Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Best practice examples : Deliverable 3.4
    Marcos Gonzalez, Javier ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Hatvani, Nora ; Yuan, Bomin - \ 2020
    POWER4BIO - 62 p.
    The bioeconomy transition is routed in new opportunities with high potential of replication at EU level. To this end, it is important to identify which measures could potentially have a high impact on the biobased economy. Theoretically, several measures have been agreed to support stable and appealing markets for biobased products, such as fossil carbon tax, a CO2 tax, quotas, tax credits, removal of fossil subsidies and, mandates and bans. Nevertheless, there are also other actions, namely “soft measures” which could also be very fruitful in the development of sustainable activities towards long-term bioeconomy initiatives in the field of increasing public awareness. These “soft” measures are regarded as easy to implement in the current political climate. Among others, the adoption of bio-based products can answer the call from the public and politicians for concrete measures from the EU and its Member States for more climate-friendly products. An enhanced bio-based economy has an important role to play in meeting the ambition of the 2015 Paris Agreement and in delivering the European Green Deal. The POWER4BIO project counts on learning from experiences. Examples and references might speed up the decision made at national and regional level, which will enable a stronger commitment towards solutions under the concept of bioeconomy. To this end, policy makers urge to gain access to reliable reference sources of information to use these sources in their internal procedures. Furthermore, the detailed description of existing cases is an instrumental key to learn and inspire new initiatives. The regions oversee the state of the art and point out the value of being informed of initiatives which are successful with new business model. As a matter of fact, the POWER4BIO regions have arisen the need of a catalogue of technologies in real production cases (Deliverable D3.3) but in some specific cases, more technical information is required to foster and boost regional bioeconomy actions. This is the aim of this deliverable D3.4, were a thorough analysis, selection and description of the best practices of biorefineries worldwide is included. In the context of the POWER4BIO project, best practices are industrial production sites, which use specific biomass sources to produce biobased products. This deliverable pays special attention to two elements: rural application of the selected biorefineries and their competitivity. Furthermore, aligned with deliverables D3.3 and D4.1 of the project, the solutions are classified in 4 categories, in view to its application, such as, bioenergy, biochemicals, feed&food and biomaterials. This classification allows for an easy to understand and use of the cases detailed depicted in this document. In total, 12 EU best practices, 3 of each of the 4 categories are included in this report. The information per best practices include the minimum information to illustrate the cases. They provide the reader with information to consider its potential for replicability. Lastly, all the cases have been harmonised content-wise so as to facilitate the understanding and comparison of examples. POWER4BIO project (818351) Page 6 of 62 Deliverable 3.4: Best practice examples Version 1.0, 27/03/2020 POWER4BIO collaborates with the Horizon 2020 project BE-Rural, which also assesses technology options and business models for regional and local bio-based economies. A joint guidance document will summarise the relevant outputs of the two projects and provide concrete recommendations for policy-makers regarding the application of bio-based technology options and business models in specific regional contexts. The present report will contribute to this joint output. For further complementary information from the BE-Rural project, we encourage the reader to visit: https://be-rural/results/
    Designing urban green space (Ugs) to enhance health : A methodology
    Veen, Esther J. ; Dinand Ekkel, E. ; Hansma, Milan R. ; Vrieze, Anke G.M. de - \ 2020
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2020)14. - ISSN 1661-7827 - p. 1 - 17.
    Evidence-based design - Health benefits - Urban design - Urban green space

    Policymakers and urban designers strive to implement the increasing evidence about the positive association between urban green space (UGS) and health in policy. In Almere, The Netherlands, the Regenboogbuurt (“Rainbow Quarter”) neighbourhood is currently being revitalized. The research team was asked to deliver design principles for the improvement of UGS in this neighbourhood to benefit the health of its residents. However, robust studies that demonstrate what UGS criteria offer what particular benefit for what target group are scarce. This paper contributes to the need for more evidence-based UGS design by presenting the approach we used to develop UGS design principles for Regenboogbuurt. Demographic information, health statistics, residents’ opinions, and data about the current use of UGS were analysed to choose target groups and to formulate health benefit goals. We also developed a model for assessing the health benefits of UGS. For two age groups (those aged 10–24 and 40–60), stimulating physical health and social cohesion, respectively, were determined to be the goals of improving UGS. UGS design principles were then assessed based on the existing literature. These principles will be taken into account when this area is revitalized in 2021. Thus, there will be an opportunity to measure whether these design principles did indeed contribute to residents’ health.

    Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria
    Rangel, Luciana M. ; Silva, Lúcia H.S. ; Faassen, Elisabeth J. ; Lürling, Miquel ; Ger, Kemal Ali - \ 2020
    Toxins 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6651
    cyanotoxin - functional trait - harmful algal bloom - neurotoxin - predator defense

    Phytoplankton anti-grazer traits control zooplankton grazing and are associated with harmful blooms. Yet, how morphological versus chemical phytoplankton defenses regulate zooplankton grazing is poorly understood. We compared zooplankton grazing and prey selection by contrasting morphological (filament length: short vs. long) and chemical (saxitoxin: STX- vs. STX+) traits of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Raphidiopsis) offered at different concentrations in mixed diets with an edible phytoplankton to a copepod grazer. The copepod selectively grazed on the edible prey (avoidance of cyanobacteria) even when the cyanobacterium was dominant. Avoidance of the cyanobacterium was weakest for the "short STX-" filaments and strongest for the other three strains. Hence, filament size had an effect on cyanobacterial avoidance only in the STX- treatments, while toxin production significantly increased cyanobacterial avoidance regardless of filament size. Moreover, cyanobacterial dominance reduced grazing on the edible prey by almost 50%. Results emphasize that the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria such as Raphidiopsis can interfere with copepod grazing in a trait specific manner. For cyanobacteria, toxin production may be more effective than filament size as an anti-grazer defense against selectively grazing zooplankton such as copepods. Our results highlight how multiple phytoplankton defensive traits interact to regulate the producer-consumer link in plankton ecosystems.

    Opportunities for seaweed biorefinery
    Lange, Lene ; Grandorf Bak, Urd ; Cole Brandstrup Hansen, Steffen ; Gregersen, Olavur ; Harmsen, Paulien ; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva ; Meyer, Anne ; Mikkelsen, Maria D. ; Broek, Ben van den; Óli Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur - \ 2020
    In: Sustainable Seaweed Technologies / Dolores Torres, M., Kraan, S., Dominguez, H., Elsevier (Advances in Green Chemistry ) - ISBN 9780128179437 - p. 3 - 31.
    This introductory chapter provides an overview of seaweed biorefinery opportunities, providing basis for multiple value chains, contributing to nutrition and health of a growing global population, to local job generation and development, to ecosystem services, and not the least to climate change mitigation and adaptation. A unique and rich diversity of the seaweed components provides the basis for the broad spectrum of value-chains described here. Red, brown, and green seaweeds are phylogenetically very different and this is reflected in their differences in growth, structure, and biochemical composition. Stable supply and high quality of feedstock are essential for unlocking the value-adding potential of seaweeds. A special focus of the chapter is to provide an overview of the range of different methods of seaweed production (through cultivation or from natural growth, collected or cut at the shore). Furthermore, the results of dedicated efforts to develop new deep-sea cultivation technologies of brown seaweed are highlighted. The chapter has a dual message with regard to seaweed processing: the need to develop more environmentally benign biological processing (to replace chemical processing); the advantage (regarding resource efficiency) and opportunities (social and economic) of designing seaweed biorefineries according to the cascading principle. Making optimized use of all valuable components of seaweed biomass, cascading from high-value products, such as skin care, health-promoting food and feed supplements and functional food ingredients; to lower-value products, such as plant stimulants, soil improvers, and bioenergy. Lastly, this introductory chapter provides global perspectives for future development of sustainable seaweed utilization, contributing to the UN-SDGs, providing livelihood and health for more.
    Pathologists and entomologists must join forces against forest pest and pathogen invasions
    Jactel, Hervé ; Desprez-Loustau, Marie Laure ; Battisti, Andrea ; Brockerhoff, Eckehard ; Santini, Alberto ; Stenlid, Jan ; Björkman, Christer ; Branco, Manuela ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Douma, Jacob C. ; Drakulic, Jassy ; Drizou, Fryni ; Eschen, René ; Franco, José Carlos ; Gossner, Martin M. ; Green, Samantha ; Kenis, Marc ; Klapwijk, Maartje J. ; Liebhold, Andrew M. ; Orazio, Christophe ; Prospero, Simone ; Robinet, Christelle ; Schroeder, Martin ; Slippers, Bernard ; Stoev, Pavel ; Sun, Jianghua ; Dool, Robbert van den; Wingfield, Michael J. ; Zalucki, Myron P. - \ 2020
    NeoBiota 58 (2020). - ISSN 1619-0033 - p. 107 - 127.
    Capacity building - Detection - Disease - Exotic - Forest health - Fungi - Identification - Insects - Interdisciplinarity - Management

