Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Protist taxonomic and functional diversity in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems
    Singer, David ; Seppey, Christophe V.W. ; Lentendu, Guillaume ; Dunthorn, Micah ; Bass, David ; Belbahri, Lassâad ; Blandenier, Quentin ; Debroas, Didier ; Groot, G.A. De; Vargas, Colomban De; Domaizon, Isabelle ; Duckert, Clément ; Izaguirre, Irina ; Koenig, Isabelle ; Mataloni, Gabriela ; Schiaffino, M.R. ; Mitchell, Edward A.D. ; Geisen, Stefan ; Lara, Enrique - \ 2021
    Environment International 146 (2021). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Protists dominate eukaryotic diversity and play key functional roles in all ecosystems, particularly by catalyzing carbon and nutrient cycling. To date, however, a comparative analysis of their taxonomic and functional diversity that compares the major ecosystems on Earth (soil, freshwater and marine systems) is missing. Here, we present a comparison of protist diversity based on standardized high throughput 18S rRNA gene sequencing of soil, freshwater and marine environmental DNA. Soil and freshwater protist communities were more similar to each other than to marine protist communities, with virtually no overlap of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) between terrestrial and marine habitats. Soil protists showed higher γ diversity than aquatic samples. Differences in taxonomic composition of the communities led to changes in a functional diversity among ecosystems, as expressed in relative abundance of consumers, phototrophs and parasites. Phototrophs (eukaryotic algae) dominated freshwater systems (49% of the sequences) and consumers soil and marine ecosystems (59% and 48%, respectively). The individual functional groups were composed of ecosystem- specific taxonomic groups. Parasites were equally common in all ecosystems, yet, terrestrial systems hosted more OTUs assigned to parasites of macro-organisms while aquatic systems contained mostly microbial parasitoids. Together, we show biogeographic patterns of protist diversity across major ecosystems on Earth, preparing the way for more focused studies that will help understanding the multiple roles of protists in the biosphere.
    Faecal microbiota transplantation halts progression of human new-onset type 1 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial
    Groot, Pieter De; Nicolic, Tanja ; Pellegrini, Silvia ; Sordi, Valeria ; Imangaliyev, Sultan ; Rampanelli, Elena ; Hanssen, Nordin ; Attaye, Ilias ; Bakker, Guido ; Duinkerken, Gaby ; Joosten, Annemarie ; Prodan, Andrei ; Levin, Evgeni ; Levels, Han ; Potter Van Loon, Bartjan ; Bon, Arianne Van; Brouwer, Catherina ; Dam, Sytze Van; Simsek, Suat ; Raalte, Daniel Van; Stam, Frank ; Gerdes, Victor ; Hoogma, Roel ; Diekman, Martin ; Gerding, Martin ; Rustemeijer, Cees ; Bakker, Bernadette De; Hoekstra, Joost ; Zwinderman, Aeilko ; Bergman, Jacques ; Holleman, Frits ; Piemonti, Lorenzo ; Vos, Willem De; Roep, Bart ; Nieuwdorp, Max - \ 2020
    Gut (2020). - ISSN 0017-5749
    diabetes mellitus

    Objective: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterised by islet autoimmunity and beta cell destruction. A gut microbiota-immunological interplay is involved in the pathophysiology of T1D. We studied microbiota-mediated effects on disease progression in patients with type 1 diabetes using faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Design: Patients with recent-onset (<6 weeks) T1D (18-30 years of age) were randomised into two groups to receive three autologous or allogenic (healthy donor) FMTs over a period of 4 months. Our primary endpoint was preservation of stimulated C peptide release assessed by mixed-meal tests during 12 months. Secondary outcome parameters were changes in glycaemic control, fasting plasma metabolites, T cell autoimmunity, small intestinal gene expression profile and intestinal microbiota composition. Results: Stimulated C peptide levels were significantly preserved in the autologous FMT group (n=10 subjects) compared with healthy donor FMT group (n=10 subjects) at 12 months. Small intestinal Prevotella was inversely related to residual beta cell function (r=-0.55, p=0.02), whereas plasma metabolites 1-arachidonoyl-GPC and 1-myristoyl-2-arachidonoyl-GPC levels linearly correlated with residual beta cell preservation (rho=0.56, p=0.01 and rho=0.46, p=0.042, respectively). Finally, baseline CD4 +CXCR3+T cell counts, levels of small intestinal Desulfovibrio piger and CCL22 and CCL5 gene expression in duodenal biopsies predicted preserved beta cell function following FMT irrespective of donor characteristics. Conclusion: FMT halts decline in endogenous insulin production in recently diagnosed patients with T1D in 12 months after disease onset. Several microbiota-derived plasma metabolites and bacterial strains were linked to preserved residual beta cell function. This study provides insight into the role of the intestinal gut microbiome in T1D. Trial registration number: NTR3697.

    Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland; toestand (2016-2019) en trend (1992-2019) : de Nitraatrapportage 2020 met de resultaten van de monitoring van de effecten van de EU Nitraatrichtlijn actieprogramma’s
    Fraters, B. ; Hooijboer, A.E.J. ; Vrijhoef, A. ; Plette, A.C.C. ; Duijnhoven, N. van; Rozemeijer, J.C. ; Gosseling, M. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Roskam, J.L. ; Begeman, H.A.L. - \ 2020
    Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM-rapport 2020-0121) - 229
    Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland; toestand (2016-2019) en trend (1992-2019) De Nitraatrapportage 2020 met de resultaten van de monitoring van de effecten van de EU Nitraatrichtlijn actieprogramma’s De afgelopen dertig jaar heeft de Nederlandse overheid maatregelen genomen waardoor de concentraties stikstof en fosfor sterk zijn gedaald. Hierdoor is de kwaliteit van het grond- en oppervlaktewater verbeterd. Maar de waterkwaliteit is nog niet overal voldoende. In de bovenste meter van het grondwater van meer dan de helft van de landbouwbedrijven in de Zand- en Lössregio is de nitraatconcentratie te hoog. Dit geldt ook voor de bovenste meter van het grondwater in ruim dertig van de circa 200 grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden. Ook voldoet een groot deel van de oppervlaktewateren nog niet aan de gewenste kwaliteit en zijn de concentraties stikstof en fosfor er te hoog. Na 2015 neemt het teveel aan stikstof en fosfor toe. Dit is vanaf 2018 versterkt door de droge zomers. Bij droogte groeien planten minder goed, waardoor ze minder stikstof en fosfor uit de bodem opnemen. Ook wordt er minder nitraat in de bodem afgebroken en spoelt er meer weg naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater. Zo verdubbelde de nitraatconcentratie in het slootwater op landbouwbedrijven in de periode 2016 tot en met 2019. Toch was de nitraatconcentratie in het grond- en oppervlaktewater in deze periode gemiddeld genomen lager dan in de vier jaar ervoor. Stikstof en fosfor zijn stoffen in mest die landbouwbedrijven gebruiken om gewassen beter te laten groeien. Een teveel aan stikstof en fosfor kan wegspoelen naar het grond- en oppervlaktewater en dat vervuilen. Nitraat is een van de vormen waarin stikstof voorkomt in de bodem en het water. De verbeterde waterkwaliteit komt vooral doordat boeren steeds minder mest zijn gaan gebruiken. Hierdoor nam het te veel aan stikstof en fosfor in de bodem af. Dit betekent ook dat er minder nitraat met regenwater wegzakt naar diepere lagen in de bodem en zo in het grondwater terechtkomt. Hoe minder stikstof en fosfor in de bodem en in het grondwater zit, hoe minder er naar het oppervlaktewater stroomt. Het is belangrijk om schoon grond- en oppervlaktewater te hebben waar drinkwater van kan worden gemaakt. Ook zorgt schoon oppervlaktewater ervoor dat er meer verschillende planten en dieren kunnen leven in het water. Kernwoorden: nitraatrichtlijn, Nitraatrapportage 2020, Kaderrichtlijn Water, mestbeleid, landbouwpraktijk, grondwater- en oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit, nitraat, stikstof, fosfor, eutrofiëring
    Maintaining correct pH is not easy and is sometimes underestimated : 10 practical tips for managing pH
    Voogt, Wim ; Molenaar, Marco ; Groot, Marco de - \ 2020
    Bodemverbeterende maatregelen: pilot met toevoegen organisch stof : onderzoek naar mogelijk nitraatuitspoeling naar het grondwater
    Weert, Jasperien de; Rozemeijer, Joachim ; Cinjee, Andre ; Vlisteren, Erik van; Heinen, Marius ; Groot, Willy de - \ 2020
    Delft : Deltares - 31
    Potential economic and nutritional benefits of complex rice systems for small-scale farmers in West Sumatra, Indonesia
    Sparta, Andre ; Khumairoh, Uma ; Valbuena, Diego ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. - \ 2020
    Biological Agriculture and Horticulture (2020). - ISSN 0144-8765
    Diet - dietary diversity - food security - labour - nutrition - polycultures - revenues - rice productivity

