Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Verdienmodellen natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Polman, Nico ; Dijkshoorn, Marijke ; Doorneweert, Bart ; Rijk, Piet ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Smit, Bert ; Splinter, Gerben ; Heideveld, Antoine ; Geerts, Rob ; Grin, John ; Korevaar, Hein ; Setten, Bert van; Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - 64
    Enriching the multi-level perspective by better understanding agency and challenges associated with interactions across system boundaries. The case of care farming in the Netherlands : Multifunctional agriculture meets health care
    Hassink, Jan ; Grin, John ; Hulsink, Willem - \ 2018
    Journal of Rural Studies 57 (2018). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 186 - 196.
    Care farming - Entrepreneurship - Legitimacy - Multi-functional agriculture - Multi-level perspective - Transition theory

    The multi-level perspective (MLP) is broadly and successfully used as a framework for understanding transitions. However several aspects need more attention like agency, interactions across system boundaries and multi-regime interactions. We used our detailed and contextualized knowledge and analysis of the developing care farming sector in the Netherlands to increase our understanding of the role of agency and challenges and successful strategies of actors associated with interactions across system boundaries. We used entrepreneurship, institutional entrepreneurship and social movement theory to better understand agency in MLP. Connecting separated sectors, overcoming lack of legitimacy, lack of embeddedness and dealing with different logics were challenges associated with the care farm innovation that transcends system boundaries. Actors with a dual identity and combining entrepreneurial and institutional behavior and actors connecting with embedded actors with corresponding logics were important in overcoming these challenges.

    Transformative leadership and contextual change
    Grin, John ; Hassink, Jan ; Karadzic, Vanja ; Moors, Ellen H.M. - \ 2018
    Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Innovation systems - Leadership - Relational leadership - Transformative leadership - Transitions - Value co-creation

    Transitions to deal with the grand challenges of contemporary societies require novel kinds of leadership, which can both stimulate novel organizational practices and changes in practices and structures in the organization's context. This article seeks to understand how (changes in) the external structural context may influence organizational-internal transformative leadership and vice versa, and what kind of work is implied in leadership to transform current business models. It uses notions from literature on relational leadership and transformative leadership as sensitizing concepts. It then explores the leadership work in two case studies, on fishing in Portugal and care farming in the Netherlands. We find a dialectic interplay of the interactions between leaders and others on the one hand, and contextual changes on the other. Using a system-building perspective from innovation system literature, that interaction is driven by the quest to establish legitimacy and market formation and acceptance, knowledge and other resources for innovations.

    Verdienmodellen natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Polman, Nico ; Dijkshoorn, Marijke ; Doorneweert, Bart ; Rijk, Piet ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Smit, Bert ; Splinter, Gerben ; Heideveld, Antoine ; Geerts, Rob ; Grin, John ; Korevaar, Hein ; Setten, Bert van; Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - 57
    Understanding Care Farming as a swiftly developing sector in The Netherlands
    Hassink, J. - \ 2017
    University of Amsterdam (UvA). Promotor(en): John Grin, co-promotor(en): Willem Hulsink. - Amsterdam : Amsterdam Institute of Social Science Research, University of Amsterdam - 300
    System innovation : Workplace health development
    Vaandrager, L. ; Bakker, Ingrid ; Koelen, M.A. ; Baart, Paul ; Raaijmakers, Tamara - \ 2017
    In: Toward Sustainable Transitions in Healthcare Systems / Broerse, Jacqueline E.W, Grin, John, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9780415888417 - p. 110 - 131.
    Identity formation and strategy development in overlapping institutional fields : Different entry & alignment strategies of regional organizations of care farms into the healthcare domain
    Hassink, Jan ; Grin, John ; Hulsink, Willem - \ 2016
    Journal of Organizational Change Management 29 (2016)6. - ISSN 0953-4814 - p. 973 - 993.
    Agricultural diversification - Care farming - Entrepreneurial strategies - Legitimacy - Organizational identity

