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The single story about the foodbank
Pijnenburg, L.F.P. - \ 2018
In: Professionals in Food Chains. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863211 - p. 229 - 233.
The dominant, academic story about the food bank says that it is as a de-politicising charity organisation (Dowler, 2016). There is, however, a danger to telling a single story (Adichie 2009). It consists of (1) mis-presenting the way in which food bank organisations understand their own activities and goals, and (2) not (fully) recognising the work they actually do, and the possible normative justification for it. To question a dominant story one needs an elaborated counter story which I cannot provide here and now. What I hope to do is more programmatic in nature. The plan here is to point at a questionable, basic element of the dominant story, that is: its critique on the charity approach, and then sketch a different story that also can be heard at the food bank. This will lead me to a reflection on the difference between the dominant ‘rights based approach’ and a ‘dignity approach’ that I reconstruct and derive from empirical research, and to an attempt to normatively justify the form of emergency food aid that the food bank provides. The distribution of food, donated by companies and private individuals and to be prepared at home, at some 530 food banks that are united in the ‘Association of Dutch Food Banks’ (ADFB), forms the empirical frame of reference in which I argue.
Beyond technocratic management in the food chain : Towards a new responsible professionalism in the Anthropocene
Blok, V. - \ 2018
In: Professionals in food chains. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863211 - p. 30 - 34.
In this contribution, we argue that three related developments provide economic, environmental and social challenges and opportunities for a new responsible professionalism in the food chain: (1) the Anthropocene; (2) the bio-based economy; (3) precision livestock farming. These three interrelated developments indicate a transition in the way we understand the role and function of the food chain on the micro-, the meso- and the macro-level. This transition can be understood in two fundamental different ways, namely either as an extension of technocratic management beyond the micro level to the meso- and macro-level of the food chain, or as a transition to a new responsible professionalism. We argue that the technocratic approach is not able to address the socio-ethical issues that come along with these three developments, and explore various competencies and abilities that constitute a new responsible professionalism in the food chain.
Modernising the Kenyan Dairy Sector?
Rademaker, C.J. ; Jochemsen, H. ; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2018
In: Professionals in Food Chains. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863211 - p. 78 - 83.
The track record of livestock development interventions in promoting sustained poverty reduction is believed to be meagre. Could it be that the track record of livestock development interventions is so meagre because of the influence of a reductionistic worldview? The Cartesian worldview has been extremely influential in Western culture and broader. Central in this worldview is a thinking in terms of traditional versus modern and subject(ive) versus object(ive). It has been argued that in development cooperation this has given rise to projectivistic thinking and acting where reality, including the realities of farmers and others, is only meaningless material, to be freely given shape based on a rational design. This is accompanied by an attitude in which our by and large individualistic Western society with its (presumed) institutional mechanicism – such as the market mechanism – is seen to be the model for other societies as well. Finally, we can note a marginalisation of religion and worldview in the public debate. The aim of this contribution is thereforeto analyse in a qualitative way whether such traces of the Cartesian worldview can be linked to development programmes’ successes or failures in achieving impact. To this end, a set of eight impact evaluations of dairy development interventions in Kenya are considered, spanning the period 2007-2014. We (1) analyse what positive and negative effects – as emerging from the evaluation documents – have resulted from these interventions; (2) normatively reflect on what the evaluation documents posit as positive and negative effects; (3) analyse whether we can speak of a significant influence of the Cartesian worldview in such interventions; and (3) establish whether there is a relationship between the degree to which projects and programs embody a Cartesian worldview and their respective success or failure. Even though results are not available yet, and the relationship between the influence of a Cartesian worldview and a project or program’s success is hypothetical, we at least expect to provide a typology of positive and negative effects of Kenyan dairy development interventions, and be able to show to which degree projects and programs are influenced by the Cartesian worldview.
