Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Paving the Way to Tospovirus Infection: Multilined Interplays with Plant Innate Immunity
Zhu, Min ; Grinsven, Irene Louise Van; Kormelink, Richard ; Tao, Xiaorong - \ 2019
Annual Review of Phytopathology 57 (2019). - ISSN 0066-4286 - p. 41 - 62.
Antiviral RNAi - Effector/avirulence determinant - NLR - R gene - tospovirus - Viral RNA silencing suppressor

Tospoviruses are among the most important plant pathogens and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Tospoviruses have evolved to smartly utilize the host cellular machinery to accomplish their life cycle. Plants mount two layers of defense to combat their invasion. The first one involves the activation of an antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) defense response. However, tospoviruses encode an RNA silencing suppressor that enables them to counteract antiviral RNAi. To further combat viral invasion, plants also employ intracellular innate immune receptors (e.g., Sw-5b and Tsw) to recognize different viral effectors (e.g., NSm and NSs). This leads to the triggering of a much more robust defense against tospoviruses called effector-Triggered immunity (ETI). Tospoviruses have further evolved their effectors and can break Sw-5b-/Tsw-mediated resistance. The arms race between tospoviruses and both layers of innate immunity drives the coevolution of host defense and viral genes involved in counter defense. In this review, a state-of-The-Art overview is presented on the tospoviral life cycle and the multilined interplays between tospoviruses and the distinct layers of defense.

Correction to: Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union
Grinsven, Hans J.M. van; Dam, Jan D. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Timmers, Marloes H.G. ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Lassaletta, Luis - \ 2019
Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)6. - ISSN 1436-3798

The article Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union, written by Hans J. M. van Grinsven, Jan D. van Dam, Jan Peter Lesschen, Marloes H. G. Timmers, Gerard L. Velthof, Luis Lassaletta, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 May 2018 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on April 2019 to

Future global pig production systems according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
Lassaletta, Luis ; Estellés, Fernando ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Bouwman, Lex ; Calvet, Salvador ; Grinsven, Hans J.M. Van; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Stehfest, Elke ; Uwizeye, Aimable ; Westhoek, Henk - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 665 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 739 - 751.
Global pork production has increased fourfold over the last 50 years and is expected to continue growing during the next three decades. This may have considerable implications for feed use, land requirements, and nitrogen
emissions. To analyze the development of the pig production sector at the scale of world regions, we developed the IMAGE-Pig model to describe changes in feed demand, feed conversion ratios (FCRs), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and nitrogen excretion for backyard, intermediate and intensive systems during the past fewdecades as a basis to explore future scenarios. For each region and production system, total production, productive characteristics and dietary compositions were defined for the 1970–2005 period. The results showthat due to the growing pork production total feed demand has increased by a factor of two (from 229 to 471Tg DM). This is despite the improvement of FCRs during the 1970–2005 period, which has reduced the feed use per kg of product. The increase of nitrogen use efficiency was slower than the improvement of FCRs due to increasing protein content in the feed rations. As a result, total N excretion increased bymore than a factor of two in the 1970–2005 period
(from 4.6 to 11.1 Tg N/year). For the period up to 2050, the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) provide information on levels of human consumption, technical development and environmental awareness. The sustainability of pig production systems for the coming decades will be based not only on the expected efficiency
Balans van de Leefomgeving 2018 : Nederland duurzaam vernieuwen
Egmond, Petra van; Elzenga, Hans ; Buitelaar, Edwin ; Eerdt, Martha van; Eskinasi, Martijn ; Franken, Ron ; Gaalen, Frank van; Hanemaaijer, Aldert ; Hilbers, Hans ; Hollander, Guus de; Nijland, Hans ; Ritsema van Eck, Jan ; Ros, Jan ; Schilder, Frans ; Spoon, Martijn ; Uitbeijerse, Gabrielle ; Wouden, Ries van der; Vonk, Marijke ; Vugteveen, Pim ; Goossen, Martijn ; Blom, Wim ; Bredenoord, Hendrien ; Brink, Thelma van den; Evers, David ; Doren, Didi van; Grinsven, Hans van; Hinsberg, Arjen van; Muilwijk, Hanneke ; Oorschot, Mark van; Peeters, Jeroen ; Puijenbroek, Peter van; Raspe, Otto ; Rijn, Frank van; Schijndel, Marian van; Sluis, Sietske van der; Sorel, Niels ; Timmerhuis, Jacqueline ; Verwest, Femke ; Westhoek, Henk ; Sanders, Marlies ; Dirkx, Joep - \ 2018
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 284
Reducing external costs of nitrogen pollution by relocation of pig production between regions in the European Union
Grinsven, Hans J.M. van; Dam, Jan D. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Timmers, Marloes H.G. ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Lassaletta, Luis - \ 2018
Regional Environmental Change 18 (2018)8. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 2403 - 2415.