    Purpose: Care farming is an underexplored example of agricultural diversification. In their process of diversification, care farmers are newcomers to the healthcare sector, facing high entry barriers and lacking the skills required to build a solid and legitimate presence in this new domain. Changes in the care regime have provided opportunities for new players, like regional organizations of care farmers, to gain access to care budgets. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how strategies designed to establish regional organizations of care farms with similar access to institutional resources unfold and are translated into entrepreneurial behavior, organizational identity and legitimacy, and help provide access to care budgets. Design/methodology/approach: Using entrepreneurship, identity formation and legitimacy building as guiding concepts, the authors interviewed stakeholders and analyzed activities and documents to gain a broad perspective with regard to the organizations, skills and activities. Findings: The authors identified two types of regional care farm organizations: a cooperative and a corporate type. While the corporate type clearly exhibited entrepreneurial behavior, leading to a trustful and appealing organizational identity, substantial fund-raising and an early manifestation of institutional and innovative legitimacy in the care sector, the cooperative type initially lacked entrepreneurial agency, which in turn led to a lack of legitimacy and a slow development toward a more professional market-oriented organization. Manifesting entrepreneurial behavior and strategically aligning the healthcare and agricultural sectors, and building up both institutional and innovative legitimacy in the care sector proved to be crucial to the successful development of regional organizations of care farms. This study contributes to existing literature by exploring relationships between entrepreneurial and institutional strategies, legitimacy, organizational identity and logics. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature by exploring how in times with changes in institutional logics, strategies to establish new organizations unfold. The authors have shown how differences in strategy to establish new organizations with similar access to institutional resources unfold and are translated into diverging organizational identities and degrees of legitimacy. Entrepreneurial behavior is the key to create a trustful and appealing identity and innovative and institutional legitimacy which is important for providing access to an institutionalized sector.

    Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare : Different entry strategies of care farmers
    Hassink, Jan ; Hulsink, Willem ; Grin, John - \ 2016
    Journal of Rural Studies 43 (2016). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 27 - 39.
    Entrepreneurship - Legitimacy - Multifunctional agriculture - Opportunity structure

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of different types of care farmers: varying in weak and strong multi-functionality, the degree of legitimacy and background of the initiator. Our objective is to provide insight into the key factors contributing to the development and success of care farms, in particular by focusing on the role of entrepreneurship, commitment and the ability to cope with barriers in the environment. We developed a framework based on entrepreneurship and opportunity structure. We interviewed different types of care farmers. Many of them were farmers' spouses with prior experience in the care sector. Entrepreneurship and the local and national opportunity structure, like (changes in) financing regulations, interact and explain the accessibility and growth potential of care farms. Pioneers in the emerging care farming sector faced a lack of cognitive and sociopolitical legitimacy and a mismatch with incumbent financing structures. Initially, they only succeeded with sufficient levels of entrepreneurial behavior and commitment. Having a professional background and network in the care sector was helpful in the starting phase. Later entrants experienced more legitimacy and fewer barriers as financing regulations had changed. They had different entry options: being independent or under supervision of a care organization or a regional support organization of care farms. For this latter option, newcomer problems were solved by established care organizations. However, there was a risk of becoming too dependent on established care organizations. Initiatives with weak multi-functionality failed more often than initiatives with strong multi-functionality due to unrealistic expectations and limited commitment on the part of initiators.

    New Practices of Farm-Based Community-Oriented Social Care Services in The Netherlands
    Hassink, Jan ; Grin, John ; Hulsink, Willem - \ 2015
    Journal of Social Service Research 41 (2015)1. - ISSN 0148-8376 - p. 49 - 63.
    boundary spanning - care farming - community-oriented services - cross-sector collaboration - implementation

    Social care services provided by farmers provide a community-based collaboration that can empower people and improve their quality of life. The objective of this study was to increase understanding of the collaboration between care organizations and farmers. The study involves 4 cases, and all stakeholders involved in the collaboration were interviewed using boundary spanning and the quest of innovative practices for legitimacy as sensitizing concepts. In this study, 2 types of boundary spanners were identified: initiators of collaboration and top-level managers. Successful collaboration expressed by structural implementation of farm-based services in the care organization and the positive reactions of clients, care organizations, and farmers is initiated by committed and strategically operating boundary spanners with different backgrounds. Support from top-level management of the care organizations involved is crucial for overall success. Future research needs to focus on collaboration with other types of newcomers in the care sector, the impact of budget cuts in the social and care domains, and the increasing pressure on participation of service users in society in collaboration processes.