Reintroducing Environmental Change Drivers in Biodiversity–Ecosystem Functioning Research
Laender, F. de; Rohr, Jason R. ; Ashauer, Roman ; Baird, D.J. ; Berger, Uta ; Eisenhauer, N. ; Grimm, V. ; Hommen, U. ; Maltby, L. ; Melian, J. ; Pomati, Francesco ; Roessink, I. ; Radchuk, V. ; Brink, Paul van den - \ 2016
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31 (2016)12. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 905 - 915.
For the past 20 years, research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF) has only implicitly considered the underlying role of environmental change. We illustrate that explicitly reintroducing environmental change drivers in B-EF research is needed to predict the functioning of ecosystems facing changes in biodiversity. Next we show how this reintroduction improves experimental control over community composition and structure, which helps to provide mechanistic insight on how multiple aspects of biodiversity relate to function and how biodiversity and function relate in food webs. We also highlight challenges for the proposed reintroduction and suggest analyses and experiments to better understand how random biodiversity changes, as studied by classic approaches in B-EF research, contribute to the shifts in function that follow environmental change.
Improving communication and validation of ecological models : a case study on the dispersal of aquatic macroinvertebrates
Augusiak, Jacqueline A. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul van den Brink, co-promotor(en): V. Grimm. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579378 - 192
macroinvertebrates - aquatic invertebrates - ecological modeling - ecology - models - dispersal - environmental policy - macroinvertebraten - waterinvertebraten - ecologische modellering - ecologie - modellen - verspreiding - milieubeleid
In recent years, ecological effect models have been put forward as tools for supporting environmental decision-making. Often they are the only way to take the relevant spatial and temporal scales and the multitude of processes characteristic to ecological systems into account. Particularly for environmental risk assessments of pesticides the potential benefits of including modelling studies were recognized and a dialogue between different stakeholder groups was opened. Representatives from academia, pesticide-producing industries, and regulators are nowadays discussing their needs, possibilities, and ways of implementation for improving the use and usefulness of such models. However, it quickly became evident that not all involved parties possess the same background knowledge in regards to modelling terminology and model quality understanding. Proper communication of a given model's structure, robustness, and soundness is crucial to render a model of real use to the decision-making. Doubts about a model's quality and mode of operation may lead to an immediate rejection of the conclusions drawn from its estimations.
In this thesis, we addressed this point of concern, and performed a literature review focusing on aspects surrounding quality assessments, validation, and communication of models. "Validation" was identified as a catch-all term, which is thus useless for any practical purpose. Based on the review, we developed a framework that splits the seemingly blurry process into associated components and introduce the term ‘evaludation’, a fusion of ‘evaluation’ and ‘validation’, to describe the entire process of assessing a model's quality and reliability. Considering the iterative nature of model development, the modelling cycle, we identified six essential elements of evaludation: (i) ‘data evaluation’ for scrutinising the quality of numerical and qualitative data used for model development and testing; (ii) ‘conceptual model evaluation’ for examining the simplifying assumptions underlying a model's design; (iii) ‘implementation verification’ for testing the model's implementation in equations and as a computer programme; (iv) ‘model output verification’ for comparing model output to data and patterns that guided model design and were possibly used for calibration; (v) ‘model analysis’ for exploring the model's sensitivity to changes in parameters and process formulations to make sure that the mechanistic basis of main behaviours of the model has been well understood; and (vi) ‘model output corroboration’ for comparing model output to new data and patterns that were not used for model development and parameterisation.
In a subsequent step, we used the evaludation framework to re-evaluate and adjust the documentation framework TRACE (TRAnsparent and Comprehensive Eco- logical modelling; Schmolke et al. 2010), a general framework for documenting a model's rationale, design, and testing. TRACE documents should provide convincing evidence that a model was thoughtfully designed, correctly implemented, thoroughly tested, well understood, and appropriately used for its intended purpose. TRACE documents link the science underlying a model to its application, thereby also linking modellers and model users, for example stakeholders, decision makers, and developers of policies. TRACE thus becomes a tool for planning, documenting, and assessing model evaludation, which includes understanding the rationale behind a model and its envisaged use.
