Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Mobilizing water actors and bodies of knowledge. The multi-scalar movement against the Río Grande Dam in Málaga, Spain
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Boelens, R.A. ; Pré, Lucas Du - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2073-4441 - 21 p.
Just as in other parts of Spain, the Guadalhorce Valley, Málaga, has a long history of policies based on ‘hydraulic utopianism’ (regenerationist and Franco-ist), bent on ‘reorganizing’ political, geographic, and human nature. Residents of the neighboring sub-basin, the Río Grande valley, have seen how these policies, designed to transfer rural water to modern urban centers, have turned the Guadalhorce hydrosocial territory into a ‘hydraulic dystopia’. In this article, we examine how Río Grande valley residents mobilized to maintain control over the development and use of their resources, livelihoods, and knowledge systems, when modernist-urbanist policies planned to take their water from a major dam on the Río Grande. Interviewing actors at different scales we examined how this anti-dam movement organized massively in a creative, multi-actor, and multi-scale network. Our results also show that this unified, successful fight against the ‘common enemy’, the mega-hydraulic construction, has become more complex, as threats crop up not only from the ‘city over there’ but also from ‘internal’ hydro-territorial transformations. These sprout from policies to modernize traditional irrigation systems, supposedly to ‘save water’, but critical voices assume that it is all about passing on the ‘surplus’ to Málaga city, or using that water to expand agribusiness. We conclude that the challenge lies in critically integrating multiple forms of knowledge, stakeholders, and scales to both defend collective water management and creatively construct anti-hegemonic alternatives.
Deciphering landscapes through the lenses of locals: The “Territorial Social-Ecological Networks” Framework applied to a Brazilian maroon case
Ayaviri Matuk, Fernanda ; Behagel, Jelle ; Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto ; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo ; Turnhout, Esther - \ 2019
Geoforum 100 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 101 - 115.
Adaptive co-management - Indigenous and local knowledge systems - Integration - Landscape approaches - Social-ecological systems - Territory

Landscape approaches are prominent in current policy debates about how to achieve ecological, economic and social sustainability. These approaches assess local social-ecological contexts to plan adaptive management and often include indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLC). An important aim of landscape approaches is to integrate different scientific disciplines, indigenous and local knowledge systems (ILK) and Western science, and global and local needs. In practice, such integration tends to favor globalized knowledge models and global needs over local ones. This article introduces a Territorial Social-Ecological Networks (TSEN) Framework for an integrated assessment of landscape settings and dynamics to overcome such tendencies. We argue that both scientific knowledge and ILK are entwined with practice and informed by worldviews. Moreover, these assemblages of knowledges-practice-worldviews are produced by social and ecological interrelations (or networks) that shape human appropriation of territory. We use an approach of methodological bricolage to apply the TSEN Framework to the case of the Brazilian Malhada Grande Maroon Territory. The results highlight how social-ecological networks of different space-time scales co-produce landscapes. Trade-offs and synergies between global and local needs are also discussed and used to identify priority needs that can be addressed by a landscape approach in the area. The analysis suggests that the TSEN Framework may be used by both scientists and practitioners to perform environmental assessments that are inclusive of social and ecological disciplines, of local and Western scientific knowledge, and of global and local needs in a landscape.