    Small-scale farmers in South-East Asia face serious challenges in agricultural productivity, food security and environmental degradation. Complex Rice Systems (CRS) entail an integrated farming approach that combines new technologies with traditional practices and knowledge to sustainably increase agricultural productivity. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of CRS by adding rice, fish, ducks and border crops to rice fields in Lima Puluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia) to improve rice productivity and dietary nutrient supply. The treatments were: conventional rice (CON), organic rice (ORR), organic rice with border crops (ORB), organic rice with fish (ORF), organic rice with ducks (ORD), and organic rice with ducks, fish, and border crops (CRS). The experiment resulted in improvements in growth, development and yield of rice in CRS and ORD compared to other treatments. Despite elevated costs, treatments with ducks also resulted in a higher gross margin than the other treatments. CRS produced the most diverse nutritional composition, and higher nutritional value compared to ORD. It was concluded that CRS can contribute to higher rice yields, improved farm income and more diversified diets, and thus providing a comprehensive approach to improve livelihoods and food security of small-scale farmers.

    Associations between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota, Diet, and Cognitive Functioning in Dutch Healthy Older Adults: The NU-AGE Study
    Soest, Annick P.M. Van; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; De Rest, Ondine Van; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Fuentes, Susana ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Vos, Willem M. De - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dietary modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiota is a potential target in improving healthy ageing and age-related functional outcomes, including cognitive decline.We explored the association between diet, gastro-intestinal microbiota and cognition in Dutch healthy older adults of the ‘New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of the elderly population for healthy
    aging in Europe’ (NU-AGE) study. The microbiota profile of 452 fecal samples from 226 subjects was determined using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted microarray. Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records. Cognitive functioning was measured with an extensive cognitive test battery.
    We observed a dietary and microbial pro- to anti-inflammatory gradient associated with diets richer in animal- or plant-based foods. Fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts, red and processed meat and grain products were most strongly associated to microbiota composition. Plant-rich diets containing fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts were positively correlated with alpha-diversity,
    various taxa from the Bacteroidetes phylum and anti-inflammatory species, including those related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and E. biforme. Animal product-rich diets associated with pro-inflammatory species, including those related to Ruminococcus gnavus and Collinsella spp..
    Cognition was neither associated with microbiota composition nor alpha-diversity. In conclusion, diets richer in animal- and plant-based foods were related to a pro- and anti-inflammatory microbial profile, while cognition was associated with neither.
    Waterkwaliteit en nutriëntenbalansen Waterschap Hollandse Delta : Analyse van de nutriëntenbelasting, herkomst, achtergrondbelasting en effecten van landbouwmaatregelen in het beheergebied van Waterschap Hollandse Delta
    Boekel, Erwin van; Renaud, Leo ; Schipper, Peter - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2995) - 91
    De Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) schrijft voor dat het oppervlaktewater in 2027 voldoende schoon en ecologisch gezond is. In veel Nederlandse wateren is de nutriëntenbelasting (nog) te hoog om de KRW-doelen te halen. Het Waterschap Hollandse Delta analyseert haar watersystemen om beter inzicht te krijgen in de (on)mogelijkheden om de ecologische toestand te verbeteren. Ter ondersteuning van deze analyse is in dit onderzoek de nutriëntenbelasting en herkomst voor de periode 2006-2013 gekwantificeerd voor de regionale wateren in Voorne-Putten, Hoeksche Waard en Goeree-Overflakkee. Hiertoe zijn in samenwerking met het waterschap de ruimtelijke grenzen van de afwateringsgebieden bepaald en is met de methode ECHO voor deze gebieden een water- en nutriëntenbalans opgesteld. Voor de afwateringsgebieden op IJsselmonde en het Eiland van Dordrecht zijn de belasting en herkomst op een meer globaal niveau gekwantificeerd.Op basis van de herkomst in het zomerhalfjaar zijn voor de KRW-waterlichamen de achtergrondbelasting