To provide an example of the measures that can be taken to increase general trust in a model's design and output, we chose MASTEP (Metapopulation model for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Effects of Pesticides) for a case study. MASTEP is an individual-based model used to describe the effects on and recovery of the water louse Asellus aquaticus after exposure to an insecticide in pond, ditch, and stream scenarios. The model includes processes of mortality of A. aquaticus, life history, random walk between cells and density dependence of population regulation. One of the submodels receiving particular criticism was the random walk procedure and the uncertainty attached to the parameters used. The parameters were estimated based on experimental studies performed under very limiting conditions.
We designed and performed experiments to derive more precise parameters and to better understand the movement behaviour of this freshwater isopod. The experimental procedure that we developed employed video tracking of marked individuals that were introduced alone or as part of a group of unmarked individuals into arenas of approximately 1m2 in size. We recorded the paths of the marked individuals under a set of different conditions, i.e. presence or absence of food or shelter, population density, and after sublethal exposure to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid. Based on the experimental findings, we refined the movement modelling procedure used in MASTEP to derive more realistic dispersal estimates, with which we revisited a modelling study performed previously by Galic et al. (2012). In this study, the effects of pesticide application timing on population dynamics and recovery times were tested and compared to outcomes from previous versions. It was furthermore possible to integrate an increased level of environmental complexity that could not be addressed before due to a lack of data. Compared to former versions of the population model, recovery times did not change significantly when the same movement parameters were applied to all simulated individuals. This indicates that the previous assumptions already yielded robust estimations. Accounting for life stage dependent movement restraints, though, delayed recovery when exposure occurred shortly before a reproduction cycle. Based on these findings, it was concluded that an increase of ever more realism and environmental complexity in modelling studies needs to be done carefully on a case-by-case basis. Increased realism in models can introduce an unwarranted increase in model complexity and uncertainty, which is not always supporting an improved credibility level of a model.
Despite the need for basic ecological research for more comprehensive ecological models, we further argue that a modelling study in general can benefit greatly from an improved plan that considers communication needs from the start. Considering such needs early on can help develop a time- and cost-saving strategy for model testing and data collection, while providing a thorough understanding of a model's underlying mechanisms across several layers of stakeholder groups.
Best available technology for European livestock farms : Availability, effectiveness and uptake
Loyon, L. ; Burton, C.H. ; Misselbrook, T. ; Webb, J. ; Philippe, F.X. ; Aguilar, M. ; Doreau, M. ; Hassouna, M. ; Veldkamp, T. ; Dourmad, J.Y. ; Bonmati, A. ; Grimm, E. ; Sommer, S.G. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Management 166 (2016). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 1 - 11.
BAT evaluation - Emissions - IPPC directive - Livestock farming - Manure - Measurements
Concerns over the negative environmental impact from livestock farming across Europe continue to make their mark resulting in new legislation and large research programs. However, despite a huge amount of published material and many available techniques, doubts over the success of national and European initiatives remain. Uptake of the more cost-effective and environmentally-friendly farming methods (such as dietary control, building design and good manure management) is already widespread but unlikely to be enough in itself to ensure that current environmental targets are fully met. Some of the abatement options available for intensive pig and poultry farming are brought together under the European IPPC/IED directive where they are listed as Best Available Techniques (BAT). This list is far from complete and other methods including many treatment options are currently excluded. However, the efficacies of many of the current BAT-listed options are modest, difficult to regulate and in some cases they may even be counterproductive with respect to other objectives ie pollution swapping. Evaluation of the existing and new BAT technologies is a key to a successful abatement of pollution from the sector and this in turn relies heavily on good measurement strategies. Consideration of the global effect of proposed techniques in the context of the whole farm will be essential for the development of a valid strategy.
Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning decoupled: invariant ecosystem functioning despite non-random reductions in consumer diversity
Radchuk, V. ; Leander, F. de; Brink, P.J. van den; Grimm, V. - \ 2016
Oikos 125 (2016)3. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 424 - 433.