Conservation and ecology of African Raptors
Amar, Arjun ; Buij, Ralph ; Suri, Jessleena ; Sumasgutner, Petra ; Virani, Munir Z. - \ 2018
In: Birds of Prey / Sarasola, José Hernán, Grande, Juan Manuel, Negro, Juan José, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319737447 - p. 419 - 455.
Africa supports breeding populations of over 20% of all raptor species globally and over 20 regular Palearctic migratory raptors. Here, we discuss the importance of Africa in terms of the diversity of both resident and migrant species, the ecosystem services they provide, and the threats they face. We examine the state of knowledge of African raptors, including monitoring to determine trends, and describe ongoing research. African raptors provide important ecosystem services, by bringing in tourism revenues, functioning as bio-indicator species, and controlling the spread of pathogens and pest species. Many species are under pressure from growing human populations and associated habitat loss, persecution, and pollution. Most are declining, with some exceptions, some catastrophically so, such as vultures. Of 66 African species, 26% are currently on the IUCN Red List. For many species, there is a need for their conservation status to be re-evaluated, but rigorous monitoring for most of Africa is generally lacking. A systematic literature review showed considerable variation in the number of studies per species, 36% of 67 species having been relatively “well-studied” (12 or more studies), but 64% with less than 10 studies. There has been a general and consistent increase in the numbers of studies on African raptors, the majority from Southern Africa (n = 466, 62%). We found most studies focused on feeding ecology (n= 247) and distribution and abundance, with the least number of studies on behaviour and movement ecology. We list some ongoing studies and conclude that developing future leadership in research and conservation will be critical for successful raptor conservation in Africa.
Alianzas antiembalse y luchas hidroepistemológicas. Los retos de la gestión colectiva del agua en el Río Grande, Málaga, España
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Boelens, R.A. ; Pré, Lucas Du - \ 2018
Cuadernos de Geografia 101 (2018). - ISSN 0210-086X - p. 107 - 126.
In this article, we analyze the water knowledge struggles and challenges that the Rio Grande sub-basin’s social movement has faced when encountering the different modernistic projects that seek to transfer rural water to Malaga city. The first relates to a large dam construction, the second to the modernization of traditional irrigation systems. We conclude that the movement’s challenges are to unpack the truth regimes that support these hydraulic-modernistic projects, to claim for collective water use and control, and to engage in a bottom-up «commoning» process for defending the river’s socio-environmental values, cultural-economic importance, and epistemological meaning and existence.
Opportunities and requirements for implementing an irrigation monitoring and management platform in Costa Rica
Bruin, S. de; Aguilar Pereira, J.F. ; Arce Mesen, R. ; Soto Quiros, E. - \ 2017
- 4 p.
Concerns about deficient climate resilience of current irrigated agricultural production imply that the efficiency and effectiveness of irrigation systems should be increased. This short paper reports on the development of a web app for reporting failures of an irrigation system as well as web processing services for soil-crop water balance computations in Costa Rica. The effort provided a means for assessing GI educational and infrastructural requirements in Costa Rica. SENARA —the national service for groundwater, irrigation and drainage— aims to incorporate geo-spatial functionalities in a strategically important integrated water resource management system. Technical advancements and available free software solutions greatly facilitated the development of a prototype web app for an irrigation project “Llano Grande” that serves 121 farms. The used system design readily supports upscaling to other projects on a national scale. However, operationalization of an irrigation monitoring and management platform that includes the soil-crop water balance will require substantial progress concerning access to spatial data layers and meteorological data, the quality of spatial data layers and the technical and organizational geo-infrastructure. Furthermore, universities should accommodate programmes for training spatial data scientists and geo-informaticians that are needed to innovate and maintain such infrastructure.
A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.P.R. Anten, co-promotor(en): L. Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - wetlands - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - oryza sativa - maïs - zea mays - glycine max - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

