Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    From desktop to supermarket shelf : Eye-tracking exploration on consumer attention and choice
    Bialkova, Svetlana ; Grunert, Klaus G. ; Trijp, Hans van - \ 2020
    Food Quality and Preference 81 (2020). - ISSN 0950-3293
    Choice - Consumers attention - Eye-tracking - Retail environment

    Determining the key parameters driving attention and choice at the point of sale is a challenging task. To address this challenge, we performed two studies employing eye-tracking (ET) as a methodological tool when varying the visual marketing stimuli in a lab-experimental setting and in real supermarket shelf, and thus, facing an important gap in the current body of literature – the need to reconcile ET results from lab and field studies. The first study was conducted in lab settings and explored in a controlled manner the top-down (goal-directed) vs. bottom-up (stimulus-driven) mechanisms of attention and choice. The second study took a step further in investigating these mechanisms in real life settings, namely a supermarket shelf. In both studies the same assortment context was presented (i.e. eight products, four flavours of two brands each). The products varied on their level of healthfulness (i.e. nutrient profile) which was explicitly communicated with nutrition labelling formats displayed front of pack. Participants were asked to select either the healthiest product or a product on their preference (lab settings), and a product of their preference (in-store settings). Fixation duration, number of fixations, and the consumer's choice was recorded. The results show that Brand and Product flavour are leading criteria in driving attention and choice, i.e. the stronger brand and best selected product received higher number of fixations. The shopping goal and label formats also contributed to variation in observed patterns. Brand placement in combination with brand strength had a significant impact in the retail environment. Current outcomes demonstrate the potential of eye-tracking in consumer research, from lab to supermarket shelf. The advanced understanding we offer in attention patterns and consequent decision opens promising avenues in successfully applying marketing strategies to navigate consumers’ attention and choice.

    Country Differences in the History of Use of Health Claims and Symbols
    Hieke, Sophie ; Kuljanic, Nera ; Fernandez, Laura ; Lähteenmäki, Liisa ; Stancu, Violeta ; Raats, Monique ; Egan, Bernadette ; Brown, Kerry ; Trijp, Hans van; Kleef, Ellen van; Herpen, Erica van; Gröppel-Klein, Andrea ; Leick, Stephanie ; Pfeifer, Katja ; Verbeke, Wim ; Hoefkens, Christine ; Smed, Sinne ; Jansen, Léon ; Laser-Reuterswärd, Anita ; Korošec, Živa ; Pravst, Igor ; Kušar, Anita ; Klopčič, Marija ; Pohar, Jure ; Gracia, Azucena ; Magistris, Tiziana ; Grunert, Klaus - \ 2016
    European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety 6 (2016)3. - ISSN 2347-5641 - p. 148 - 168.
    Health-related claims and symbols are intended as aids to help consumers make informed and healthier food choices but they can also stimulate the food industry to develop food that goes hand in hand with a healthier lifestyle. In order to better understand the role that health claims and symbols currently have and in the future potentially can have, the objective of the CLYMBOL project (“Role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour”, Grant no 311963) is to investigate consumers’ understanding of health claims and symbols, and how they affect purchasing and consumption [1].

    As part of this endeavour, it is important to understand the history of use of claims and symbols in Europe. What have consumers been exposed to and how were these health-related messages used and discussed among the public? In this study, we interviewed key stakeholders across Europe about how health claims have been regulated in their country, how health symbols have been and currently are being treated, what form of monitoring there is or should be and how both health claims and symbols have been debated in the public opinion. In 26 European Union (EU) Member States, opinions from 53 key informants from up to three different stakeholder groups were gathered: national food authorities, representatives of the food industry, and consumer organisations.