Most research that demonstrates enhancement and stabilization of ecosystem functioning due to biodiversity is based on biodiversity manipulations within one trophic level and measuring changes in ecosystem functions provided by that same trophic level. However, it is less understood whether and how modifications of biodiversity at one trophic level propagate vertically to affect those functions supplied by connected trophic levels or by the whole ecosystem. Moreover, most experimental designs in biodiversity–ecosystem functioning research assume random species loss, which may be of little relevance to non-randomly assembled communities. Here, we used data from a published ecotoxicological experiment in which an insecticide gradient was applied as an environmental filter to shape consumer biodiversity. We tested how non-random consumer diversity loss affected gross primary production (an ecosystem function provided by producers) and respiration (an ecosystem function provided by the ecosystem as whole) in species-rich multitrophic freshwater communities (total of 128 macroinvertebrate and 59 zooplankton species across treatments). The insecticide decreased and destabilized macroinvertebrate and, to a lesser extent, zooplankton diversity. However, these effects on biodiversity neither affected nor destabilized any of the two studied ecosystem functions. The main reason for this result was that species susceptible to environmental filtering were different from those most strongly contributing to ecosystem functioning. The insecticide negatively affected the most abundant species, whereas much less abundant species had the strongest effects on ecosystem functioning. The latter finding may be explained by differences in body size and feeding guild membership. Our results indicate that biodiversity modifications within one trophic level induced by non-random species loss do not necessarily translate into changes in ecosystem functioning supported by other trophic levels or by the whole community in the case of limited overlap between sensitivity and functionality.
Equivalence testing of filter-based, beta-attenuation, TEOM, and light-scattering devices for measurement of PM10 concentration in animal houses
Winkel, A. ; Llorens Rubio, J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Vonk, J.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Journal of Aerosol Science 80 (2015). - ISSN 0021-8502 - p. 11 - 26.
particulate matter concentrations - pig fattening facilities - emission rates - indoor concentrations - gaseous pollutant - greenhouse gases - broiler houses - air-pollution - layer house - ammonia
Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from poultry and pig houses may contribute significantly to ambient concentrations. Yet, our knowledge on the accuracy and comparability of samplers available for measuring the high PM10 concentrations (>100 µg m–3) in the inside air directly upstream of the ventilation exhausts of these buildings is very limited. The aim of this study was to provide insight into this matter for five candidate samplers: a filter-based cyclone sampler (CYS), the Thermo Scientific FH 62 I-R beta-attenuation sampler (BAS), the Thermo Scientific Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance, model 1400ab (TEOM), the TSI DustTrak model 8520 (DT), and the GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer model 1.109 (PAS). Equivalence tests were carried out following European Standard EN 12341 using two devices for each candidate sampler (CAS) and four filter-based low-volume reference samplers (RES). Measurements were performed inside three major animal housings (a fattening pig house, a laying hen house, and a broiler house) and inside an office room. Our key results and conclusions are: (1) neither one of the five CASs, nor the RES itself, met the EN 12341 requirement for comparability between devices of the same sampler type. Using a less strict boundary for this aspect – in concert with performing duplicate sampling – may be appropriate. (2) The CYS met the EN 12341 accuracy requirements in pigs and layers, but overestimated the RES concentration in broilers. The BAS, TEOM, and DT underestimated, and the PAS overestimated, RES concentrations in a systematic manner. The use of correction factors seems to be a promising method to calibrate measured values to RES concentrations. (3) The BAS, TEOM, DT, and PAS started to show scattered regression after 432–500 h of sampling, which stresses the need for shortened time intervals between full services. In conclusion, some of the samplers tested could be regarded acceptable when appropriate measures (such as duplicate sampling, correction factors, and more frequent servicing) are applied.