European Union - External cost - Nitrogen - Pig industry - Spatial optimization

This paper tests the hypothesis that relocation of pig production within the EU27 can reduce the external costs of nitrogen (N) pollution. The external cost of pollution by ammonia and nitrate from agriculture in the European Union (EU27) in 2008 was estimated at 61–215 billion € (0.5 to 1.8% of the GDP). Per capita it ranged from more than 1000 € in north-west EU27 to 50 € in Romania. The average contribution of pig production was 15%. Using provincial data (224 NUTS2 regions in EU27), the potential reduction of external N cost by relocation of pig production was estimated at 14 billion € (10% of the total). Regions most eligible for decreasing the pig stock were in western Germany, Flemish region, Denmark, the Netherlands and Bretagne, while Romania is most eligible for increasing pig production. Relocating 20 million pigs (13% of the total EU stock) decreased average external costs per capita from 900 to 785 € in the 13 NUTS2 regions where pigs were removed and increased from 69 to 107 € in 11 regions receiving pigs. A second alternative configuration of pig production was targeted at reducing exceedance of critical N deposition and closing regional nutrient cycles. This configuration relocates pigs within Germany and France, for example from Bretagne to Northern France and from Weser-Ems to Oberbayern. However, total external cost increases due to an increase of health impacts, unless when combined with implementation of best N management practices. Relocation of the pig industry in the EU27 will meet many socio-economic barriers and realisation requires new policy incentives.

Evaluatie Meststoffenwet 2016: syntheserapport
Grinsven, Hans van; Bleeker, Albert ; Sluis, Sietske van der; Schijndel, Marian van; Dam, Jan van; Tiktak, Aaldrik ; Gaalen, Frank van; Uyl, Roos den; Kruitwagen, Sonja ; Beck, Jeannette ; Velthof, Gerard ; Schoumans, Oscar ; Lauwere, Carolien de - \ 2017
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 191
Overbenutting van de plaatsingsruimte van dierlijke mest in het Zuidelijk Veehouderijgebied : analyse van onzekerheden en mogelijke gevolgen voor de nitraatconcentratie in het bovenste grondwater
Sluis, Sietske van der; Bruggen, C. van; Luesink, H. ; Schröder, J. ; Verkerk, H. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grinsven, H. van; Kruitwagen, S. - \ 2017
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie / Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving 2776) - 26
Het CBS rapporteert jaarlijks in welke mate de wettelijke plaatsingsruimte voor dierlijke mest in de praktijk is benut (Statline.cbs.nl). Uit de CBS-cijfers blijkt dat gedurende meerdere jaren in een aantal landbouwgebieden, vooral in Zuid-Nederland, deze benutting van de plaatsingsruimte hoger dan 100 procent is geweest. Als de wettelijke plaatsingsruimte inderdaad is overschreden, dan zal de effectiviteit van het gevoerde meststoffenbeleid lager zijn dan vooraf is ingeschat. Dit zou dan ook één van de verklarende factoren kunnen zijn voor de gemeten overschrijding van het nitraatdoel van 50 milligram per liter voor het bovenste grondwater, zoals vastgelegd in de Europese Nitraatrichtlijn.