en achtergrondconcentraties afgeleid door onderscheid te maken tussen antropogene bronnen en overige bronnen die beleidsmatig als natuurlijke of seminatuurlijk kunnen worden beschouwd. Ook is gekwantificeerd hoeveel de af- en uitspoeling uit landbouwgronden afneemt aan het einde van de KRW-planperiode, uitgaande van het generieke mestbeleid conform het 5e NAP en is een scenario berekend waarin diverse DAW-maatregelen worden genomen. De nutriëntenbelasting komt voor een groot deel door af- en uitspoeling van nutriënten vanuit landbouwgronden. Voor stikstof wordt de af- en uitspoeling vooral bepaald door actuele bemesting en in iets mindere mate door (seminatuurlijke) nalevering van de bodem. Voor fosfor wordt de af- en uitspoeling vooral bepaald door historische mestgiften, nalevering uit de landbouwbodem en kwel. RWZI’s hebben slechts in een paar afwateringsgebieden invloed. Andere belangrijke bronnen zijn inlaatwater en stikstofdepositie op open water. In het zomerhalfjaar wordt op Goeree-Overflakkee en Voorne-Putten veel water ingelaten, waardoor de bijdrage hiervan relatief groot is. Op basis van de herkomstanalyse zijn hoge percentages berekend voor de achtergrondbelasting en hiermee ook hoge achtergrondconcentraties van het oppervlaktewater. Met het generieke mestbeleid conform het 5e NAP neemt de af- en uitspoeling uit landbouwgronden tot enkele procenten af. Voor stikstof kan – met een hoge implementatiegraad van Deltaplan Agrarisch Waterbeheer (DAW)-maatregelen – de af- en uitspoeling duidelijk verder afnemen, maar voor fosfor biedt dit weinig potentie.
    Ecological implications of removing a concrete gas platform in the North Sea
    Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Bittner, Oliver ; Driessen, Floor M.F. ; Dongen, Udo van; Siahaya, Midas S. ; Groot, Wim de; Mavraki, Ninon ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Weide, Babeth van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Sea Research 166 (2020). - ISSN 1385-1101
    Artificial reef - Benthic biodiversity - Epifouling - Gas platform - Gravity-based structure - North Sea
    Artificial structures such as offshore oil and gas platforms can significantly alter local species communities. It has been argued that this effect should be considered during decisions over their removal during decommissioning. In the North Sea, leaving such structures in place is prohibited but derogations are allowed for large concrete installations. To assess removal options for one such installation, the Halfweg GBS (gravity-based structure) a concrete platform foundation off the Dutch coast, we studied the resident fouling macrofauna community. The faunal structure, biomass and trophic composition of the Halfweg was then compared with those from the surrounding seabed sediments, other local artificial structures and a natural rocky reef. In total, 65 macrofaunal species were observed on the concrete (52 species), steel legs (32) and surrounding rock dump (44) of Halfweg. Mean Simpson diversity per sample was highest on the rock dump (0.71) but concrete (0.54) and steel (0.60) of the GBS were lower than seabed (0.69). Ten of the species observed on the concrete were not reported on other substrates while 10 of the species were also observed in the surrounding seabed. The GBS structure was numerically dominated by Arthropoda which comprised 98% of the total abundance. Mean ash free dry weight (AFDW) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) on the Halfweg substrates (204 g AFDW per m2) than in the surrounding seabed (65 g AFDW per m2). Over 94% of the biomass on Halfweg consisted of the plumose anemone Metridium senile. While common on other reefs, this species was absent from the surrounding seabed. Macrofaunal feeding mechanisms of the concrete and rock dump communities on the GBS were similar to those of nearby sediments, although these differed from those on the Halfweg steel legs. Therefore, the presence of Halfweg alters the local community feeding modes. Multivariate analysis revealed that taxonomic structure of the GBS and other artificial structures significantly differed from that of the sedimentary habitats. Low numbers of non-indigenous species on Halfweg indicated that the structure does not act as a stepping stone for species invasions. Our data show that the Halfweg structures significantly increase local biodiversity and biomass. Removal of the concrete and steel legs of the GBS (leaving the rock dump) will significantly reduce local macrofauna biodiversity. The long-term impact on macrofaunal biomass is low. Leaving the complete Halfweg structure in place will result in an enriched local macrofaunal biodiversity and feeding mode diversity.
    Duurzaamheid van de ethanol productie bij een combinatie van suikerbieten en snijmaïs : gevoeligheidsanalyse
    Hol, Stefan ; Visser, Chris de - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten WPR-849) - 31