Towards better modelling and decision support: Documenting model development, testing, and analysis using TRACE
Grimm, V. ; Augusiak, J.A. ; Focks, A. ; Frank, B.M. ; Gabsi, F. - \ 2014
Ecological Modelling 280 (2014). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 129 - 139.
individual-based model - ecological risk-assessment - systems - dynamics - protocol - exposure
The potential of ecological models for supporting environmental decision making is increasingly acknowledged. However, it often remains unclear whether a model is realistic and reliable enough. Good practice for developing and testing ecological models has not yet been established. Therefore, TRACE, a general framework for documenting a model's rationale, design, and testing was recently suggested. Originally TRACE was aimed at documenting good modelling practice. However, the word ‘documentation’ does not convey TRACE's urgency. Therefore, we re-define TRACE as a tool for planning, performing, and documenting good modelling practice. TRACE documents should provide convincing evidence that a model was thoughtfully designed, correctly implemented, thoroughly tested, well understood, and appropriately used for its intended purpose. TRACE documents link the science underlying a model to its application, thereby also linking modellers and model users, for example stakeholders, decision makers, and developers of policies. We report on first experiences in producing TRACE documents. We found that the original idea underlying TRACE was valid, but to make its use more coherent and efficient, an update of its structure and more specific guidance for its use are needed. The updated TRACE format follows the recently developed framework of model ‘evaludation’: the entire process of establishing model quality and credibility throughout all stages of model development, analysis, and application. TRACE thus becomes a tool for planning, documenting, and assessing model evaludation, which includes understanding the rationale behind a model and its envisaged use. We introduce the new structure and revised terminology of TRACE and provide examples.
Merging validation and evaluation of ecological models to evaluation': a review of terminology and a practical approach
Augusiak, J.A. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Grimm, V. - \ 2014
Ecological Modelling 280 (2014). - ISSN 0304-3800 - p. 117 - 128.
individual-based models - risk-assessment - environmental-models - quality-assurance - simulation-model - complex-systems - beech forests - assessments - verification - uncertainty
Confusion about model validation is one of the main challenges in using ecological models for decision support, such as the regulation of pesticides. Decision makers need to know whether a model is a sufficiently good representation of its real counterpart and what criteria can be used to answer this question. Unclear terminology is one of the main obstacles to a good understanding of what model validation is, how it works, and what it can deliver. Therefore, we performed a literature review and derived a standard set of terms. ‘Validation’ was identified as a catch-all term, which is thus useless for any practical purpose. We introduce the term ‘evaludation’, a fusion of ‘evaluation’ and ‘validation’, to describe the entire process of assessing a model's quality and reliability. Considering the iterative nature of model development, the modelling cycle, we identified six essential elements of evaludation: (i) ‘data evaluation’ for scrutinising the quality of numerical and qualitative data used for model development and testing; (ii) ‘conceptual model evaluation’ for examining the simplifying assumptions underlying a model's design; (iii) ‘implementation verification’ for testing the model's implementation in equations and as a computer programme; (iv) ‘model output verification’ for comparing model output to data and patterns that guided model design and were possibly used for calibration; (v) ‘model analysis’ for exploring the model's sensitivity to changes in parameters and process formulations to make sure that the mechanistic basis of main behaviours of the model has been well understood; and (vi) ‘model output corroboration’ for comparing model output to new data and patterns that were not used for model development and parameterisation. Currently, most decision makers require ‘validating’ a model by testing its predictions with new experiments or data. Despite being desirable, this is neither sufficient nor necessary for a model to be useful for decision support. We believe that the proposed set of terms and its relation to the modelling cycle can help to make quality assessments and reality checks of ecological models more comprehensive and transparent. Keywords Model validation; Terminology; Decision support; Documentation; Ecological models; Risk assessment
Mighty small: Observing and modeling individual microbes becomes big science
Kreft, J.U. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Grimm, V. ; Prats, C. ; Leveau, J.H.J. ; Banitz, T. ; Baines, S. ; Clark, J. ; Ros, A. ; Klapper, I. ; Topping, C.J. ; Field, A.J. ; Schuler, A. ; Litchman, E. ; Hellweger, F.L. - \ 2013
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (2013)45. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 18027 - 18028.