Strategies for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in Mediterranean agriculture: A review
Sanz-Cobena, A. ; Lassaletta, L. ; Aguilera, E. ; Prado, A. Del; Garnier, J. ; Billen, G. ; Iglesias, A. ; Sánchez, B. ; Guardia, G. ; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego ; Plaza-Bonilla, D. ; Puigdueta-bartolomé, I. ; Moral, R. ; Galán, E. ; Arriaga, H. ; Merino, P. ; Infante-Amate, J. ; Meijide, A. ; Pardo, G. ; Álvaro-Fuentes, J. ; Gilsanz, C. ; Báez, D. ; Doltra, J. ; González-Ubierna, S. ; Cayuela, M.L. ; Menéndez, S. ; Díaz-Pinés, E. ; Le-Noë, J. ; Quemada, M. ; Estellés, F. ; Calvet, S. ; Grinsven, H.J.M. Van; Westhoek, H. ; Sanz, M.J. ; Gimeno, B.S. ; Vallejo, A. ; Smith, P. - \ 2017
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 238 (2017). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 5 - 24.
An integrated assessment of the potential of different management practices for mitigating specific components of the total GHG budget (N2O and CH4 emissions and C sequestration) of Mediterranean agrosystems was performed in this study. Their suitability regarding both yield and environmental (e.g. nitrate leaching and ammonia volatilization) sustainability, and regional barriers and opportunities for their implementation were also considered. Based on its results best strategies to abate GHG emissions in Mediterranean agro-systems were proposed. Adjusting N fertilization to crop needs in both irrigated and rain-fed systems could reduce N2O emissions up to 50% compared with a non-adjusted practice. Substitution of N synthetic fertilizers by solid manure can be also implemented in those systems, and may abate N2O emissions by about 20% under Mediterranean conditions, with additional indirect benefits associated to energy savings and positive effects in crop yields. The use of urease and nitrification inhibitors enhances N use efficiency of the cropping systems and may mitigate N2O emissions up to 80% and 50%, respectively. The type of irrigation may also have a great mitigation potential in the Mediterranean region. Drip-irrigated systems have on average 80% lower N2O emissions than sprinkler systems and drip-irrigation combined with optimized fertilization showed a reduction in direct N2O emissions up to 50%. Methane fluxes have a relatively small contribution to the total GHG budget of Mediterranean crops, which can mostly be controlled by careful management of the water table and organic inputs in paddies. Reduced soil tillage, improved management of crop residues and agro-industry by-products, and cover cropping in orchards, are the most suitable interventions to enhance organic C stocks in Mediterranean agricultural soils. The adoption of the proposed agricultural practices will require farmers training. The global analysis of life cycle emissions associated to irrigation type (drip, sprinkle and furrow) and N fertilization rate (100 and 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1) revealed that these factors may outweigh the reduction in GHG emissions beyond the plot scale. The analysis of the impact of some structural changes on top-down mitigation of GHG emissions revealed that 3–15% of N2O emissions could be suppressed by avoiding food waste at the end-consumer level. A 40% reduction in meat and dairy consumption could reduce GHG emissions by 20–30%. Reintroducing the Mediterranean diet (i.e. ∼35% intake of animal protein) would therefore result in a significant decrease of GHG emissions from agricultural production systems under Mediterranean conditions.