Ethnopedology of a Quilombola Community in Minas Gerais: Soils, Landscape, and Land Evaluation
Ayaviri Matuk, F. ; Schaefer, C.E.G.R. ; Simas, F.N.B. ; Pereira, T.T.C. ; Gjorup, D.F. ; Coelho, F.M.G. - \ 2017
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 41 (2017). - ISSN 0100-0683 - 19 p.
Quilombolas are Afro-brazilian rural peasants who descended from escaped
slaves who tried to carve out territories of autonomy (called Quilombos) by collective organization and resistance. Despite many anthropological and ethnopedological studies, little research has been carried out to identify the agricultural practices and the knowledge of people who live in the Quilombos (Quilombolas). Peasant communities who live from land resources have wide empirical knowledge related to local soils and landscapes. In this respect, ethnopedology focuses on their relationship with local practices, needs, and values. We carried out an ethnopedological evaluation of the soils, landscape and land suitability of the Malhada Grande Quilombola Territory, aiming to examine the local criteria involved in land-use decision making, and evaluate the legitimacy of local knowledge. For this purpose, participatory workshops allowed environmental stratification of the Quilombolas into landscape units, recognition of soil types, and evaluation of land-use criteria. This approach was combined with conventional soil sampling, description, and analysis. The Brazilian System of Soil Classification and its approximations to the WRB/FAO system and
the SAAT land evaluation system were compared with the local classificatory systems, showing several convergences. The Quilombolas stratified the local environment into eight landscape units (based on soil, topography, and vegetation) and identified eight soil types with distinct morphological, chemical, and physical attributes. The conventional soil survey identified thirteen soil classes, in the same eight landscape units, organized as soil associations. The apparent contradictions between local knowledge and Pedology were relative since the classification systems were established based on different criteria, goals, and sampling references. Most soils are only suitable for pasture, with restricted Agricultural use, due to water or oxygen deficiencies. The current land use was only inconsistent with the technical recommendations when socioecological constraints such as the semiarid climate, land availability, and economic conditions for land management led to overuse of the land.
Local knowledge demonstrated its legitimacy and allowed a useful and fruitful exchange of information with the academic view of soil-landscape interplays. Although mostly unknown by the scientific community, local knowledge proved capable of achieving social welfare and food security. In addition, a participatory survey proved to be a core factor for more grounded and detailed data collection on how Quilombolas decide land use on a local scale.
Perceptions des intervenants de la gestion des sites Natura 2000 : une étude en France, Flandre, Grande-Bretagne et aux Pays-Bas
Bouwma, Irene ; Donders, Josine ; Kamphorst, Dana ; Frissel, Joep ; Wegman, Ruut ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 45) - 6
natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - netherlands - france - belgium - great britain - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - nederland - frankrijk - belgië - groot-brittannië
Resilience of Amazonian forests : the roles of fire, flooding and climate
Monteiro Flores, B. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Milena Holmgren Urba; Jose de Attayde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578876 - 128
forests - resilience of nature - fire - flooding - floods - climate - floodplains - vegetation - amazonia - bossen - veerkracht van de natuur - brand - inundatie - overstromingen - klimaat - stroomvlakten - vegetatie - amazonia

The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the Amazon basin seems quite homogeneous, 14% is seasonally inundated. In my thesis I combine analyses of satellite data with field measurements and experiments to assess the role of floodplain ecosystems in shaping the resilience of Amazonian forests.

First, I analyse tree cover distribution for the whole Amazon to reveal that savannas are relatively more common on floodplains. This suggests that compared to uplands, floodplains spend more time in the savanna state. Also, floodplain forests seem to have a tipping point at 1500 mm of annual rainfall in which forests may shift to savanna, whereas the tipping point for upland forests seems to be at 1000 mm of rainfall. Combining satellite and field measurements, I show that the higher frequency of savannas on floodplain ecosystems may be due to a higher sensitivity to fire. After a forest fire, floodplains lose more tree cover and soil fertility, and recover more slowly than uplands (chapter 2).

In floodplains of the Negro river, I studied the recovery of blackwater forests after repeated fires, using field data on tree basal area, species richness, seed availability, and herbaceous cover. Results indicate that repeated fires may easily trap blackwater floodplains in an open-vegetation state, due the sudden loss of forest resilience after a second fire event (chapter 3).

Analyses of the soil and tree composition of burnt floodplain forests, reveal that a first fire is the onset of the loss of soil fertility that intensifies while savanna trees dominate the tree community. A tree compositional shift happens within four decades, possibly accelerated by fast nutrient leaching. The rapid savannization of floodplain forests after fire implies that certain mechanisms such as environmental filtering may favor the recruitment of savanna trees over forest trees (chapter 4).