Progress in microbiology has always been driven by technological advances, ever since Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria by making an improved compound microscope. However, until very recently we have not been able to identify microbes and record their mostly invisible activities, such as nutrient consumption or toxin production on the level of the single cell, not even in the laboratory. This is now changing with the rapid rise of exciting new technologies for single-cell microbiology (1, 2), which enable microbiologists to do what plant and animal ecologists have been doing for a long time: observe who does what, when, where, and next to whom. Single cells taken from the environment can be identified and even their genomes sequenced. Ex situ, their size, elemental, and biochemical composition, as well as other characteristics can be measured with high-throughput and cells sorted accordingly. Even better, individual microbes can be observed in situ with a range of novel microscopic and spectroscopic methods, enabling localization, identification, or functional characterization of cells in a natural sample, combined with detecting uptake of labeled compounds. Alternatively, they can be placed into fabricated microfluidic environments, where they can be positioned, exposed to stimuli, monitored, and their interactions controlled “in microfluido.” By introducing genetically engineered reporter cells into a fabricated landscape or a microcosm taken from nature, their reproductive success or activity can be followed, or their sensing of their local environment recorded.
CREAM: A European Project on Mechanistic Effect Models for Ecological Risk Assessment of Chemicals
Grimm, V. ; Ashauer, R. ; Forbes, V. ; Hommen, U. ; Preuss, T.G. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2009
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16 (2009)6. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 614 - 617.
population-dynamics - pesticides - invertebrates - survival
Mechanistic effect models for ecological risk assessment of chemicals (MEMoRisk) - a new SETAC-Europe Advisory Group
Preuss, T.G. ; Hommen, U. ; Alix, A. ; Ashauer, R. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Chapman, P. ; Ducrot, V. ; Forbes, V. ; Grimm, V. ; Schäfer, D. ; Streissl, F. ; Thorbek, P. - \ 2009
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 16 (2009)3. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 250 - 252.
|Ecological models in support of regulatory risk assessment of pesticides: developing a strategy for the future
Forbes, V.E. ; Hommen, U. ; Thorbek, P. ; Heimbach, F. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Wogram, J. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Grimm, V. - \ 2009
In: 2nd SETAC Europe Special Science Symposium on Current developments on Environmental Risk Assessment for Plant Protection Products, Brussels, Belgium, 17-18 September 2009. - Brussels : SETAC Europe - p. 57 - 60.
Ecological Models in Support of Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future
Forbes, V.E. ; Hommen, U. ; Thorbek, P. ; Heimbach, F. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Wogram, J. ; Thulke, H.H. ; Grimm, V. - \ 2009
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 5 (2009)1. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 167 - 172.
This brief communication reports on the main findings of the LEMTOX workshop, held from 9 to 12 September 2007, at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig, Germany. The workshop brought together a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, regulatory authorities, contract research organizations, and industry, representing Europe, the United States, and Asia, to discuss the role of ecological modeling in risk assessments of pesticides, particularly under the European regulatory framework. The following questions were addressed: What are the potential benefits of using ecological models in pesticide registration and risk assessment? What obstacles prevent ecological modeling from being used routinely in regulatory submissions? What actions are needed to overcome the identified obstacles? What recommendations should be made to ensure good modeling practice in this context? The workshop focused exclusively on population models, and discussion was focused on those categories of population models that link effects on individuals (e.g., survival, growth, reproduction, behavior) to effects on population dynamics. The workshop participants concluded that the overall benefits of ecological modeling are that it could bring more ecology into ecological risk assessment, and it could provide an excellent tool for exploring the importance of, and interactions among, ecological complexities. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome before such models will receive wide acceptance for pesticide risk assessment, despite having been used extensively in other contexts (e.g., conservation biology). The need for guidance on Good Modeling Practice (on model development, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, documentation, and communication), as well as the need for case studies that can be used to explore the added value of ecological models for risk assessment, were identified as top priorities. Assessing recovery potential of exposed nontarget species and clarifying the ecological relevance of standard laboratory test results are two areas for which ecological modeling may be able to provide considerable benefits
Ecological-economic modeling for biodiversity management: potential, pitfalls, and prospects
Wätzold, F. ; Drechsler, M. ; Armstrong, C.W. ; Baumgärtner, S. ; Grimm, V. ; Huth, A. ; Perrings, C. ; Possingham, H.P. ; Shogren, J.F. ; Skonhoft, A. ; Verboom-Vasiljev, J. ; Wissel, C. - \ 2006
Conservation Biology 20 (2006)4. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1034 - 1041.