Lessons from temporal and spatial patterns in global use of N and P fertilizer on cropland
Bouwman, A.F. ; Beusen, A.H.W. ; Lassaletta, L. ; Apeldoorn, D.F. Van; Grinsven, H.J.M. Van; Zhang, J. ; Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
In recent decades farmers in high-income countries and China and India have built up a large reserve of residual soil P in cropland. This reserve can now be used by crops, and in high-income countries the use of mineral P fertilizer has recently been decreasing with even negative soil P budgets in Europe. In contrast to P, much of N surpluses are emitted to the environment via air and water and large quantities of N are transported in aquifers with long travel times (decades and longer). N fertilizer use in high-income countries has not been decreasing in recent years; increasing N use efficiency and utilization of accumulated residual soil P allowed continued increases in crop yields. However, there are ecological risks associated with the legacy of excessive nutrient mobilization in the 1970s and 1980s. Landscapes have a memory for N and P; N concentrations in many rivers do not respond to increased agricultural N use efficiency, and European water quality is threatened by rapidly increasing N:P ratios. Developing countries can avoid such problems by integrated management of N, P and other nutrients accounting for residual soil P, while avoiding legacies associated with the type of past or continuing mismanagement of high-income countries, China and India.
Feral goats shape the Caribbean drylands
Holmgren, M. ; Coolen, Quirijn ; Debrot, A.O. ; Geurts, Kevin ; Metselaar, K. ; Oosterhuis, Henk-Jan ; Ende, Barry van den; Grinsven, Nikkie van; Hooft, W.F. van; Vergeer, Ascha - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Strong top-down goat effects on the semiarid Island of Bonaire
Grinsven, Nikkie van; Coolen, Quirijn ; Debrot, A.O. ; Geurts, Kevin ; Holmgren, M. ; Ende, Barry van den; Hooft, W.F. van - \ 2016
- 1 p.
Waterkwaliteit nu en in de toekomst : Eindrapport ex ante evaluatie van de Nederlandse plannen voor de Kaderrichtlijn Water : beleidsstudie
Gaalen, F. van; Tiktak, A. ; Franken, Ron ; Boekel, E.M.P.M. van; Puijenbroek, P. ; Muilwijk, Hanneke ; Grinsven, H. van; Rougoor, C. ; Salm, C. van der; Groenendijk, P. ; Cleij, P. ; Roovaart, Joost van den - \ 2016
Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie / Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving 1727) - 54 p.
waterkwaliteit - kaderrichtlijn water - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - pesticiden - stroomgebieden - water quality - water framework directive - surface water - surface water quality - water management - pesticides - watersheds
De Nederlandse stroomgebiedbeheerplannen voor de periode 2016-2021 zijn in december 2015 vastgesteld. Het PBL heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) op basis van metingen en modelberekeningen geëvalueerd of de voorgestelde maatregelen in de plannen en het vijfde nitraatactieprogramma afdoende zijn om de gestelde doelen voor 2027 te halen. Het voorliggende rapport is een vervolg op de in mei 2015 door het PBL gepubliceerde tussentijdse rapportage (PBL 2015). Nieuw in dit eindrapport zijn onder andere de onderdelen verontreinigende stoffen en rijkswateren, waarvoor destijds nog geen gegevens beschikbaar waren. Ook nieuw zijn de resultaten van een analyse waarin op basis van meetgegevens de toestand en trend in het verleden zijn bepaald.
Towards a common nutrient use efficiency assessment method for livestock supply chains: : a case study of mixed dairy supply chains in western europe
Uwizeye, U.A. ; Gerber, P.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
The comprehensive assessment of efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use in livestock supply chains is a key step towards sustainable nutrient management [1]. Previously, we identified supply chain level nutrient use efficiency (life-cycle NUE), as a pertinent indicator to support monitoring of practice changes and benchmarking of livestock supply chains [2]. The quantification of life-cycle NUE [3] requires the computation of NUE at each stage of supply chain, including crop/pasture production, animal production and processing. A ‘perfect’ NUE assessment in crop/pasture production would require measurement of all nutrient flows, including inputs, soil stock changes (SSC), losses and removals in harvested biomass. However, no dataset could be found that includes comprehensive measurement of both SSC and losses. Therefore, existing models commonly estimate the value of these variables by modelling one of these two flows and deriving the other from mass balance. The aim of this study, part of the FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) partnership, was to assess the extent to which reported life-cycle NUE values depend on such methodological choices. We compared three N accounting approaches: i) a simple input-output approach where SSC is set to equal 0 [4], ii) an approach where N losses are modelled [5] and iii) an approach where SSC is modelled, based on assumptions about NUE values [6]. Additionally, for P-NUE, we explored methodological approaches to account for “sustainable fertility build-up” in P-deficient and optimum soils [7]. We illustrate both these N and P assessments for mixed dairy systems in Western Europe.