    Door onze klimaatdoelstellingen is de vraag naar bio-ethanol steeds groter aan het worden. Er zijn steeds meer manieren en grondstoffen om bio-ethanol te produceren. Daarom is belangrijk om bij een nieuw productieconcept de mate van duurzaamheid te bepalen en die af te zetten tegen de standaard. Een bio-ethanol fabriek met een lagere broeikasgasuitstoot is niet alleen beter voor het milieu, maar kan ook financieel aantrekkelijker zijn wanneer bedrijven hun milieu impact willen verkleinen door anders in te kopen. Dit rapport heeft als vertrekpunt het direct processing van suikerbieten en wanneer er geen suikerbieten meer zijn snijmais fermentatie tot ethanol. De milieutechnische duurzaamheid van de productie van bio-ethanol bij dit gecombineerd gebruik van suikerbieten en snijmaiskorrels is via een modelstudie berekend. Het resultaat was een gemiddelde uitstoot van 23.29 gram CO2 equivalenten per MJ ethanol. Dit is lager dan de 23.9 gram CO2 equivalenten per MJ ethanol beschreven in de Renewable Energy Directive voor ethanolproductie op basis van suikerbieten. Daarnaast is gekeken hoe gevoelig de broeikasgas (BKG) emissie per MJ ethanol is voor veranderingen in een aantal parameters die in het model zijn opgenomen. De grootste veranderingen van de BKG uitstoot per MJ ethanol is gevonden bij de omzettingsefficiëntie van suiker naar ethanol tijdens de fermentatie. Maar ook de opbrengst van suikerbieten & snijmais per hectare en het suikergehalte van de suikerbieten hebben een substantieel effect. Daarnaast heeft het energieverbruik van het suikerbieten verwerkingsproces een groot effect. Al deze processen zijn te sturen doormiddel van teelt aanpassingen, eventueel veredeling van suikerbieten of gisten en proces optimalisatie. Naast de gevoeligheid van de uitstoot voor bepaalde veranderingen in parameters kwam als belangrijke observatie uit deze studie dat een kleinere fabriek milieutechnisch interessanter is. Daarnaast kan geconcludeerd worden dat ethanol uit snijmais milieutechnisch beter is dan ethanol uit suikerbieten.
    Nutritional strategies to improve muscle quality during ageing
    Grootswagers, Pol - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. de Groot, co-promotor(en): M. Mensink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463955263 - 210
    Hydrofysische gegevens van de bodem in de Basisregistratie Ondergrond (BRO) en het Bodemkundig Informatie Systeem (BIS) : Update 2019
    Bakker, G. ; Heinen, M. ; Gooren, H.P.A. ; Groot, W.J.M. de; Peters, P.D. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 186) - 128
    Soil hydro-physics (SHP) properties are the key properties that determine soil–water interactions. As water is the primary transport medium for dissolved compounds, such as nitrogen, phosphates, pesticides, antibiotics, organic matter, etc., SHP properties are also important for the transport behaviour of these substances. Examples of these properties are water retention, saturated/unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, shrinkage and swelling, organic matter content, texture (particle distribution), structure (soil aggregation/pore structure), density and capillary rise. SHP properties are determinants in research areas related to soil-water conditions: food security (drought and water damage), agricultural development (precision drainage, irrigation), soil salinisation and sodification (evaporation and capillary rise equilibrium), soil greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2), nature conservation (wet and dry ecosystem types), sustainable land use and healthy soils (function allocation), water quality (nutrients, contaminants, antibiotics, percolation, leaching and run-off to groundwater and surface water), flooding and ponding (dike stability, infiltration, soil water repellency) and infrastructural damage (soil shrinkage). Given the increasing demand for current data of high quality and the fact that existing databases lack sufficient potential for upscaling, this project serves as a means to generate additional high quality data each year. The SHP properties and related meta information are implemented in the BIS soil information system and from 2021 will be implemented in the Key Register of the Subsurface (BRO) database as well. Currently there are 240 samples linked to profile descriptions and other meta information in the BIS database.
    Genetic basis of falling risk susceptibility in the UK Biobank Study
    Trajanoska, Katerina ; Seppala, Lotta J. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Zhou, Sirui ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Karasik, David ; Richards, J.B. ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Uitterlinden, Andre G. ; Perry, John R.B. ; Velde, Nathalie van der; Day, Felix R. ; Rivadeneira, Fernando - \ 2020
    Communications Biology 3 (2020). - ISSN 2399-3642

    Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors predispose older people to fall. We performed a genome-wide association analysis to investigate how much of an individual’s fall susceptibility can be attributed to genetics in 89,076 cases and 362,103 controls from the UK Biobank Study. The analysis revealed a small, but significant SNP-based heritability (2.7%) and identified three novel fall-associated loci (Pcombined ≤ 5 × 10−8). Polygenic risk scores in two independent settings showed patterns of polygenic inheritance. Risk of falling had positive genetic correlations with fractures, identifying for the first time a pathway independent of bone mineral density. There were also positive genetic correlations with insomnia, neuroticism, depressive symptoms, and different medications. Negative genetic correlations were identified with muscle strength, intelligence and subjective well-being. Brain, and in particular cerebellum tissue, showed the highest gene expression enrichment for fall-associated variants. Overall, despite the highly heterogenic nature underlying fall risk, a proportion of the susceptibility can be attributed to genetics.

    Exploring and assessing trade-offs, synergies and diversity for smallholder agriculture
    Timler, Carl Joachim - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.P.O. Schulte, co-promotor(en): P.A. Tittonell; J.C.J. Groot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463955195 - 220
    Dietary intake of heme iron is associated with ferritin and hemoglobin levels in Dutch blood donors : Results from Donor InSight
    Timmer, Tiffany C. ; Groot, Rosa de; Rijnhart, Judith J.M. ; Lakerveld, Jeroen ; Brug, Johannes ; Perenboom, Corine W.M. ; Baart, Mireille ; Prinsze, Femmeke J. ; Zalpuri, Saurabh ; Ellen van der Schoot, C. ; Kort, Wim L.A.M. de; Hurk, Katja van den - \ 2020
    Haematologica 105 (2020)10. - ISSN 0390-6078 - p. 2400 - 2406.

    Whole blood donors, especially frequently donating donors, have a risk of iron deficiency and low hemoglobin (Hb) levels, which may affect their health and eligibility to donate. Lifestyle behaviors, such as dietary iron intake and physical activity, may influence iron stores and thereby Hb levels. We aimed to investigate whether dietary iron intake and questionnaire-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were associated with Hb levels, and whether ferritin levels mediated these associations. In Donor InSight-III, a Dutch cohort study of blood and plasma donors, data on heme and non-heme iron intake (mg/day), MVPA (10 minutes/day), Hb levels (mmol/L) and ferritin levels (mg/L) were available in 2,323 donors (1,074 male). Donors with higher heme iron intakes [regression coefficients (β) in men and women: 0.160 and 0.065 mmol/L higher Hb per 1 mg of heme iron, respectively] and lower nonheme iron intakes (β: -0.014 and -0.017, respectively) had higher Hb levels, adjusted for relevant confounders. Ferritin levels mediated these associations [indirect effect (95% confidence interval) in men and women, respectively: 0.074 (0.045; 0.111) and 0.061 (0.030; 0.096) for heme and -0.003 (-0.008;0.001) and -0.008 (-0.013;-0.003) for non-heme]. MVPA was negatively associated with Hb levels in men only (β: -0.005), but not mediated by ferritin levels. In conclusion, higher heme and lower non-heme iron intake were associated with higher Hb levels in donors, via higher ferritin levels. This indicates that donors with high heme iron intake may be more capable of maintaining iron stores to recover Hb levels after blood donation.