    While 14 Member States reported (at least partial) regulation of the use of health claims and/or symbols before the introduction of the EU Regulation (EC 1924/2006) on nutrition and health claims made on foods [2], mandatory reporting of use had only been in place in three EU Member States. A number of voluntary codes of practice for health claims and/or symbols (i.e. pre-approval or justification when challenged) was said to be in use in 15 Member States. There are only a few national databases on health claims and symbols available, the data for which is often incomplete. Only eight Member States reported having some form of database from which information about health claims and symbols could be extracted. The stakeholders interviewed expressed a strong interest in measuring the impact of health claims and symbols, particularly research into the effects on consumer behaviour (e.g. awareness and understanding, attitudes towards products carrying claims and symbols and purchase/consumption effects), public health (health outcomes and changes in national health status due to the introduction of claims and symbols on food products) and economic aspects including sales, return on investment and reputation measurements. Public debates were said to have evolved around the topics of consumer understanding of claims, acceptance as well as trust in the information presented but also the effects on vulnerable groups such as children and elderly consumers. Another field of debate was said to have been the question of the effectiveness of health claims and symbols. Lastly, stakeholders reported that public debates focussed mainly on the legislative aspects, i.e. how to apply the EU Regulation (No 1924/2006) with regards to wording issues, the evaluation process at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the status of various claims and the nutrient profile modelling to be introduced in Europe.
    The role of health-related claims and symbols in consumer behaviour : The CLYMBOL project
    Hieke, Sophie ; Cascanette, Tamara ; Pravst, Igor ; Kaur, Asha ; Trijp, Hans Van; Verbeke, Wim ; Grunert, Klaus G. - \ 2016
    Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 27 (2016)3. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 26 - 29.
    Consumer behaviour - Food choice - Food labelling - Health claims - Health symbols - Nutrition claims

    Health claims and symbols are a convenient tool when it comes to the marketing of foods and they should, in theory, support consumers in making informed food choices, ideally in choosing healthier food products. However, not much is known about their actual impact on consumer behaviour. CLYMBOL ("The Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour") is an EU-funded project aiming to study how health claims and symbols influence consumer understanding, purchase and consumption behaviour. During a 4-year period, a wide range of research studies have been conducted across Europe, in order to analyse European consumer behaviour in the context of health claims and symbols. Results of the studies will provide a basis for recommendations for stakeholders such as policy makers, the food industry and consumer and patient organisations.

    The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour : Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results
    Hieke, S. ; Kuljanic, N. ; Wills, J.M. ; Pravst, I. ; Kaur, A. ; Raats, M.M. ; Trijp, H.C.M. van; Verbeke, W. ; Grunert, K.G. - \ 2015
    Nutrition Bulletin 40 (2015)1. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 66 - 72.
    Consumer behaviour - Food choice - Food labelling - Health claim - Health symbols

    Health claims and symbols are potential aids to help consumers identify foods that are healthier options. However, little is known as to how health claims and symbols are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations, thus making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Role of health-relatedCLaimsandsYMBOLsin consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health-related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross-country surveys, eye-tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in-store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their history of use and regulation of health claims and symbols prior to the harmonisation of 2006. Findings to date indicate the need for more structured and harmonised research on the effects of health claims and symbols on consumer behaviour, particularly taking into account country-wide differences and individual characteristics such as motivation and ability to process health-related information. Based on the studies within CLYMBOL, implications and recommendations for stakeholders such as policymakers will be provided.