[1] M.A. Sutton, A. Bleeker, C. Howard, M. Bekunda, B. Grizzetti, W. de Vries, et al., Our Nutrient World: the challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution. Global Overview of Nutrient Management, Sutton, M. A.;Bleeker, A.;Howard, C. M.;Bekunda, M.;Grizzetti, B.;Vries, W. de;Grinsven, H. J. M. van;Abrol, Y. P.;Adhya, T. K.;Billen, G.;Davidson, E. A.;Datta, A.;Diaz, R.;Erisman, J. W.;Liu, X. J.;Oenema, O.;Palm, C.;Raghuram, N.;Reis, S.;Scholz, R. W.;Sims, T.;Westhoek, H.;Zhang, F. S., CEH/UNEP, Edinburgh, UK, 2013.
[2] P. Gerber, A. Uwizeye, R. Schulte, C. Opio, I. de Boer, Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?, SI Syst. Dyn. Sustain. 9–10 (2014) 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.09.007.
[3] S. Suh, S. Yee, Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US, Phosphorus Cycle. 84 (2011) 806–813. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.051.
[4] E. OECD, Gross Nitrogen Balances-Handbook, URL. 20 (2007) 2010.
[5] G. Velthof, D. Oudendag, H. Witzke, W. Asman, Z. Klimont, O. Oenema, Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE, J. Environ. Qual. 38 (2009) 402–417.
[6] F.Ş. Özbek, A. Leip, Estimating the gross nitrogen budget under soil nitrogen stock changes: A case study for Turkey, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 205 (2015) 48–56.
[7] G. Tóth, A. Jones, L. Montanarella, The LUCAS topsoil database and derived information on the regional variability of cropland topsoil properties in the European Union, Environ. Monit. Assess. 185 (2013) 7409–7425. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3109-3.

A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer
Groof, A. ; Guelen, L. ; Deijs, M. ; Wal, Y. van der; Miyata, M. ; Ng, K.S. ; Grinsven, L. van; Simmelink, B. ; Biermann, Y. ; Grisez, L. ; Lent, J.W.M. van; Ronde, A. de; Chang, S.F. ; Schrier, C. ; Hoek, L. - \ 2015
PLoS Pathogens 11 (2015)8. - ISSN 1553-7366
red-sea bream - family iridoviridae - pagrus-major - protein - vaccine
From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.
Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock
Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
dairy farms - management - intensification - welfare - trends - impact - costs - meat - pig
Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when changing to organic farming. We conclude that in Europe extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets and externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
Balans van de leefomgeving 2014 deel 4 : landbouw en voedsel
Grinsven, H. van; Eerdt, M. van; Westhoek, H. ; Hooijboer, A. ; Buis, E. ; Pul, A. van; Hilderink, H. ; Schroder, J.J. ; Verdoes, N. ; Voswinkel, T. ; Nijdam, D. ; Oorschot, M. van; Tiktak, A. ; Schijndel, M. ; Sluis, S. van der; Reudink, M. ; Rood, T. - \ 2014
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 33
milieueffect - landbouw - voedselproductie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding en gezondheid - voedselconsumptie - veehouderij - landbouwproductie - environmental impact - agriculture - food production - sustainability - nutrition and health - food consumption - livestock farming - agricultural production
In dit rapport analyseert het PBL de effecten van de landbouw op de leefomgeving, evenals, in bredere zin, de voortgang van de verduurzaming van het voedselsysteem. We evalueren bovendien de effectiviteit van het Nederlandse overheidsbeleid als het erom gaat die effecten te verminderen. We beschrijven de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen op dit gebied in de afgelopen twee jaar, en bouwen daarbij voort op de analyse van de verduurzaming van het voedselsysteem in de vorige Balans van de Leefomgeving en het rapport De macht van het menu (PBL 2013a) maar leggen meer nadruk op de effecten voor de fysieke leefomgeving binnen Nederland.