In chapter 5, I experimentally tested in the field the roles of dispersal limitation, and environmental filtering for tree recruitment in burnt floodplain forests. I combine inventories of seed availability in burnt sites with experiments using planted seeds and seedlings of six floodplain tree species. Repeated fires strongly reduce the availability of tree seeds, yet planted trees thrive despite degraded soils and high herbaceous cover. Moreover, degraded soils on twice burnt sites seem to limit the growth of most pioneer trees, but not of savanna trees with deeper roots. Our results suggest a limitation of forest trees to disperse into open burnt sites.

The combined evidence presented in this thesis support the hypothesis that Amazonian forests on floodplains are less resilient than forests on uplands, and more likely to shift into a savanna state. The lower ability of floodplains to retain soil fertility and recover forest structure after fire, may accelerate the transition to savanna. I also present some evidence of dispersal limitation of floodplain forest trees. Broad-scale analyses of tree cover as a function of rainfall suggest that savannas are likely to expand first in floodplains if Amazonian climate becomes drier. Savanna expansion through floodplain ecosystems to the core of the Amazon may spread fragility from an unsuspected place.

Spatial data quality and a workflow tool
Meijer, M. ; Vullings, L.A.E. ; Bulens, J.D. ; Rip, F.I. ; Boss, M. ; Hazeu, G.W. ; Storm, M.H. - \ 2015
In: The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. - La Grande Motte, France : ISPRS - 5 p.
Although by many perceived as important, spatial data quality has hardly ever been taken centre stage unless something went wrong due to bad quality. However, we think this is going to change soon. We are more and more relying on data driven processes and due to the increased availability of data, there is a choice in what data to use. How to make that choice? We think spatial data quality has potential as a selection criterion.