    Attention mediates the effect of nutrition label information on consumers' choice. Evidence from a choice experiment involving eye-tracking
    Bialkova, S. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Juhl, H.J. ; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G. ; Stysko-Kunkowska, M. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    Appetite 76 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 66 - 75.
    front-of-pack - product design - movements - perception - formats - impact
    In two eye-tracking studies, we explored whether and how attention to nutrition information mediates consumers' choice. Consumers had to select either the healthiest option or a product of their preference within an assortment. On each product a particular label (Choices logo, monochrome GDA label, or color-coded GDA label) communicated the product's nutrient profile. In study 1, participants had to select from 4 products differentiated, in addition to the nutrition information, by flavor (strawberry, muesli, apple, chocolate; varied within participants) and brand (local vs. global, varied between participants). Study 2 further explored brand effect within-participants, and thus only 2 flavors (strawberry, chocolate) were presented within an assortment. Actual choice made, response time and eye movements were recorded. Respondents fixated longer and more often on products with color-coded GDAs label than on products with monochrome GDAs or Choices logo. A health goal resulted in longer and more frequent fixations in comparison to a preference goal. Products with color-coded and monochrome GDAs had the highest likelihood of being chosen, and this effect was related to the attention-getting property of the label (irrespective of brand and flavor effects). The product fixated most had the highest likelihood of being chosen. These results suggest that attention mediates the effect of nutrition labels on choice. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors
    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Pascucci, S. ; Verkerk, R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2014
    In: Conference Proceedings Part 4 International Food Marketing Research Symposium 2014. - Philidelphia, PA : Institiute of Food Products Marketing - ISBN 9780985608026 - p. 106 - 112.
    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still faces some barriers due to, among other factors, the misalignment of preferences and perception of consumers and buyers. The market context in terms of quality attributes of the fruit and their importance in the purchase decision of chain actors is not clear. This project investigates the quality attributes of Cape Gooseberry and their importance for both domestic and international consumers, as well as the actors in the chain that have a purchasing role. This research uses combined methodologies (qualitative and quantitative methods and sensorial evaluation tools) according to the characteristics of the group of actors to evaluate. This study shows that misaligned preferences and perception of actors exist. Focus on globalization of the supply chain is made by involving Colombia as producer of the product and Germany and The Netherlands, which are actual importers.
    Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development
    Jacobsen, L.F. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Søndergaard, H.A. ; Steenbekkers, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Lähteenmäki, L. - \ 2014
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 37 (2014)2. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 106 - 114.
    r-and-d - knowledge management - innovation - performance - integration - perspective - industry - projects - flows - teams
    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market and technology experts within the NPD process from a food industry point of view. The review provides practical implications for improving internal communication in food companies and identifies knowledge gaps. By focussing on optimising organisational structure, team composition, management support, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process.
    Consumer-Oriented New Product Development
    Grunert, K.G. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    In: Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems : 5-volume set / van Van Alfen, N.K., San Diego : Elsevier/Academic Press (Vol. 2 ) - p. 375 - 386.
    Introduction For most companies, the introduction of successful new products is critical to the achievement of the short- and longterm corporate strategic goals of profitability, growth, and continuity. As an illustration, more than 25% of the current retail food sales in the US have been reported to consist of products introduced within the past 5 years (Hughes, 1994). Similarly, US marketing managers indicated that they expect 40% of the company profit made in 5 years’ time would come from products not currently on the market (Booz et al., 1982). Within the well-established product-market expansion matrix for growth (Ansoff, 1957), new product development (NPD) is identified as one of the important growth strategies of the firm. Despite the fact that successful NPD is crucial to profitability and growth ambitions, the actual success rates of new product introductions are fairly disappointing. Although there is a lack of reliable data on actual success and failure rates, reported failure rates are ranging anywhere between 40% (e.g., Barczak et al., 2009) and as high as 90% (e.g., Gourville, 2006). One reason for this lack of insight into actual success and failure rates stems from how success rates are being defined (Castellion and Markham, 2013). Success rates have been expressed as the percentage of commercialized new products that not only meet their marketing (e.g., market share and profit contribution) objectives, but also relative to the number of initial ideas that have entered the NPD selection process. Research on the 2003 the Product Development and Management Association best practices study (Barczak et al., 2009) suggests that approximately 15% of the new product ideas and approximately 60% of the new products actually introduced into the market place make it to a commercial success in the market. Whatever the exact metric and the exact percentage be, failure rates of new product introduction are an important concern to academics and practitioners alike, as new product introductions require substantial up-front investments that are not necessarily recouped from the new product’s financial returns. Bottom-line, NPD is an activity that is both necessary in light of market turbulence, but at the same time quite uncertain and risky in terms of potential failure. Not surprisingly, the NPD process has received a lot of attention in the marketing and management literatures (see Hart, 1996 for an overview).
    Effects of nutrition label format and product assortment on the healthfulness of food choice
    Aschemann-Witzel, J. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Trijp, H.C.M. van; Bialkova, S.E. ; Raats, M.M. ; Hodgkins, C. ; Wasowicz-Kirylo, G. ; Koenigstorfer, J. - \ 2013
    Appetite 71 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 63 - 74.
    front-of-pack - information - consumers - impact - purchases - attention
    This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers’ food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers’ motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers’ perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices.
    Governance of the member-cooperative relationship: a case from Brazil
    Cechin, A.D. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Jos Bijman. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736550 - 144
    landbouwcoöperaties - governance - kwaliteit - relaties - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - participatie - lidmaatschap - brazilië - agricultural cooperatives - governance - quality - relationships - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - participation - membership - brazil

    Recent events in the agri-food sector increased the demand for quality attributes, from healthy and safe products to sustainable agricultural practices (Grunert, 2005). Particularly challenging is the connectedness of transactions between farmers, traders, processors, retailers and final customers in order to comply with quality requirements, which implies a need for value chain coordination. Combined with increased consumer demand for variety and convenience, these changes in sector have led to stronger sequential interdependencies, in which the output of one part is the input for another part. The increasing connectedness between transactions demands more vertical coordination. A major challenge for the agricultural cooperative is to combine horizontal coordination among the members with vertical coordination in the value chain (Bijman 2009; Hanf, 2009). Since they are member-oriented, agricultural cooperatives traditionally buy the farm products of its members regardless of its quality. Increasingly, however, cooperatives need to guarantee product quality towards their customers, and thus assure that members supply products of the right quality.