    The world's forests have never been more threatened by invasions of exotic pests and pathogens, whose causes and impacts are reinforced by global change. However, forest entomologists and pathologists have, for too long, worked independently, used different concepts and proposed specific management methods without recognising parallels and synergies between their respective fields. Instead, we advocate increased collaboration between these two scientific communities to improve the long-term health of forests. Our arguments are that the pathways of entry of exotic pests and pathogens are often the same and that insects and fungi often coexist in the same affected trees. Innovative methods for preventing invasions, early detection and identification of non-native species, modelling of their impact and spread and prevention of damage by increasing the resistance of ecosystems can be shared for the management of both pests and diseases. We, therefore, make recommendations to foster this convergence, proposing in particular the development of interdisciplinary research programmes, the development of generic tools or methods for pest and pathogen management and capacity building for the education and training of students, managers, decision-makers and citizens concerned with forest health.

    The NORMAN Association and the European Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC): let’s cooperate!
    Dulio, Valeria ; Koschorreck, Jan ; Bavel, Bert van; Brink, Paul van den; Hollender, Juliane ; Munthe, John ; Schlabach, Martin ; Aalizadeh, Reza ; Agerstrand, Marlene ; Ahrens, Lutz ; Allan, Ian ; Alygizakis, Nikiforos ; Barcelo, Damia ; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla ; Boutroup, Susanne ; Brack, Werner ; Bressy, Adèle ; Christensen, Jan H. ; Cirka, Lubos ; Covaci, Adrian ; Derksen, Anja ; Deviller, Geneviève ; Dingemans, Milou M.L. ; Engwall, Magnus ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo ; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo ; Hernández, Félix ; Herzke, Dorte ; Hilscherová, Klára ; Hollert, Henner ; Junghans, Marion ; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara ; Keiter, Steffen ; Kools, Stefan A.E. ; Kruve, Anneli ; Lambropoulou, Dimitra ; Lamoree, Marja ; Leonards, Pim ; Lopez, Benjamin ; López de Alda, Miren ; Lundy, Lian ; Makovinská, Jarmila ; Marigómez, Ionan ; Martin, Jonathan W. ; McHugh, Brendan ; Miège, Cécile ; O’Toole, Simon ; Perkola, Noora ; Polesello, Stefano ; Posthuma, Leo ; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Roessink, Ivo ; Rostkowski, Pawel ; Ruedel, Heinz ; Samanipour, Saer ; Schulze, Tobias ; Schymanski, Emma L. ; Sengl, Manfred ; Tarábek, Peter ; Hulscher, Dorien Ten; Thomaidis, Nikolaos ; Togola, Anne ; Valsecchi, Sara ; Leeuwen, Stefan van; Ohe, Peter von der; Vorkamp, Katrin ; Vrana, Branislav ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav - \ 2020
    Environmental Sciences Europe 32 (2020)1. - ISSN 2190-4707
    Chemical risk assessment and prioritisation - Contaminants of emerging concern - Effect-based methods - Environmental monitoring - High-resolution mass spectrometry - Non-target screening - NORMAN network - Suspect screening