    Verdienmodellen voor Natuurinclusieve landbouw. Wat ondernemers al doen, en wat de overheid kan doen om opschaling te bevorderen
    Grin, J. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Notitie 2015-044) - 19
    landbouw - agrarisch natuurbeheer - ecosysteemdiensten - agrarische productiesystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agriculture - agri-environment schemes - ecosystem services - agricultural production systems - sustainability
    De Rijksnatuurvisie 2014 breekt een lans voor natuurinclusieve landbouw waarbij veel nadruk ligt op de rol van markt en maatschappij. Zulke landbouw behelst wat de nota noemt ‘natuurcombinaties’ waarbij natuur en economische activiteiten met elkaar vervlochten zijn. Een natuurinclusieve landbouw heeft een wezenlijk andere oriëntatie dan gangbare landbouw. In dit essay gaan we in op de voorwaarden waaronder natuurinclusieve verdienmodellen op middellange termijn op grote schaal kunnen worden gerealiseerd. Dit wordt uiteengezet op basis van de ervaringen van koplopers, die al langer aan natuurinclusieve landbouw doen.
    Verdienmodellen Natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Polman, N.B.P. ; Dijkshoorn, M.W.C. ; Doorneweert, R.B. ; Rijk, P.J. ; Vogelzang, T.A. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Heideveld, A. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR - 49
    akkerbouw - veehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarische economie - agrarisch natuurbeheer - extensieve landbouw - economische samenwerking - natuurbeheer - inventarisaties - arable farming - livestock farming - farm management - agricultural economics - agri-environment schemes - extensive farming - economic cooperation - nature management - inventories
    Voor de sectoren akkerbouw en veehouderij zijn voorbeelden uitgewerkt hoe rekening gehouden kan worden met natuur. Bij natuurinclusieve landbouw zijn de negatieve effecten van de agrarische bedrijfsvoering op de natuur minimaal en de positieve effecten van de natuur op de bedrijfsvoering maximaal. Dit nieuwe perspectief op de relatie tussen economie en natuur biedt, zeker in de landbouw met zijn specifieke relatie tot natuur en omgeving, een andere kijk op bedrijfsvoering.
    Farming with care: the evolution of care farming in the Netherlands
    Hassink, J. ; Hulsink, W. ; Grin, J. - \ 2014
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 68 (2014). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 1 - 11.
    environmental cooperatives - agriculture - innovation - multifunctionality - diversification - organizations - transition - movements - networks - pathways
    The aim of this paper is to describe and understand the evolution of the care farming sector in one of its pioneering countries, the Netherlands. Care farms combine agricultural production with health and social services. Care farming is a phenomenon that faces specific challenges associated with connecting two different domains. Organizational ecology, social movement theory and the multi-level perspective are helpful concepts in interpreting and contextualizing the developments that have taken place. Organizational ecology explains how the number of care farms, and the legitimacy and diversity of the care farming sector, have increased rapidly over time. Strategic actions of dedicated boundary spanners have played an important role in the development of the sector. Social movement theory explains the impact of collaborative action in the pioneering and later stages. The multi-level perspective explains changes in the care regime, like the introduction of the personal budget of patients and the liberalization of the Dutch health care sector, helping to provide access of foundations of care farms to the collective health insurance for the costs of long-term care. Media exposure, contacts with ministries and politicians and the development of a quality system have contributed to the legitimacy of the sector. Changes in the care regime and collective action promoted a further expansion of the sector and provided direction to the ways the sector developed qualitatively, especially in terms of the emergence of structures aimed at facilitating existing and promoting new care farming practices. Our framework sheds light on changes in agriculture and transsectoral collaboration. Keywords care farming; social movement theory; organizational ecology; multi-level perspective; transition science; multi-functional agriculture
    Multifunctional agriculture meets Health Care: applying the Multi-level Transition Sciences Perspective to Care Farming in the Netherlands
    Hassink, J. ; Grin, J. ; Hulsink, W. - \ 2013
    Sociologia Ruralis 53 (2013)2. - ISSN 0038-0199 - p. 223 - 245.
    strategic niche management - facilitator perceptions relate - institutional entrepreneurship - innovation networks - implementation - dynamics - policy - firms - organizations - embeddedness
    Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture: it is an innovation at the crossroads of the agricultural and healthcare sectors. Our objective is to develop a framework for understanding the success of initiatives in this field. We link empirical data with the multi-level perspective from the transition sciences and extend this perspective with insights from the literature on entrepreneurship, alliance management and organisational attributes. This framework allows us to explain the success of the three major types of initiatives: (1) individual care farms; (2) regional foundations of care farmers; and (3) care institutions collaborating with groups of farmers at a regional level. We propose that the main factors responsible for the success of initiatives are the commitment and competences of the entrepreneur, the creation of alliances, the quality of the new regional organisations and the implementation of the care farm services in care organisations. The relative importance of the factors varies between the different types of initiatives and local and regional levels.
    Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems
    Elzen, B. ; Barbier, M. ; Cerf, M. ; Grin, J. - \ 2012
    In: Farming Systems Research into the 21st Century: The New Dynamic / Darnhofer, I., Gibbon, D., Dedieu, B., Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media - ISBN 9789400745025 - p. 431 - 455.
    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal initiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. We argue that a transition will have to come from a range of novelties that initially have various misfits with an existing regime. To tackle these misfits will require a learning process that needs to be of a ‘reflexive’ nature which implies that various taken for granted characteristics of the regime and beliefs of stakeholders can be questioned. Another critical issue is that this learning not only takes place in a protected environment (or niche) but that new links with the existing regime need to be created. Only then can learning about novelties start a transformation process in the regime that may eventually lead to a transition.
    Care Farms in the Netherlands: An Underexplored Example of Multifunctional Agriculture—Toward an Empirically Grounded, Organization-Theory-Based Typology
    Hassink, J. ; Hulsink, W. ; Grin, J. - \ 2012
    Rural Sociology 77 (2012)4. - ISSN 0036-0112 - p. 569 - 600.
    rural-development - diversification - configurations - pluriactivity - strategy - arrangements - integration - management - resources - pathways
    For agricultural and rural development in Europe, multifunctionality is a leading concept that raises many questions. Care farming is a promising example of multifunctional agriculture that has so far received little attention. An issue that has not been examined thoroughly is the strategic mapping of different care farm organizations in this emerging field. The objective of this article is to develop a typology for care farms in the Netherlands and provide insight into the diversity of care farms. We have used different concepts from organization theory and information from regional organizations of care farmers to identify key dimensions and develop a typology of care farms. Key dimensions are the ratio between agriculture and care, the background of the initiators, and the degree of collaboration with formal care institutions. We found six main types of care farms with different identities, four of which were initiated by the farmers' families (mainly female partners). The other two types were started by new entrants in agriculture. On the basis of our findings, we confirmed, disputed, and supplemented insights to multifunctional farming literature. As a further contribution to that field, drawing from the organization theories underlying our typology, we have sought to understand how different types of care farms could emerge.
    Reflexive interactive design as an instrument for dual track governance
    Bos, A.P. ; Grin, J. - \ 2012
    In: System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture. / Barbier, M., Elzen, B.E., Paris : INRA - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 132 - 153.
    Sustainable development cannot be attained by technical innovation alone; it calls for a reorientation of the existing socio-technical regime: a system innovation. This implies the coordination of the distributed agency of the actors that focus on structural change, as well as activities focusing on the development of novel practices. These two ‘tracks’ of governance activities may reinforce each other in a process of dual track governance if they ‘reach out to each other’, i.e. seek to make functional connections. The paper describes a design-oriented approach to this dual track governance issue, called Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO). This approach is based on the idea that one can anticipate and facilitate system innovation by the introduction of novel concepts midway between broad future visions and specific novelties. Design and the design process turn out to act as a good vehicle to align processes of change both at the regime level and the niche level. The paper analyses the application of the approach in two design projects on sustainable husbandry of pigs and laying hens. These projects evolved into concrete experiments and new farms that radically diverge from the dominant practice, and have clearly contributed to changes at the level of the regime.