    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    Financiering transitie naar duurzame landbouw : Inzicht in het huidige financieringslandschap en ontwikkelingen
    Meulen, Harold van der; Meer, Ruud van der; Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2020-097) - ISBN 9789463955669 - 63
    De Nederlandse landbouwsector staat voor de opgave om te verduurzamen. Een transitie naar meer duurzame landbouwsystemen vraagt in de meeste gevallen om investeringen. Dit heeft gevolgen voor de financiering van agrarische bedrijven en de agrarische sector als geheel. Onderzoek naar de financierbaarheid van zowel de transitie als de continuïteit van bedrijven in het algemeen is daarom van groot belang. Dit rapport brengt in opdracht van het ministerie van LNV het huidige financieringslandschap in kaart. Ook zijn er rondetafelgesprekken met sleutelspelers in de agrarische sector gevoerd waarbij we de knelpunten/belemmeringen op het gebied van financiering die de transitie naar een duurzame landbouw bemoeilijken en oplossingsrichtingen in kaart hebben gebracht. Dit rapport biedt daarmee de basis voor de verdere ontwikkeling voor een aanpak voor duurzame agrofinanciering.
    Conceptual links between landscape diversity and diet diversity : A roadmap for transdisciplinary research
    Gergel, Sarah E. ; Powell, Bronwen ; Baudron, Frédéric ; Wood, Sylvia L.R. ; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Rasmussen, Laura V. ; Ickowitz, Amy ; Fagan, Matthew E. ; Smithwick, Erica A.H. ; Ranieri, Jessica ; Wood, Stephen A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. - \ 2020
    Bioscience 70 (2020)7. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 563 - 575.
    Food security and nutrition - Landscape approach - Remote sensing - Restoration - Sustainable development - Tropical forest conservation

    Malnutrition linked to poor quality diets affects at least 2 billion people. Forests, as well as agricultural systems linked to trees, are key sources of dietary diversity in rural settings. In the present article, we develop conceptual links between diet diversity and forested landscape mosaics within the rural tropics. First, we summarize the state of knowledge regarding diets obtained from forests, trees, and agroforests. We then hypothesize how disturbed secondary forests, edge habitats, forest access, and landscape diversity can function in bolstering dietary diversity. Taken together, these ideas help us build a framework illuminating four pathways (direct, agroecological, energy, and market pathways) connecting forested landscapes to diet diversity. Finally, we offer recommendations to fill remaining knowledge gaps related to diet and forest cover monitoring. We argue that better evaluation of the role of land cover complexity will help avoid overly simplistic views of food security and, instead, uncover nutritional synergies with forest conservation and restoration.

    Transhumant pastoralism in a changing world : Challenges and opportunities to sustainable yak farming in Bhutan
    Dorji, Nedup - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.W.G. Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): E.A.M. Bokkers; M. Derks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954464 - 150

    In the high altitude of Bhutan, yak farming is the main livelihood of transhumant pastoralist communities living 2500 m above sea level. Yak farming in Bhutan, however, is under pressure due to socioeconomic developments, policy and climate change. There is a lack of knowledge on: i) how and to what extent these pressures affect yak farming practices and the health and welfare of yaks; ii) what factors influence the future plans and decisions of the herders on yak farming, and iii) what solutions may be needed to sustain yak farming under these pressures. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the impact of external factors and management on yak farming in Bhutan, with a focus on past developments, the current situation (including the health and welfare of yaks) and future perspectives in yak farming.

    The future of yak farming in Bhutan is unsure or might even be at risk because its current situation and recent developments are not very well known to policy makers. Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive overview of the current situation and developments of yak farming practices over the years from the perspective of livestock professionals (n = 28) and yak herders in three regions (east, n = 25; central, n = 20; west, n = 22). Overall, yak-based communities experienced several threats to their way of living, which are exacerbated by external factors and may include, but are not restricted to, i) socioeconomic developments in the form of access to modern education for children, and alternative sources of income affecting the motivation and interest of young pastoralists to stay in yak farming; ii) nature conservation policy (e.g. Forest and Nature Conservation Act 1995 of Bhutan) in the form of shrub proliferation in the rangelands causing forage shortage; and iii) nature conservation policy in the form of predators attacking and/or killing yaks. Additionally, some factors affecting forage availability were specific to certain regions, for example, competition with the horse population (west), cordyceps collection (west and central), cattle and cattle-yak hybrids (east) and prohibited burning of shrubs around rangelands (east and central). These findings demonstrated that a one blanket-policy will be not effective to preserve yak farming for the future.