    The Partnership for Chemicals Risk Assessment (PARC) is currently under development as a joint research and innovation programme to strengthen the scientific basis for chemical risk assessment in the EU. The plan is to bring chemical risk assessors and managers together with scientists to accelerate method development and the production of necessary data and knowledge, and to facilitate the transition to next-generation evidence-based risk assessment, a non-toxic environment and the European Green Deal. The NORMAN Network is an independent, well-established and competent network of more than 80 organisations in the field of emerging substances and has enormous potential to contribute to the implementation of the PARC partnership. NORMAN stands ready to provide expert advice to PARC, drawing on its long experience in the development, harmonisation and testing of advanced tools in relation to chemicals of emerging concern and in support of a European Early Warning System to unravel the risks of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and close the gap between research and innovation and regulatory processes. In this commentary we highlight the tools developed by NORMAN that we consider most relevant to supporting the PARC initiative: (i) joint data space and cutting-edge research tools for risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern; (ii) collaborative European framework to improve data quality and comparability; (iii) advanced data analysis tools for a European early warning system and (iv) support to national and European chemical risk assessment thanks to harnessing, combining and sharing evidence and expertise on CECs. By combining the extensive knowledge and experience of the NORMAN network with the financial and policy-related strengths of the PARC initiative, a large step towards the goal of a non-toxic environment can be taken.

    Modulation of the Tomato Fruit Metabolome by LED Light
    Ntagkas, N. ; Vos, C.H. de; Woltering, E.J. ; Nicole, Celine ; Labrie, C.W. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2020
    Metabolites 10 (2020)266. - ISSN 2218-1989 - 19 p.
    Metabolic profiles of tomatoes change during ripening and light can modulate the activity of relevant biochemical pathways. We investigated the effects of light directly supplied to the fruits on the metabolome of the fruit pericarp during ripening. Mature green tomatoes were exposed to well-controlled conditions with light as the only varying factor; control fruits were kept in darkness. In experiment 1 the fruits were exposed to either white light or darkness for 15 days.
    In experiment 2, fruits were exposed to different light spectra (blue, green, red, far-red, white) added to white background light for seven days. Changes in the global metabolome of the fruit pericarp were monitored using LCMS and GCMS (554 compounds in total). Health-beneficial compounds (carotenoids, flavonoids, tocopherols and phenolic acids) accumulated faster under white light compared to darkness, while alkaloids and chlorophylls decreased faster. Light also changed the levels of taste-related metabolites including glutamate and malate. The light spectrum treatments indicated that the addition of blue light was the most effective treatment in altering the fruit metabolome. We conclude that light during ripening of tomatoes can have various effects on the metabolome and may help with shaping the levels of key compounds involved in various fruit quality characteristics.
    State transitions in cyanobacteria studied with picosecond fluorescence at room temperature
    Bhatti, Ahmad Farhan ; Choubeh, Reza Ranjbar ; Kirilovsky, Diana ; Wientjes, Emilie ; Amerongen, Herbert van - \ 2020
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. B, Bioenergetics 1861 (2020)10. - ISSN 0005-2728
    Cyanobacteria - Excited-state quenching - State transition - Time-resolved spectroscopy

    Cyanobacteria can rapidly regulate the relative activity of their photosynthetic complexes photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) in response to changes in the illumination conditions. This process is known as state transitions. If PSI is preferentially excited, they go to state I whereas state II is induced either after preferential excitation of PSII or after dark adaptation. Different underlying mechanisms have been proposed in literature, in particular i) reversible shuttling of the external antenna complexes, the phycobilisomes, between PSI and PSII, ii) reversible spillover of excitation energy from PSII to PSI, iii) a combination of both and, iv) increased excited-state quenching of the PSII core in state II. Here we investigated wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at room temperature. Our observations support model iv, meaning that increased excited-state quenching of the PSII core occurs in state II thereby balancing the photochemistry of photosystems I and II.