    Research Agenda and Policy Input of the Earth System Science Partnership for Coping with Global Environmental Change
    Leemans, R. ; Rice, M. ; Henderson-Sellers, A. ; Noone, K. - \ 2011
    In: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks / Brauch, H.G., Oswald Spring, U., Mesjasz, C., Grin, J., Kameri-Mbote, P., Chourou, B., Dunay, P., Birkmann, J., Berlijn : Springer (Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Secutiry and Peace 5) - ISBN 9783642177750 - p. 1205 - 1220.
    Human activities now match (and often exceed) the natural forces of the Earth System (Steffen/Sanderson/ Tyson/Jäger/Matson/Moore/Oldfield/Richardson/ Schellnhuber/Turner/Wasson 2004). Recent ice core data show that current levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane are well outside the range of natural variability over the last 800,000 years (Luthi/Le Floch/ Bereiter/Blunier/Barnola/Siegenthaler/Raynaud/Jouzel/ Fischer/Kawamura/Stocker 2008). Roughly half of the world’s ice-free land surface has been altered by human actions. Humans now fix more nitrogen than does nature. Particles emitted by human activities alter the energy balance of the planet, as well as having adverse effects on human health. Human choices about how we use resources are at the heart of many of these changes. These may seem to be unrelated issues; however, over the last decades, we have gained a deeper understanding of the degree to which all of these separate issues are linked. The Earth System is a very complex coupled system with myriad feedbacks, and it has and inevitably can still exhibit rapid, globalscale responses to changes in environmental conditions (Costanza/Graumlich/Steffen/Crumley/Dearing/Hibbard/ Leemans/Redman/Schimel 2007).
    Evaluatie "Duurzame businessmodellen in de zorglandbouw"
    Hassink, J. ; Hulsink, W. ; Grin, J. - \ 2010
    [S.l.] : TransForum - 4
    zorgboerderijen - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - bedrijfsmanagement - modellen - social care farms - urban agriculture - urban areas - business management - models
    Zorglandbouw is een vorm van metropolitane landbouw. Het verbindt de zorgvraag uit metropolitane gebieden aan agrarische ondernemers die dagbesteding aanbieden. Hierdoor ontstaat nieuwe (agrarische) bedrijvigheid die ervoor zorgt dat agrarisch cultuurlandschap rond de stad kan worden behouden. Een solide businessmodel voor professionele zorglandbouw is nodig om deze nieuwe sector duurzaam voort te kunnen zetten. De resultaten van dit TransForum project geven inzicht in de verschillende organisatievormen van zorglandbouw, en in de factoren die bepalend zijn voor succes. Deze inzichten zijn behulpzaam voor verdere analyse van zorglandbouwinitiatieven; voor het bijsturen van bestaande zorglandbouwinitiatieven; en voor nieuwe initiatiefnemers in de zorglandbouw om een goede organisatievorm te kiezen.
    Current taxonomic composition of European genebank material documented in EURISCO
    Hintum, T.J.L. van; Knupffer, H. - \ 2010
    Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 8 (2010)2. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 182 - 188.
    Taxonomy plays an essential role in genebank documentation. It is often the first level at which users search material, and it determines the protocols used in the management of collections. Especially, when plant genetic resources information is pooled in systems such as EURISCO, the European catalogue of ex situ plant genetic resources, problems regarding technical handling of taxonomic nomenclature, such as lack of standardization and low quality of data, become apparent. These problems were studied by analysing the content of EURISCO and mapping the taxon names in EURISCO on those used in the United States Department of Agriculture genebank system GRIN-Tax. Thus, the number of spelling errors and the level of standardization could be quantified and improved. An analysis of the content of EURISCO was made, showing a highly unbalanced distribution over crops: 50% of the accessions belong to ten genera only. Mapping EURISCO on the crops listed in Annex 1 of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture showed that 67% of the accessions in EURISCO belong to crops in that list.
    Reflexive interactive design as an instrument for dual track governance. Paper presented at the International workshop on System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Sustainable Agriculture.
    Bos, A.P. ; Grin, J. - \ 2010
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