In this paper we focus on how a workflow tool can help the consumer as well as the producer to get a better understanding about which product characteristics are important. For this purpose, we have developed a framework in which we define different roles (consumer, producer and intermediary) and differentiate between product specifications and quality specifications. A number of requirements is stated that can be translated into quality elements. We used case studies to validate our framework. This framework is designed following the fitness for use principle. Also part of this framework is software that in some cases can help ascertain the quality of datasets.
Terrestrial LiDAR and 3D tree Quantitative Structure Model for quantification of aboveground biomass loss from selective logging in a tropical rainforest of Peru
Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Herold, M. ; Avitabile, V. ; Goodman, R.M. ; Raumonen, P. ; Burt, A. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of SilviLaser 2015. - - p. 119 - 121.
Application of terrestrial LiDAR and modelling of tree branching structure for plant-scaling models in tropical forest trees
Lau Sarmiento, A.I. ; Bartholomeus, H.M. ; Herold, M. ; Martius, C. ; Malhi, Y. ; Bentley, L.P. ; Shenkin, A. ; Raumonen, P. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the SilviLaser 2015 conference. - - p. 3 - 3.
Wintervoer, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) en Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)
Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2015
Bijenhouden 9 (2015)5. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 7 - 8.
bijenhouderij - bijvoeding - honingbijen - invertsuiker - suikers - beekeeping - supplementary feeding - honey bees - invert sugar - sugars
Inwinteren is het slotstuk van het bijenjaar, een soort “Grande Finale” na een seizoen hard werken met de bijen. We geven onze bijen voldoende voedsel om de winter goed door te komen en in het voorjaar weer fris en vrolijk aan de slag te kunnen gaan. Gelukkig is het eenvoudig mits er aan enkele voorwaarden voldaan wordt. Waarom winteren we onze bijen in? Simpelweg omdat we de honing, hun ‘dure’ wintervoorraad, geheel of gedeeltelijk afnemen en daar suiker als goedkoop alternatief voor in de plaats geven
The role of psychological factors in the adoption of improved natural grassland by Brazilian cattle farmers in Biome Pampa
Rossi Borges, J.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573154 - 182
agrarische economie - boeren - graslandbeheer - graslandverbetering - houding van boeren - gedragsveranderingen - attitudes - rundvee - vleesvee - rundvleesproductie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - pampa's - brazilië - agricultural economics - farmers - grassland management - grassland improvement - farmers' attitudes - behavioural changes - attitudes - cattle - beef cattle - beef production - sustainable development - sustainability - pampas - brazil
The objective of the research was to explore factors determining cattle farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland in Brazil. The research was carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil.
Wintervoer: over suiker, HFCS en HMF
Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2015
Mijn bijen 2015 (2015)1. - ISSN 1877-6418 - p. 10 - 12.
Inwinteren is het slotstuk van het bijenjaar. Het is een soort “Grande Finale” na een seizoen hard werken met de bijen. We geven onze bijen voldoende voedsel om de winter goed door te komen en in het voorjaar weer fris en vrolijk aan de slag te kunnen gaan. Gelukkig is het eenvoudig mits er aan enkele voorwaarden voldaan wordt. Waarom winteren we onze bijen in? Simpelweg omdat we de dure wintervoorraad (honing) die de bijen in de zomer opgebouwd hebben geheel of gedeeltelijk afnemen en daar een goedkoop alternatief voor in de plaats geven (suiker)
Reflexões a partir de uma Cooperativa de Agricultores Familiares do Rio Grande Do Sul
Lozano Torres, Camilo - \ 2014
Urban agriculture in Portugal: Availability of potentially toxic elements for plant uptake
Cruz, N. ; Rodriguez, S.M. ; Coelho, C. ; Carvalho, L. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Pereira, E. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2014
Applied Geochemistry 44 (2014). - ISSN 0883-2927 - p. 27 - 37.
halimione-portulacoides - contaminated soils - european cities - trace-elements - lolium-perenne - heavy-metals - part i - vegetables - cadmium - mercury
Soils from urban areas often contain enhanced pseudo-total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Considering the expanding tendency of urban agricultural practices it is necessary to understand if these contaminants are available for plant uptake and if they pose risks to animal and human health. This study showed that estimates of Daily Intakes (DIs) of Cu, Pb and Zn for grazing animals were above animal Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) at specific sites under the influence of an airport, an oil refinery and near highways with high traffic rates in the "Grande Porto" urban area (Portugal). These results suggest that there is a potential for dietary transfer of contaminants associated with the ingestion of both contaminated soil and feed by cows and sheep at unacceptably high concentrations.Furthermore, results showed that 40% of variability of ryegrass shoot contents of Cu, Pb and Ni; 60% for Ba; 70% for Zn; and 80% for Cd can be significantly (p
Agriculture and Food Consumption in St.Petersburg, Russia
Gromasheva, Olga - \ 2013
Je mesure les précipitations grâce au réseau de téléphonie sans fil (entretien avec A. Overeem)
Loiseau, C. ; Overeem, A. - \ 2013
Les Cahiers de Science et Vie 2013 (2013)1147. - ISSN 1157-4887 - p. 58 - 58.
Aujourd'hui, le réseau de téléphonie mobile couvre une grande partie des territoires habités. 0r, les micro-ondes circulant entre les antennes-relais sont très sensibles aux perturbations : si une averse croise leur chemin, le signal envoyé est atténué. Pourquoi ne pas utiliser cette propriété pour mesurer les précipitations ? A l'heure où les bons vieux pluviomètres se font de plus en plus rares, cette nouvelle méthode pourrait apporter des informations précieuses
Estimation of soil organic matter using multidirectional reflectance measurements
Bartholomeus, H. ; Roosjen, P.P.J. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Suomalainen, J.M. ; Mulder, V.L. ; Kooistra, L. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings 16th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, La Grande-Motte, France, 2-7 June 2013. - La Grande-Motte, France : - p. 187 - 194.
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