    Systemic colonization of potato plants resulting from potato haulm inoculation with Dickeya solani or Pectobacterium parmentieri
    Kastelein, P. ; Forch, M.G. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Berg, W. van den; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2020
    Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology = Revue Canadienne de Phytopathologie (2020). - ISSN 0706-0661 - p. 1 - 15.
    blackleg - Confocal laser scanning microscopy - fluorescence microscopy - GFP-tagged strains - haulm destruction - leaf wounding - slow wilt
    In two glasshouse experiments, colonization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants by the bacterial pathogens Dickeya solani and Pectobacterium parmentieri was studied after leaf infection. Leaves, whether or not artificially wounded, were spray-inoculated with various densities of green-fluorescent protein tagged strains of the pathogens, avoiding contamination of soil during inoculation. Microscopy analysis indicated that both pathogens were able to penetrate and colonize hydathodes, stomata and wounds of inoculated leaves. Dickeya solani was detected at 42 days after inoculation in leaves, stems, stolons and occasionally in tubers, whereas P. parmentieri was restricted to leaves, stems and stolons, and could not be detected in tubers. The infection percentage was higher for plants with wounded leaves than for plants with untouched leaves, and higher at higher inoculum densities. Nevertheless, infection of leaves could also occur at low densities of D. solani (102 cfu mL−1). We further investigated the risks for translocation of the pathogens from infected haulms through soil into progeny tubers after haulm destruction. In a glasshouse experiment, populations of the pathogens increased in haulms in the first week after chemical or mechanical destruction, but decreased in the second week. For P. parmentieri, transmission occurred from destroyed haulms via soil into progeny tubers in soil, but not for D. solani.
    Biological control in Barbados.
    Lenteren, J.C. van; Colmeneraz, Y.C. - \ 2020
    In: Biological control in Latin America and the Caribbean / Lenteren, J.C., Bueno, V.H.P., Luna, M.G., Colmeneraz, Y.C., CABI - ISBN 9781789242430 - p. 43 - 57.
    Early classical biocontrol successes in Barbados, some in combination with natural control, were the control of: sugarcane borers, sugarcane mealybugs and West Indian cane fly in sugarcane; cottony cushion scale and citrus blackfly in citrus; coconut whitefly in palm; fall armyworm in vegetables and field crops; diamondback moth in cruciferous crops; and green scale and whitefly on fruit and ornamental trees. Recent successes concern classical biocontrol, often in combination with natural control, of: the pink hibiscus mealybug in various crops and ornamentals; sago palm scale on cycads and ornamental palm; and the citrus leaf miner and the Asian citrus psyllid in citrus. Natural control included that of: papaya mealybug in papaya; chilli thrips in various crops; and red palm mite in coconut palm, ornamentals and bananas. Parasitoids were most often used, followed by predators, while microbial agents were rarely used. Barbados has regularly served as provider of natural enemies for other islands in the Caribbean. The island has faced at least 25 arthropod invasions of pests since 2000, stressing the need for biocontrol solutions.
    Viewpoint analysis for maturity classification of sweet peppers
    Harel, Ben ; Essen, Rick van; Parmet, Yisrael ; Edan, Yael - \ 2020
    Sensors 20 (2020)13. - ISSN 1424-8220 - p. 1 - 22.
    Camera position - Machine vision - Maturity classification - Sweet pepper - Viewpoint analysis

    The effect of camera viewpoint and fruit orientation on the performance of a sweet pepper maturity level classification algorithm was evaluated. Image datasets of sweet peppers harvested from a commercial greenhouse were collected using two different methods, resulting in 789 RGB—Red Green Blue (images acquired in a photocell) and 417 RGB-D—Red Green Blue-Depth (images acquired by a robotic arm in the laboratory), which are published as part of this paper. Maturity level classification was performed using a random forest algorithm. Classifications of maturity level from different camera viewpoints, using a combination of viewpoints, and different fruit orientations on the plant were evaluated and compared to manual classification. Results revealed that: (1) the bottom viewpoint is the best single viewpoint for maturity level classification accuracy; (2) information from two viewpoints increases the classification by 25 and 15 percent compared to a single viewpoint for red and yellow peppers, respectively, and (3) classification performance is highly dependent on the fruit’s orientation on the plant.