computational economics - compensation payments - species protection - political-economy - conservation - stability - reserves - systems - policy
Ecologists and economists both use models to help develop strategies for biodiversity management. The practical use of disciplinary models, however, can be limited because ecological models tend not to address the socioeconomic dimension of biodiversity management, whereas economic models tend to neglect the ecological dimension. Given these shortcomings of disciplinary models, there is a necessity to combine ecological and economic knowledge into ecological-economic models. It is insufficient if scientists work separately in their own disciplines and combine their knowledge only when it comes to formulating management recommendations. Such an approach does not capture feedback loops between the ecological and the socioeconomic systems. Furthermore, each discipline poses the management problem in its own way and comes up with its own most appropriate solution. These disciplinary solutions, however are likely to be so different that a combined solution considering aspects of both disciplines cannot be found. Preconditions for a successful model-based integration of ecology and economics include (1) an in-depth knowledge of the two disciplines, (2) the adequate identification and framing of the problem to be investigated, and (3) a common understanding between economists and ecologists of modeling and scale. To further advance ecological-economic modeling the development of common benchmarks, quality controls, and refereeing standards for ecological-economic models is desirable.
Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment for Europe: the PESERA map, version 1 October 2003. Explanation of Special Publication Ispra 2004 No. 73 (S.P.I.04.73)
Kirkby, M. ; Jones, R.J.A. ; Irvine, B. ; Gobin, A.G.G. ; Cerdan, O. ; Rompaey, J.J. van; Bissonais, Y. Le; Daroussin, J. ; King, D. ; Montanarella, L. ; Grimm, M. ; Vieillefont, V. ; Puidefabregas, J. ; Rozema-Boer, M. ; Kosmas, C. ; Yassoglou, N. ; Tsara, M. ; Mantel, S. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van; Huting, J.R.M. - \ 2004
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities (European Soils Bureau Research Report 16, 21176)
|Direct uitlezende stofmonitoren in de praktijk. Een vergelijkend onderzoek naar de prestaties van de Grimm, Dust Trak, Data RAM en Mini RAM.
Jansen, H.J.F. ; Zock, J.P. ; Kromhout, H. - \ 1997
Tijdschrift Toegepaste Arbowetenschap 10 (1997). - p. 18 - 23.
Use of mesocosms in a shallow eutrophic lake to study the effects of different restoration measures.
Donk, E. van; Grimm, M.P. ; Heuts, P.G.M. ; Blom, G. ; Everards, K. ; Tongeren, O.F.R. van - \ 1994
Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Ergebnisse der Limnologie 40 (1994). - ISSN 0071-1128 - p. 283 - 294.
First attempt to apply whole-lake food-web manipulation on a large scale in The Netherlands.
Donk, E. van; Grimm, M.P. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Heuts, P.G.M. ; Kloet, W.A. de; Liere, L. van - \ 1990
Hydrobiologia 200-201 (1990). - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 291 - 301.
Lake Breukeleveen is a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970-1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2g m-2y-1 to 0.35g m-2y-1. Water transparency (Secchi-depth c30cm), however, has not improved. In March 1989 the standing crop of planktivorous and benthivorous fish populations was reduced by intensive fishery, from 150kg ha-1 to 57kg ha-1. The lake was made inaccessible to fish migrating from the other lakes and it was stocked with large-sized daphnids and 0+ pike Esox lucius, water transparency did not increase in the following summer and autumn 1989. The main explanations for the negative outcome in Lake Breukeleveen are: 1) the rapid increase of the planktivorous fish biomass and carnivorous cladocerans, predating on the zooplankton community; 2) suppression of the large daphnids by the high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria; 3) high turbidity of the lake due to resuspension of bottom material induced by wind, unlike in smaller lakes, and thus inability of submerged macrophytes to develop and to stabilize the ecosystem. -from Authors