    The health and welfare conditions of yaks are unknown and are presumably at risk due to feed scarcity, predators, out breaks of diseases and parasites, limited possibilities for monitoring, and limited accessibility to veterinary and health services. In order to improve the living conditions of yaks, health and welfare assessments are necessary. In Chapter 3, a welfare protocol and assessment procedure based on elements of the Welfare Quality® protocol for cattle was applied, which allowed assessment in the open field under mountainous conditions. In general, yaks in Bhutan experience high levels of welfare under existing management systems during autumn and early winter. In the visited yak herds, clinical issues, such as dirty body parts, lesions, ocular and nasal discharge, diarrhoea, lameness and subclinical mastitis were virtually absent. In some herds a relatively high level of self-grooming, scratching and rubbing was observed, which may be associated with limited treatments against ectoparasites. Moreover, the traditional bull castration and piercing the nasal septum of animals around weaning without the use of analgesic were prominent identified welfare issues that needs attention. This chapter also emphasises a need to assess health and welfare of yaks in spring / early summer after a challenging winter period with poor forage and weather conditions.

    In general, farmers are more likely to give up farming when they experience several constraints and challenges in farming and also have a better alternative source of income. In Chapter 4, therefore, associations between perceived concerns around yak farming and preferred source(s) of income of herders and their future plans and decisions were investigated. Although concerns of herders around yak farming have increased over the years, most herders (82%) wish their children to continue yak farming in the future. Nonetheless, over half of herders (58%) and most livestock professionals (96%) think that the number of yak farming families will decline in the future. Furthermore, herders’ preferred source(s) of income had no relation with herders’ opinion on the number of yak farming families in the future and herders’ wish for their children to continue yak farming. This suggests that the herders have confidence that yak farming will remain a reliable source of income.

    Although the Bhutanese government aims to support yak farming in transition, there are several cross-cutting policies and issues that probably affect successful implementation of interventions. In Chapter 5, the challenges and opportunities to sustain yak farming and related trade-offs around problems and solutions were assessed through individual and focus group interviews with six stakeholder groups (i.e. yak herders from two regions, livestock extensionists, park rangers, livestock officials and forest officials). The results reiterate the decreasing labour availability (i.e. successors), decreasing forage availability in the rangelands, and increasing yak predation by wild animals were the main threats to sustainable yak farming; the market to sell yak products was the least threat. However, most problems and solutions that were identified in the focus group interviews differed between, and sometimes within, the stakeholder groups. This implies that there are several challenges and barriers to sustaining yak farming. There is a need for a multi-stakeholder dialogue aiming to discuss problems and solutions together with different stakeholders. Also, stakeholder groups mentioned that the government should streamline socioeconomic development by supporting and improving basic facilities in yak farming villages (e.g. better access to communication and health services), pay attention to human-wildlife conflicts and forage shortage, and explore sustainable income based on yak farming. These policy and interventions to encourage yak farming probably also improve the living conditions of the yaks.

    De Achterhoek in 2120
    Rooij, Bertram de; Hattum, Tim van - \ 2020
    100 jaar vooruit in de tijd naar klimaat neutrale Achterhoek – velen geïnspireerd met webinar Woensdag 16 september organiseerde 8RHK ambassadeurs de webinar ‘de Achterhoek in 2120’. De webinar was goed bezocht met ruim 60 geïnteresseerden uit verschillende sectoren. Wageningen University & Research over toekomstbestendig NL Wageningen University & Research ontwikkelde een visie over een toekomstbestendig Nederland en hoe dat er in 2120 uit zou kunnen zien. De aanleiding voor het ontwikkelen van deze visie is de moeizame uitvoering van het Klimaatakkoord van Parijs en een groot internationaal onderzoek uit 2019 waaruit blijkt dat het wereldwijd slecht gaat met de biodiversiteit. In de visie wordt gekeken naar de verschillende factoren die invloed hebben op de ruimtelijke inrichting van Nederland. Vruchtbare sessies voor inrichting Achterhoek Tim van Hattum (projectleider klimaat WUR) en Bertram de Rooij (Senior Researcher – Research by Design / landscape architect WUR) namen ons mee in hun bevindingen en een eerste blik op wat dit betekent voor onze regio. Welke rol kan de Achterhoek spelen in de ontwikkeling van Nederland? Vanuit verschillende perspectieven zoals landbouw, biodiversiteit, duurzame energie, water of de circulaire economie wordt gekeken naar de inrichting van Nederland in 2120. Na de inspirerende presentaties gingen de aanwezigen uiteen in deelsessies. Discussiepunten waren: wat zijn belemmeringen en wat kun je er morgen al mee doen?
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