    How does a circular economy lead to less greenhouse gas and climate repair?
    Hattum, T. van - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
    Tim van Hattum, Program Leader Green Climate Solutions: “Al of us combine our consuming with a tremendous amout of energy. The energy we use is generated mainly by with fossil fuels. Our CO2 emissions have to be reduced drastically. We could make over cities more green and our peat soils more wet again.”
    A genomic view of trophic and metabolic diversity in clade-specific Lamellodysidea sponge microbiomes
    Podell, Sheila ; Blanton, Jessica M. ; Oliver, Aaron ; Schorn, Michelle A. ; Agarwal, Vinayak ; Biggs, Jason S. ; Moore, Bradley S. ; Allen, Eric E. - \ 2020
    Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - 1 p.
    Cyanosponge - Hormoscilla - Lamellodysidea - Methylospongia - PBDE - Prochloron - Sponge microbiome

    BACKGROUND: Marine sponges and their microbiomes contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient cycling in global reefs, processing and remineralizing dissolved and particulate organic matter. Lamellodysidea herbacea sponges obtain additional energy from abundant photosynthetic Hormoscilla cyanobacterial symbionts, which also produce polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) chemically similar to anthropogenic pollutants of environmental concern. Potential contributions of non-Hormoscilla bacteria to Lamellodysidea microbiome metabolism and the synthesis and degradation of additional secondary metabolites are currently unknown. RESULTS: This study has determined relative abundance, taxonomic novelty, metabolic capacities, and secondary metabolite potential in 21 previously uncharacterized, uncultured Lamellodysidea-associated microbial populations by reconstructing near-complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to complement 16S rRNA gene amplicon studies. Microbial community compositions aligned with sponge host subgroup phylogeny in 16 samples from four host clades collected from multiple sites in Guam over a 3-year period, including representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Oligoflexia, and Bacteroidetes as well as Cyanobacteria (Hormoscilla). Unexpectedly, microbiomes from one host clade also included Cyanobacteria from the prolific secondary metabolite-producer genus Prochloron, a common tunicate symbiont. Two novel Alphaproteobacteria MAGs encoded pathways diagnostic for methylotrophic metabolism as well as type III secretion systems, and have been provisionally assigned to a new order, designated Candidatus Methylospongiales. MAGs from other taxonomic groups encoded light-driven energy production pathways using not only chlorophyll, but also bacteriochlorophyll and proteorhodopsin. Diverse heterotrophic capabilities favoring aerobic versus anaerobic conditions included pathways for degrading chitin, eukaryotic extracellular matrix polymers, phosphonates, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, trimethylamine, and benzoate. Genetic evidence identified an aerobic catabolic pathway for halogenated aromatics that may enable endogenous PBDEs to be used as a carbon and energy source. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstruction of high-quality MAGs from all microbial taxa comprising greater than 0.1% of the sponge microbiome enabled species-specific assignment of unique metabolic features that could not have been predicted from taxonomic data alone. This information will promote more representative models of marine invertebrate microbiome contributions to host bioenergetics, the identification of potential new sponge parasites and pathogens based on conserved metabolic and physiological markers, and a better understanding of biosynthetic and degradative pathways for secondary metabolites and halogenated compounds in sponge-associated microbiota. Video Abstract.

    Reactivity of p-Coumaroyl Groups in Lignin upon Laccase and Laccase/HBT Treatments
    Hilgers, Roelant ; Kabel, Mirjam A. ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2020
    ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 8 (2020)23. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 8723 - 8731.
    Corn stover - Degradation - Enzyme catalysis - Laccase - Lignocellulosic biomass - Mediator - p-Coumarate - Wheat straw

