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Opportunities for soil sustainability in Europe
Putten, W.H. van der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Poesen, Jean ; Winding, A. ; Lemanceau, Philippe ; Lisa, Lenka ; Simek, Miloslaw ; Moora, M. ; Setala, Heikki ; Zaitsev, A. ; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria ; Hornung, E. ; Wall, David ; Angelis, P. de; Lipiec, Jerzy ; Briones, M.J.I. ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Heijden, M. ; Six, Johan ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Powlson, D. ; Goulding, K. ; Norton, Michael - \ 2018
European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) (EASAC policy report 36) - ISBN 9783804738980 - 48 p.
An overview of fertilizer-P recommendations in Europe: soil testing, calibration and fertilizer recommendations
Jordan-Meille, L. ; Rubaek, G.H. ; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Genot, V. ; Hofman, G. ; Goulding, K. ; Recknagel, J. ; Provolo, G. ; Barraclough, P. - \ 2012
Soil Use and Management 28 (2012)4. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 419 - 435.
available phosphorus - i test - phosphate - eutrophication - adsorption - management - hungary - systems - crops - olsen
The procedure for applying phosphorus (P) fertilizer to soil can be divided into three consecutive steps: (i) Measurement of soil-P availability, (ii) calibration of the soil-P fertility level and (iii) estimation of the recommended P dose. Information on each of these steps was obtained for 18 European countries and regions with the aim of comparing P fertilizer recommendation systems at the European scale. We collected information on P fertilizer recommendations through conventional or grey literature, and personal contacts with researchers, laboratories and advisory services. We found much variation between countries for each of the three steps: There are more than 10 soil-P tests currently in use, apparent contradictions in the interpretation of soil-P test values and more than 3-fold differences in the P fertilizer recommendations for similar soil-crop situations. This last result was confirmed by conducting a simple experimental inter-laboratory comparison. Moreover, soil properties (pH, clay content) and crop species characteristics (P responsiveness) are used in some countries in the calibration and recommendation steps, but in different ways. However, there are also common characteristics: soil-P availability is determined in all countries by extraction with chemical reagents and the calibration of the soil-P test values, and the fertilizer recommendations are based on the results from empirical field trials. Moreover, the fertilizer recommendations are nearly all based on the amount of P exported in the crops. As long as rational scientific and theoretical backgrounds are lacking, there is no point in trying to synchronize the different chemical methods used. We therefore call for a mechanistic approach in which the processes involved in plant P nutrition are truly reproduced by a single standard method or simulated by sorption-desorption models.
Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: The growing evidence
Horn, M.H. ; Correa, S.B. ; Parolin, P. ; Pollux, B.J.A. ; Anderson, J.T. ; Lucas, C. ; Widmann, P. ; Tjiu, A. ; Galetti, M. ; Goulding, M. - \ 2011
Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 37 (2011)6. - ISSN 1146-609X - p. 561 - 577.
zambezi river floodplain - carp cyprinus-carpio - common carp - colossoma-macropomum - rain-forest - piaractus-mesopotamicus - submerged macrophytes - amazonian floodplains - potential dispersal - systematic revision
Fruit-eating by fishes represents an ancient (perhaps Paleozoic) interaction increasingly regarded as important for seed dispersal (ichthyochory) in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Most of the more than 275 known frugivorous species belong to the mainly Neotropical Characiformes (pacus, piranhas) and Siluriformes (catfishes), but cypriniforms (carps, minnows) are more important in the Holarctic and Indomalayan regions. Frugivores are among the most abundant fishes in Neotropical floodplains where they eat the fruits of a wide variety of trees and shrubs. By consuming fruits, fishes gain access to rich sources of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and act as either seed predators or seed dispersers. With their often high mobility, large size, and great longevity, fruit-eating fishes can play important roles as seed dispersers and exert strong influences on local plant-recruitment dynamics and regional biodiversity. Recent feeding experiments focused on seed traits after gut passage support the idea that fishes are major seed dispersers in floodplain and riparian forests. Overfishing, damming, deforestation and logging potentially diminish ichthyochory and require immediate attention to ameliorate their effects. Much exciting work remains in terms of fish and plant adaptations to ichthyochory, dispersal regimes involving fishes in different ecosystems, and increased use of nondestructive methods such as stomach lavage, stable isotopes, genetic analyses and radio transmitters to determine fish diets and movements.
