 2003
Penuelas, J. ; Prieto, P. ; Beier, C. ; Cesaraccio, C. ; Angelis, P. de; Dato, G. de; Emmett, B.A. ; Estiarte, M. ; Garadnai, J. ; Gorissen, A. ; Lang, E.K. ; Kroel-Dulay, G. ; Llorens, L. ; Pellizzaro, G. ; Riis-Nielsen, T. ; Schmidt, I.K. ; Sirca, C. ; Sowerby, A. ; Spano, D. ; Tietema, A. - \ 2007
Global Change Biology 13 (2007)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2563 - 2581.
evergreen mediterranean forest - climate-change - quercus-ilex - terrestrial ecosystems - environmental-change - phillyrea-latifolia - arctic ecosystems - cistus-albidus - carbon-cycle - soil
We used a nonintrusive field experiment carried out at six sites - Wales (UK), Denmark (DK), the Netherlands (NL), Hungary (HU), Sardinia (Italy - IT), and Catalonia (Spain - SP) - along a climatic and latitudinal gradient to examine the response of plant species richness and primary productivity to warming and drought in shrubland ecosystems. The warming treatment raised the plot daily temperature by ca. 1 degrees C, while the drought treatment led to a reduction in soil moisture at the peak of the growing season that ranged from 26% at the SP site to 82% in the NL site. During the 7 years the experiment lasted (1999-2005), we used the pin-point method to measure the species composition of plant communities and plant biomass, litterfall, and shoot growth of the dominant plant species at each site. A significantly lower increase in the number of species pin-pointed per transect was found in the drought plots at the SP site, where the plant community was still in a process of recovering from a forest fire in 1994. No changes in species richness were found at the other sites, which were at a more mature and stable state of succession and, thus less liable to recruitment of new species. The relationship between annual biomass accumulation and temperature of the growing season was positive at the coldest site and negative at the warmest site. The warming treatment tended to increase the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) at the northern sites. The relationship between annual biomass accumulation and soil moisture during the growing season was not significant at the wettest sites, but was positive at the driest sites. The drought treatment tended to reduce the ANPP in the NL, HU, IT, and SP sites. The responses to warming were very strongly related to the Gaussen aridity index (stronger responses the lower the aridity), whereas the responses to drought were not. Changes in the annual aboveground biomass accumulation, litterfall, and, thus, the ANPP, mirrored the interannual variation in climate conditions: the most outstanding change was a decrease in biomass accumulation and an increase in litterfall at most sites during the abnormally hot year of 2003. Species richness also tended to decrease in 2003 at all sites except the cold and wet UK site. Species-specific responses to warming were found in shoot growth: at the SP site, Globularia alypum was not affected, while the other dominant species, Erica multiflora, grew 30% more; at the UK site, Calluna vulgaris tended to grow more in the warming plots, while Empetrum nigrum tended to grow less. Drought treatment decreased plant growth in several studied species, although there were some species such as Pinus halepensis at the SP site or C. vulgaris at the UK site that were not affected. The magnitude of responses to warming and drought thus depended greatly on the differences between sites, years, and species and these multiple plant responses may be expected to have consequences at ecosystem and community level. Decreases in biodiversity and the increase in E. multiflora growth at the SP site as a response to warming challenge the assumption that sensitivity to warming may be less well developed at more southerly latitudes; likewise, the fact that one of the studied shrublands presented negative ANPP as a response to the 2003 heat wave also challenges the hypothesis that future climate warming will lead to an enhancement of plant growth and carbon sequestration in temperate ecosystems. Extreme events may thus change the general trend of increased productivity in response to warming n the colder sites.
Competition for nitrogen between Pinus sylvestris and ectomycorrhizal fungi generates potential for negative feedback under elevated CO2
Alberton, O. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Gorissen, A. - \ 2007
Plant and Soil 296 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 159 - 172.
atmospheric carbon-dioxide - progressive n limitation - douglas-fir seedlings - mycorrhizal fungi - mycocentric approach - growth-response - plant-response - soil biota - allocation - ecosystems
We investigated fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings on growth and nutrient acquisition together with mycelial development under ambient and elevated CO2. Each seedling was associated with one of the following ECM species: Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Laccaria bicolor, Suillus bovinus, S. luteus, Piloderma croceum, Paxillus involutus, Boletus badius, or non-mycorrhizal, under ambient, and elevated CO2 (350 or 700 ¿l l¿1 CO2); each treatment contained six replicates. The trial lasted 156 days. During the final 28 days, the seedlings were labeled with 14CO2. We measured hyphal length, plant biomass, 14C allocation, and plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. Almost all parameters were significantly affected by fungal species and/or CO2. There were very few significant interactions. Elevated CO2 decreased shoot-to-root ratio, most strongly so in species with the largest extraradical mycelium. Under elevated CO2, ECM root growth increased significantly more than hyphal growth. Extraradical hyphal length was significantly negatively correlated with shoot biomass, shoot N content, and total plant N uptake. Root dry weight was significantly negatively correlated with root N and P concentration. Fungal sink strength for N strongly affected plant growth through N immobilization. Mycorrhizal fungal-induced progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) has the potential to generate negative feedback with plant growth under elevated CO2.
No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants: a 13C-labelling approach
Dueck, T.A. ; Visser, Ries de; Poorter, H. ; Persijn, S. ; Gorissen, A. ; Visser, W. de; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M. ; Verhagen, J. ; Snel, J.F.H. ; Harren, F.J.M. ; Ngai, A.K.Y. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Voesenek, L.A.C.J. ; Werf, A.K. van der - \ 2007
New Phytologist 175 (2007)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 29 - 35.
The results of a single publication stating that terrestrial plants emit methane has sparked a discussion in several scientific journals, but an independent test has not yet been performed. Here it is shown, with the use of the stable isotope C-13 and a laser-based measuring technique, that there is no evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants, maximally 0.3% (0.4 ng g(-1) h(-1)) of the previously published values. Data presented here indicate that the contribution of terrestrial plants to global methane emission is very small at best. Therefore, a revision of carbon sequestration accounting practices based on the earlier reported contribution of methane from terrestrial vegetation is redundant.
Uneven feet limit performance of a warmblood horse population
Gorissen, B.M.C. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Tartwijk, H. van; Naber, G. ; Eldik, P. van; Back, W. - \ 2006
European Journal of Epidemiology 21 (2006)suppl. 13. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 40 - 40.
Warmblood horses scored by the jury as having uneven feet will never pass yearly selection sales of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN).To evaluate whether the undesired trait ‘uneven feet’ influences performance, databases of KWPN (n = 62234 horses) and KNHS (n = 16015 show jumpers, n = 24269 dressage horses) were linked through the unique number of each registered horse. Using a Proc GLM model of SAS was investigated whether uneven feet had effects on age at first start and highest performance level. Elite show jumpers with uneven feet start at 7.2 years and dressage horses 9.4 years of age, which is a significant difference (p