    Laccase-mediator systems (LMS) are potential green tools for oxidative degradation and modification of lignin. Although LMS convert both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin structures, phenolic structures are more prone to react. Remarkably, in a previous study on laccase/HBT treatment of grasses, we observed the accumulation of p-coumaroyl moieties in residual lignin, even though such groups are free phenolic structures. To provide more insights into this apparent paradox, here, we studied the reactivity of p-coumaroyl groups in lignin and model compounds using HSQC NMR and RP-UHPLC-PDA-MSn, respectively. It was found that a p-coumaroylated model compound (VBG-pCA), in contrast to its nonacylated analogue, was rapidly converted by laccase and laccase/HBT, resulting in oxidative coupling and HBT-mediated degradation, respectively. The high reactivity of VBG-pCA was related to the phenolic character of the p-coumaroyl group. Upon laccase/HBT treatment of two grass lignin isolates, p-coumaroyl groups accumulated in residual lignin, indicating that p-coumaroyl groups in polymeric lignin display different reactivity than those in model compounds. On the basis of additional experiments, we propose that p-coumaroyl groups in lignin polymers can be oxidized by laccase/HBT but undergo HSQC-undetectable radical coupling or redox reactions rather than degradation.

    Vertically Stacked Perovskite Detectors for Color Sensing and Color Vision
    Qarony, Wayesh ; Kozawa, Masayuki ; Khan, Haris Ahmad ; Hossain, Mohammad Ismail ; Salleo, Alberto ; Tsang, Yuen Hong ; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve ; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki ; Knipp, Dietmar - \ 2020
    Advanced Material Interfaces (2020). - ISSN 2196-7350
    color moiré - color sensors - optical detectors - perovskites

    Optical color sensors based on perovskites are described. These sensors overcome the limits of conventional image sensors used in smartphones and digital cameras. The sensors allow for detecting the primary colors red, green, and blue without using optical filters. The color sensors consist of vertically stacked diodes using perovskite alloys. The described sensor structure is color aliasing or color moiré error free, while conventional sensors using optical filters are limited by this error. The spectral sensitivity of vertically stacked sensors is up to three times higher than the spectral sensitivity of filter-based color sensors. The optical constants of the required perovskite alloys are determined, and color sensors are electromagnetically modeled. The spectral sensitivities of the sensors are colorimetrically characterized and compared to sensors in the literature including conventional sensors using optical filters. This study, for the first time, shows that a vertically stacked three color sensor exhibits a color error equal to, or smaller than, errors of conventional sensors using optical filters. Details on the used materials, the device design, and the colorimetric analysis are provided.

    Responses of a tropical micro-crustacean, Daphnia lumholtzi, upon exposures to dissolved toxins and living cells of cyanobacteria
    Vo, Thi My Chi ; Bui, Ba Trung ; Wiegand, Claudia ; Dinh, Khuong V. ; Dao, Thanh Son - \ 2020
    Environmental Technology and Innovation 19 (2020). - ISSN 2352-1864
    Acute lethal concentration - Clutch size - Cylindrospermopsis curvispora - Microcystins - Reproduction - Survival proportion

    The mass development and expansion of cyanobacteria release cyanotoxins in the aquatic environment and cause serious problems for grazers such as micro-zooplankton. In contrast to aquatic ecosystems in temperate regions, impacts of cyanobacteria and their toxins on tropical micro-crustaceans are relatively understudied. In this study, acute and chronic effects of pure microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a crude extract of water bloom sample with a dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa containing microcystins (MCE) and living cells of Cylindrospermopsis curvispora were tested on a tropical micro-crustacean, Daphnia lumholtzi. The 24 h- and 48 h-LC50 values for MC-LR ranged from 247–299, and 331–409 μg MCE L−1, respectively. Exposures to 1–25 μg MCE L−1 decreased survival, fecundity, and reproduction of D. lumholtzi. The impacts of C. curvispora cells on life-history traits of D. lumholtzi were density-dependent and more severe than the impacts of dissolved microcystins. It could be that the adverse effects of C. curvispora on D. lumholtzi are linked to a combination of potential toxic metabolites, mal-nutrients, feeding and swimming interference. Daphnia lumholtzi used in this study is more sensitive to microcystins compared to Daphnia species from temperate regions. Therefore, we highly suggest using D. lumholtzi as a model species for toxicity testing and monitoring on water quality, particularly in tropical countries.