    The objective of this thesis is to disentangle the governance mechanisms that can be used by the cooperative to strengthen the member-cooperative relationship, and to assess the impact of the different governance mechanisms on the coordination of members’ adjustments to higher quality levels. The attempt to organize the participating farmers and firms along the food value chain generates transactional risks and coordination costs in the relationship between agricultural cooperative and farmer-member. This leads to the first research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (1): What are the mechanisms for governing the member-cooperative relationship, and how do they affect transactional risks and coordination costs?

    This thesis (Chapter 2) poses that four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy affect coordination costs and transactional risks through their effect on member commitment and cognitive heterogeneity. It is important that members of an agricultural cooperative are committed to customer orientation; otherwise the involved transactional risks would make vertical coordination more costly. It is necessary to disentangle two types of commitment: to collective action and to customer orientation. Member commitment to collective action prevents side selling, in particular, and free-riding behaviour in general. This leads to the second research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (2): How do the four governance mechanisms - market, hierarchy, community and democracy - affect both types of commitment?

    One of the conclusions stemming from this thesis was that, on the one hand, a cooperative may assure members’ compliance in a less costly way if market incentives related to quality, productivity and effort are strengthened, as well as (hierarchy) input control and on-farm monitoring, since these mechanisms are positively related to commitment to customer orientation. On the other hand, democracy and community mechanisms do have an important role in enhancing commitment to collective action which is a sine qua non condition for the viability of the cooperative (Chapter 3).

    A large multi-product cooperative in which different activities of the cooperative cater to different groups of members, as the case that was chosen as the empirical basis of this thesis, may face problems related to membership heterogeneity (Hansmann, 1996; Fulton and Giannakas, 2001). The basic assumption in most of the literature on the impact of member heterogeneity on the process and outcomes of decision-making is that farmers pursue individual or subgroup interests when participating in the decision-making of the cooperative. If members primarily pursue individual economic interests, there might be a relationship between the economic reasons for becoming a member (and maintaining membership) and the motivation to participate in the governance of the cooperative. This leads to the third research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (3): How do economic motivations for association affect members’ participation in the governance of a cooperative?

    The conclusion of this thesis, regarding this research question, was that besides the role of social mechanisms in enhancing commitment to collective action, there seems to be a role of social mechanisms in enhancing members’ control of their cooperative. Members who participate in boards or committees are not actuated to participate by the same economic motivations that drive their association to the cooperative. Cooperative ideology, in turn, appears to be an important motivation for them to actively participate (Chapter 4).

    The ability of cooperatives to adapt to a rapidly changing environment characterized by technological change and industrialization of agriculture has been questioned Fulton (1995). The organizational structure of the cooperative is said to have negative implications for its quality management (Mérel et al., 2009). On the one hand, cooperatives may be mimicking Investor-Owned Firms (IOFs) in applying more hierarchical mechanisms which enable them to define and effectively apply quality norms for their supply, control the quality of delivered products and monitor members’ production processes. On the other hand, cooperatives have unique organizational characteristics that could provide them with competitive advantage, such as the tight relationship between members and cooperative, which may enable less costly coordination of the transaction (Sykuta and Cook, 2001). This leads to the fourth and last research question of this thesis.

    R.Q. (4): What are the differences in quality performance between a cooperative and an IOF, and can these differences be explained by relationship characteristics?

    In the Brazilian broiler industry, suppliers delivering to a cooperative are performing better in terms of quality than suppliers delivering to an IOF. Cooperative and IOF have the same incentive and control mechanisms for production efficiency and high-quality chicken meat. The cooperative’s advantage over the IOF in terms of suppliers’ quality performance could be influenced by the characteristics of the supplier-buyer relationship. This thesis shows (Chapter 5) that there are some important differences regarding relationship characteristics that could account for this higher performance. Dependence on current buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, uncertainty regarding buyer’s behavior, which is lower for cooperative members, and market risk reduction by the buyer, which is higher for cooperative members, can help explain the higher rate of compliance to the “feet callus” quality standard. These three features of the supplier-cooperative relationship are likely to prevent suppliers from shirking behavior and to induce commitment. Moreover, cooperative suppliers receive more technical support from their buyer for adapting to new quality requirements than IOF suppliers do; this is likely to positively affect farmers’ competence in complying with quality standards.