|Can organic farming feed the world? : a contribution to the debate on the ability of organic farming systems to provide sustainable supplies of food
Goulding, K.W.T. ; Trewavas, A.J. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2009
York : International Fertiliser Society (Proceedings / International Fertiliser Society, ISSN 1466-1314 663) - ISBN 9780853103004 - 28
biologische landbouw - voedselzekerheid - voedselproductie - plantenvoeding - gewasopbrengst - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - organic farming - food security - food production - plant nutrition - crop yield - sustainability
A recent paper Badgley et al. (2007) claimed that organic farming, if used worldwide, would provide sufficient food for a growing world population. The paper stimulated much critical response. Our paper makes a critical assessment of this claim for wheat, a major cereal crop and source of food throughout the world. We consider the problems of using experimental yields in estimating the productivity of any crop or farming system and then look at farm yields, comparing organic and conventional systems. We examine in detail the comparisons made by Badgley et al. and find many of them unsupportable: the ratio of organic : conventional wheat yields of 0.85 proposed by Badgley et al. we believe to be closer to 0.65. Nitrogen (N) fixation by legumes, the main source of N supply in organic systems, is shown to be much too small and variable to support large and consistent wheat yields of acceptable quality, and ideas that cereals could one day fix their own N found wanting. Our conclusion therefore contradicts that of Badgley et al. but agrees with that of a recent report by the University of Reading's Centre for Agricultural Strategy that organic agriculture cannot feed the world using current technologies and with the meat-rich diet that people have or aspire to. We do, though, agree with Badgley et al.'s view that there is a need to improve soil quality by adding organic material, reducing over-optimal use of fertilisers and agricultural chemicals, and optimising rotations to reduce losses to pests and diseases. There is also, perhaps, a wider societal need for people to reconsider diet in the context of their health and the ability of the world to supply the wants of its anticipated 9 billion population.
Is it possible to increase the sustainability of arable and ruminant agriculture by reducing inputs?
Glendining, M. ; Dailey, A.G. ; Williams, A. ; Evert, F.K. van; Goulding, K.W.T. ; Whitmore, A.P. - \ 2009
Agricultural Systems 99 (2009)2-3. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 117 - 125.
uk - management - systems - costs - farm - model
Until recently, agricultural production was optimised almost exclusively for profit but now farming is under pressure to meet environmental targets. A method is presented and applied for optimising the sustainability of agricultural production systems in terms of both economics and the environment. Components of the agricultural production chain are analysed using environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and a financial value attributed to the resources consumed and burden imposed on the environment by agriculture, as well as to the products. The sum of the outputs is weighed against the inputs and the system considered sustainable if the value of the outputs exceeds those of the inputs. If this ratio is plotted against the sum of inputs for all levels of input, a diminishing returns curve should result and the optimum level of sustainability is located at the maximum of the curve. Data were taken from standard economic almanacs and from published LCA reports on the extent of consumption and environmental burdens resulting from farming in the UK. Land-use is valued using the concept of ecosystem services. Our analysis suggests that agricultural systems are sustainable at rates of production close to current levels practiced in the UK. Extensification of farming, which is thought to favour non-food ecosystem services, requires more land to produce the same amount of food. The loss of ecosystem services hitherto provided by natural land brought into production is greater than that which can be provided by land now under extensive farming. This loss of ecosystem service is large in comparison to the benefit of a reduction in emission of nutrients and pesticides. However, food production is essential, so the coupling of subsidies that represent a relatively large component of the economic output in EU farming, with measures to reduce pollution are well-aimed. Measures to ensure that as little extra land is brought into production as possible or that marginal land is allowed to revert to nature would seem to be equally well-aimed, even if this required more intensive use of productive areas. We conclude that current arable farming in the EU is sustainable with either realistic prices for products or some degree of subsidy and that productivity per unit area of land and greenhouse gas emission (subsuming primary energy consumption) are the most important pressures on the sustainability of farming.
Nutrient management regulations in The Netherlands - Discussion
Schipper, L.A. ; Goulding, K.W.T. ; Whitmore, A.P. ; Bouma, J. - \ 2008
Geoderma 144 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 426 - 434.
soils - fertilizer - balances - system - manure - scale - farms - land
|Ecophysiological, ecological, and soil processes in terrestrial ecosystems: a primer on general concepts and relationships
Kirschbaum, M.U.F. ; Bullock, P. ; Evans, J.R. ; Goulding, K. ; Jarvis, P.G. ; Noble, I.R. ; Rounsevell, M. ; Sharkey, T.D. ; Austin, M.P. ; Brookes, P. ; Brown, S. ; Bugmann, H.K.M. ; Cramer, W.P. ; Diaz, S. ; Gitay, H. ; Hamburg, S.P. ; Harris, J. - \ 1996
In: Climate change 1995; impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change: scientific-technical analyses / Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C., Moss, R.H., Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press - p. 55 - 74.
This ecophysiological primer serves as an introductory chapter on the concepts applied in subsequent chapters reviewing the state of knowledge concerning the effects of climate change on ecological processes that affect impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and some socio-economic systems. Because many of the responses of terrestrial plants in the diverse ecosystems are similar, this primer discusses: the effects of important climatic driving forces that are likely to change; soil fertility as a modifying effect with a brief discussion on soil biological factors; and ecological interactions between the different organisms in each ecosystem.