    Gold and silver dichroic nanocomposite in the quest for 3D printing the Lycurgus cup
    Kool, Lars ; Dekker, Floris ; Bunschoten, Anton ; Smales, Glen J. ; Pauw, Brian R. ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Saggiomo, Vittorio - \ 2020
    Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 11 (2020). - ISSN 2190-4286 - p. 16 - 23.
    3D printing - Dichroism - Lycurgus cup - Nanocomposite

    The Lycurgus cup is an ancient glass artefact that shows dichroism as it looks green when a white light is reflected on it and a red colouring appears when a white light is transmitted through it. This peculiar dichroic effect is due to silver and gold nanoparticles present in the glass. In this research we show the synthesis of dichroic silver nanoparticles and their embedding in a 3D printable nanocomposite. The addition of gold nanoparticles to the silver nanoparticle composite, gave a 3D printable nanocomposite with the same dichroism effect of the Lycurgus cup.

    How natural processes contribute to flood protection - A sustainable adaptation scheme for a wide green dike
    Marijnissen, Richard ; Esselink, Peter ; Kok, Matthijs ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Loon-Steensma, Jantsje M. van - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 739 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Clay mining - Climate adaptation - Flood risk - Nature-based solutions - Salt marsh - Sea-level rise

    Effective adaptation to sea-level rise is critical for future flood protection. Nature-based solutions including salt marshes have been proposed to naturally enhance coastal infrastructure. A gently sloping grass-covered dike (i.e. Wide Green Dike) can be strengthened with clay accumulating locally in the salt marsh. This study explores the feasibility of extracting salt-marsh sediment for dike reinforcement as a climate adaptation strategy in several sea-level rise scenarios, using the Wide Green Dike in the Dutch part of the Ems-Dollard estuary as a case study. A 0-D sedimentation model was combined with a wave propagation model, and probabilistic models for wave impact and wave overtopping. This model system was used to determine the area of borrow pits required to supply clay for adequate dikes under different sea-level rise scenarios. For medium to high sea-level rise scenarios (>102 cm by 2100) thickening of the clay layer on the dike is required to compensate for the larger waves resulting from insufficient marsh accretion. The model results indicate that for our case study roughly 9.4 ha of borrow pit is sufficient to supply clay for 1 km of dike reinforcement until 2100. The simulated borrow pits are refilled within 22 simulation years on average, and infilling is projected to accelerate with sea-level rise and pit depth. This study highlights the potential of salt marshes as an asset for adapting flood defences in the future.

    Perceived long-term FFS effects on green leaf productivity and food security : Intervention priorities: tackle current drought challenges, upscale farm diversification and explore diversification of KTDA services
    Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2020
    Wageningen Economic Research - 16 p.
    Developments of economic growth and employment in bioeconomy sectors across the EU
    Ronzon, Tévécia ; Piotrowski, Stephan ; Tamosiunas, Saulius ; Dammer, Lara ; Carus, Michael ; M'barek, Robert - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Apparent labour productivity - Bio-based products - Bioeconomy - Employment - European union - Regional development - Value added

    The development of the bioeconomy-or the substitution of fossil-based materials and energy by bio-based solutions-is considered a strategic economic orientation by the European Commission and its Green Deal. This paper presents a methodology to monitor the contribution of the bioeconomy to jobs and growth within the European Union (EU) and its Member States. Classified as an "output-based" approach, the methodology relies on expert estimations of the biomass content of the bio-based materials produced in the EU and the subsequent calculation of "sectoral" bio-based shares by using Eurostat statistics on the production of manufactured goods (prom). Sectoral shares are applied to indicators of employment, and value added is reported in Eurostat-Structural business statistics. This paper updates the methodology and time series presented in 2018. The bioeconomy of the EU (post-Brexit composition) employed around 17.5 million people and generated ¿614 billion of value added in 2017. The study evidences structural differences between EU national bioeconomies, which become more pronounced over time, especially in terms of the level of apparent labour productivity of national bioeconomies. Finally, this paper describes cases of transition over the 2008-2017 period.

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