    The main methodological approach of this thesis is quantitative. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with professional managers of the industrial division, directors and farmers in order to guide the design of the questionnaire. The data that is analyzed in this thesis were collected by using a survey questionnaire applied among 148 farmers, all members of the same multi-product cooperative in Brazil, and 42 broiler suppliers of two major buyers in the same region.

    This thesis makes several theoretical contributions, which can be listed as follows:

    (1) Member commitment in agricultural cooperatives can be disentangled conceptually and empirically into two types. Commitment to collective action is related to Fulton’s (1995) definition: the willingness to patronize a cooperative even when the cooperative’s price or service is not as good as that provided by an IOF. It is an attitude that precedes loyal behaviour; it is the making of a sacrifice or an effort in the name of the relationship and the success of the organization. Commitment to customer orientation, in turn, is the willingness to give up a part of the autonomy at the farm level for the sake of the cooperative’s compliance with the requirements from downstream customers. It is a positive attitude of members towards the re-orientation of the cooperative and is related to Borgen’s (2001) view on commitment.

    (2) Membership heterogeneity might not be a source of inefficiency in decision-making if the organizational goal is precisely to satisfy diverse members’ interests, and if members who occupy representative and managing functions are genuinely seeking to further organizational goals rather than to follow private motives. Most conceptualizations of decision-making problems and influence costs derive from organizational economics, where agency theory has been quite influential. The findings of this thesis (Chapter 4) suggest that assumptions from agency theory, which are often adopted by cooperative studies, could better be treated as an empirical matter.

    (3) This thesis presents a different perspective on the comparative advantage of the cooperative in producing food products with higher quality attributes. The literature on the implications of the cooperative structure for quality management (Mérel et al., 2009) emphasizes that cooperatives often fail to adequately reward the highest quality producers, often causing the problem of “adverse selection”. However, despite starting with larger heterogeneity in terms of producers’ capacity to produce high-quality products, cooperatives may achieve high quality products through superior coordination and adaptation support. The findings of this thesis are in line with other empirical studies outside the domain of cooperatives that found that quality performance may be influenced by relationship characteristics, through their effect on transaction costs (Lu et al., 2009; Coronado et al., 2010).

    (4) Overall, the main scientific contribution of this thesis is the use of the ‘chemistry of organizations’ framework proposed by Grandori and Furnari (2008) in seeking a better understanding of the governance of cooperatives. By adopting that framework the thesis addressed in an integrated way the role of social capital (Ostrom, 1999) and community governance (Bowles and Gintis, 2002; Hayami, 2009) in facilitating collective action, and the role of relational contracts (Poppo and Zenger, 2002; Lazzarini, Miller and Zenger, 2004) in assuring commitment from parties in a transaction. Furthermore, with that framework, the thesis addressed the cognitive role of governance mechanisms, such as knowledge exchange (Conner and Prahalad, 1996; Grant, 1996) and competence enhancing (Nooteboom, 2004).

    The implications of this thesis for management and policy are listed in the three following groups:

    (1) Rewarding farmers appropriately and controlling and monitoring delivery and production processes are important for enhancing commitment both to collective action and to customer orientation. Giving “voice” and building a social community for members and their families are important to prevent members’ free-riding and selling “outside”. It is advised to combine at least the following governance mechanisms: hierarchy control, market incentives, community involvement and democratic voice. Finally, communication is an important tool for enhancing farmers’ commitment to customer orientation.

    (2) Cooperatives can participate in high-quality value chains and be as efficient and effective as other organizational arrangements in the agri-food sector. More importantly, cooperatives might even have an advantage in the production and marketing of goods with credence attributes, such as animal welfare, organic and fair trade. Therefore, policies aiming to promote sustainable food production may target cooperatives, as this organisational form is more effective in lowering the risks associated with farmer’ opportunistic behavior.

    (3) Member participation, commitment, satisfaction with leadership and with the cooperative’s strategy are examples of what could be additional performance criteria besides reported profits, which taken alone could be misleading. Because the cooperative’s objectives are beyond the economic viability of the collective enterprise, (Birchall and Ketilson, 2009), the intangible social assets should be assessed in order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative, and thereby to compare cooperatives with investor-owned firms and among cooperatives themselves.