Balans van de leefomgeving 2014 : de toekomst is nú
Gerwen, O.J. ; Hoogervorst, N.J.P. ; Brandes, L. ; Hollander, G. de; Eskinasi, M. ; Dam, F. ; Ros, J. ; Grinsven, H. van; Nijland, H. ; Ligtvoet, W. ; Gaalen, F. van; Dirkx, G.H.P. - \ 2014
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 104
landbouw - voedselvoorziening - energiebeleid - milieubeleid - waterbeheer - hoogwaterbeheersing - ecosysteemdiensten - beleidsevaluatie - agriculture - food supply - energy policy - environmental policy - water management - flood control - ecosystem services - policy evaluation
De Balans van de Leefomgeving geeft parlement, kabinet en samenleving een feitelijk onderbouwd inzicht in de huidige kwaliteit van de fysieke leefomgeving. De Balans is de tweejaarlijkse peilstok van het PBL die aangeeft in hoeverre de door de politiek zelf ten doel gestelde leefomgevingskwaliteit tijdig wordt bereikt. De Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014 heeft als motto meegekregen: de toekomst is nú.
Food choices, health and environment: Effects of cutting Europe's meat and dairy intake
Westhoek, H. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Rood, T. ; Wagner, S. ; Marco, A. de; Murphy, D. ; Leip, A. ; Grinsven, H. van; Sutton, M.A. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 26 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 196 - 205.
greenhouse-gas emissions - livestock production - integrated assessment - nitrogen losses - recent trends - agriculture - cycle - consumption - cancer - sustainability
Western diets are characterised by a high intake of meat, dairy products and eggs, causing an intake of saturated fat and red meat in quantities that exceed dietary recommendations. The associated livestock production requires large areas of land and lead to high nitrogen and greenhouse gas emission levels. Although several studies have examined the potential impact of dietary changes on greenhouse gas emissions and land use, those on health, the agricultural system and other environmental aspects (such as nitrogen emissions) have only been studied to a limited extent. By using biophysical models and methods, we examined the large-scale consequences in the European Union of replacing 25–50% of animal-derived foods with plant-based foods on a dietary energy basis, assuming corresponding changes in production. We tested the effects of these alternative diets and found that halving the consumption of meat, dairy products and eggs in the European Union would achieve a 40% reduction in nitrogen emissions, 25–40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and 23% per capita less use of cropland for food production. In addition, the dietary changes would also lower health risks. The European Union would become a net exporter of cereals, while the use of soymeal would be reduced by 75%. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the food system would increase from the current 18% to between 41% and 47%, depending on choices made regarding land use. As agriculture is the major source of nitrogen pollution, this is expected to result in a significant improvement in both air and water quality in the EU. The resulting 40% reduction in the intake of saturated fat would lead to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality. These diet-led changes in food production patterns would have a large economic impact on livestock farmers and associated supply-chain actors, such as the feed industry and meat-processing sector.