    Standing out in the crowd: The effect of information clutter on consumer attention for front-of-pack nutrition labels
    Bialkova, S.E. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
    Food Policy 41 (2013). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 65 - 74.
    qualified health claims - visual-search - eye-movements - spatial attention - identification - perceptions - displays - objects - task
    Whether and how information density on front-of-pack design affects consumers’ attention for nutrition labels is explored. The main manipulation concerned the number and type of nutrition labels (directive-, semi-, and non-directive), chromaticity (monochrome vs. traffic light color-coded scheme); number and type of additional design elements; and the distance between the label and additional design elements. Attention was measured by performance in visual search task. Performance was slower with increasing number of additional design elements, and when the label appeared in a dense rather than non-dense area. These effects were modulated by label type and chromaticity. The results show that information density is a key factor for consumer attention to (nutrition) information. Implications for policy makers and food producers who want to optimize package design layout and thus help consumers easily to find nutrition information displayed front of the pack are discussed.
    Overview of Consumer Trends in Food Industry : Deliverable D2.1
    Tudoran, A.A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Grunert, K.G. ; Krystallis, A. ; Esbjerg, L. - \ 2012
    RECAPT (Seventh framework programme FP7 FP7-289755) - 27 p.
    Identifying the Strategic Options for Food Innovation
    Tudoran, A.A. ; Esbjerg, L. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van; Grunert, K.G. - \ 2012
    Aarhus, Denmark : Aarhus University, MAPP Centre for Research on Customer Relations in the Food Sector - 13 p.
    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands
    Heimann, B. ; Christensen, M. ; Rosendal Rasmussen, S. ; Bonneau, M. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Arnau, J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Oksbjerg, N. ; Greef, K.H. de; Petersen, B. - \ 2012
    Copenhagen : Q-PorkChains - 34
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - kwaliteit - kwaliteitsnormen - varkensvlees - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - vleesproductie - varkenshouderij - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - quality - quality standards - pigmeat - sustainability - meat production - pig farming
    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.
    Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project)
    Christensen, M. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Bonneau, M. ; Arnau, J. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Oksbjerg, N. ; Greef, K.H. de; Petersen, B. ; Karlsson, A.H. - \ 2012
    In: Proceedings of 54th International Congress of Meat Science & Technology, 10-15th August 2008, Cape Town, South Africa. - - p. 172 - 172.
    Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector
    Grunert, K.G. ; Wognum, P.M. ; Trienekens, J.H. ; Wever, M. ; Scholderer, J. ; Veflen Olsen, N. - \ 2011
    Journal on Chain and Network Science 11 (2011)2. - ISSN 1569-1829 - p. 89 - 97.
    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers.
    Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life
    Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, S. ; Fernández Celemín, L. ; Grunert, K.G. ; Bialkova, S.E. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2010
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64 (2010)S3. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S14 - S19.
    attention
    Background/Objectives: Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. The objective of the European Union-funded project Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life (FLABEL) is to determine how nutrition labelling can affect dietary choices, consumer habits and food-related health issues. Subjects/Methods: A wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods is being used, including physical auditing, label sorting tasks, eye tracking and electrodermal response, structured interviews and analysis of retail scanner data. Results: First results from the project show that, on the basis of consumer responses, nutrition labels available in Europe can be categorised as non-directive, semidirective or directive. Penetration of nutrition labelling on food and drink packages in five product categories seems widespread, with the nutrition table on the back of packs being the most prominent format (found on 84% of over 37 000 products audited in 28 countries). The higher penetration observed in Northern Europe is paralleled by more public health campaigns in this region alerting consumers to nutrition labelling systems and elements covered therein (for example, calories, salt and fat). Conclusions: The findings to date indicate that nutrition labelling is widespread in Europe but formats and level of detail may differ between countries and products. Upcoming studies within FLABEL will decipher whether and how the various elements of nutrition labels affect attention, liking, understanding, use and dietary choices, and what the implications are for stakeholders such as policy makers.
    Agricultural Marketing and Consumer Behaviour in a Changing World.
    Wierenga, B. ; Tilburg, A. van; Grunert, K. ; Steenkamp, J.E.M. ; Wedel, M. - \ 1997
    Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers - 314 p.
    Quality labeling as instrument to create product equity: The case of IKB in the Netherlands.
    Trijp, H.C.M. van; Steenkamp, J.E.M. ; Candel, M. - \ 1997
    In: Agricultural Marketing and Consumer Behaviour in a Changing World / Wierenga, Berend, van Tilburg, Aad, Grunert, Klaus, Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M., Wedel, Michel, Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 201 - 215.
    Dynamics in consumer behavior with respect to agricultural and food products.
    Steenkamp, J.E.M. - \ 1997
    In: Agricultural Marketing and Consumer Behaviour in a Changing World / Wierenga, Berend, van Tilburg, Aad, Grunert, Klaus, Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M., Wedel, Michel, Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 143 - 188.
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