Nitrogen use and food production in European regions from a global perspective
Grinsven, H.J.M. van; Spiertz, J.H.J. ; Westhoek, H.J. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Erisman, J.W. - \ 2014
The Journal of Agricultural Science 152 (2014)S1. - ISSN 0021-8596 - p. 9 - 19.
greenhouse-gas emissions - use efficiency - management-practices - nutrient management - climate-change - wheat yield - dairy farms - land-use - agriculture - systems
Current production systems for crops, meat, dairy and bioenergy in the European Union (EU) rely strongly on the external input of nitrogen (N). These systems show a high productivity per unit of land. However, the drawback is a complex web of N pollution problems contributing in a major way to degradation of ecosystems. European Union Directives and national policies have improved nutrient management and reduced fertilizer N use in most European countries, which has curbed the N pollution trends particularly in regions with high stocking rates of animals. However, improvement is slowing down and environmental targets for N are not within reach. Building on the 2011 European Nitrogen Assessment, the current paper reviews key features of the complex relationships between N use and food production in Europe in order to develop novel options for a more N-efficient, less N-polluting and secure European food system. One option is to relocate feed and livestock production from Northwestern to Central and Eastern Europe. This would allow a reduction of N rates and N pollution in cereal production in Northwest Europe by 30% (50 kg N/ha), while increasing total cereal production in Europe. Another option is a change towards legume-based cropping systems to produce animal feed, in order to decrease dependence on N fertilizer and feed imports. The greatest challenge for Europe is to decrease the demand for feed commodities, and thus for land and N, by a shift to more balanced (and healthier) diets with less animal protein. These drastic changes can be stimulated by targeted public–private research funding, while the actual implementation can be enhanced by smart payment schemes using, for example money from the Common Agricultural Policy, certification and agreements between stakeholders and players in the food and energy chain. Involving networks of consumers, producers and non-governmental organizations is critical. An effective strategy starts with convincing consumers with aWestern diet to eat less meat and dairy by communicating the associated health benefits and smaller ecological footprints. Internalizing the cost of N pollution leading to increased prices for N-intensive food products may also enhance involvement of consumers and provide financial resources to compensate farmers for loss of income and extra costs for stricter N measures.
Ex ante evaluatie mestbeleid 2013 : gevolgen van de invoering van verplichte mestverwerking en het afschaffen van productierechten in de veehouderij
Schroder, J.J. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Leenstra, F.R. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Verdoes, N. ; Willems, J. ; Grinsven, H. van - \ 2013
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) (PBL-publicatie 1176) - ISBN 9789491506543 - 43
mestverwerking - dierlijke meststoffen - melkvee - melkveehouderij - intensieve veehouderij - fosfaat - stikstof - prognose - milieubeheer - wetgeving - dierenwelzijn - Nederland - manure treatment - animal manures - dairy cattle - dairy farming - intensive livestock farming - phosphate - nitrogen - prognosis - environmental management - legislation - animal welfare - Netherlands
Er is een risico dat de uitbreiding van de mestverwerking onvoldoende is voor de vanaf 2015 verwachte hoeveelheid jaarlijks te verwerken mest. Dit wordt vooral veroorzaakt door onzekerheid over de vergunningverlening en de financiering van nieuwe mestverwerkingsplannen. De toename van de hoeveelheid te verwerken mest vanaf 2015 is vooral een gevolg van de aanscherping van fosfaatgebruiksnormen en waarschijnlijk niet van een toename van de veestapel of de mestproductie. Weliswaar groeit de melkveestapel sinds 2011, maar de fosfaatuitscheiding van de veestapel als geheel daalt door voermaatregelen. Het tekort aan mestverwerkingscapaciteit in 2015 wordt geschat op maximaal 9 miljoen kilogram fosfaat (circa een derde van de totaal benodigde capaciteit) als de productiebegrenzing van de veestapel wordt losgelaten. Het tekort in 2015 zal maximaal 3 miljoen kilogram fosfaat zijn, mits de veestapel niet groeit. De benodigde capaciteit voor mestverwerking is het grootst in het concentratiegebied Zuid (Midden- en Oost- Noord Brabant en Noord- en Midden-Limburg). In het scenario zonder productierechten groeit de varkenshouderij hier met 10 procent. Hierdoor is de benodigde mestverwerkingscapaciteit 2 miljoen kilogram fosfaat hoger dan de benodigde 24 tot 26 miljoen kilogram fosfaat in een situatie met productierechten.
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