Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes
Schewe, Jacob ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Reyer, Christopher ; Zhao, Fang ; Ciais, Philippe ; Elliott, Joshua ; Francois, Louis ; Huber, Veronika ; Lotze, Heike K. ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Vautard, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Breuer, Lutz ; Büchner, Matthias ; Carozza, David A. ; Chang, Jinfeng ; Coll, Marta ; Deryng, Delphine ; Wit, Allard De; Eddy, Tyler D. ; Folberth, Christian ; Frieler, Katja ; Friend, Andrew D. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Ito, Akihiko ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Lawrence, Peter ; Morfopoulos, Catherine ; Müller, Christoph ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Orth, René ; Ostberg, Sebastian ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schmid, Erwin ; Stacke, Tobias ; Steenbeek, Jeroen ; Steinkamp, Jörg ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tittensor, Derek P. ; Volkholz, Jan ; Wang, Xuhui ; Warszawski, Lila - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Global impact models represent process-level understanding of how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change. Their projections are used in integrated assessments of climate change. Here we test, for the first time, systematically across many important systems, how well such impact models capture the impacts of extreme climate conditions. Using the 2003 European heat wave and drought as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, we find that a majority of models underestimate the extremeness of impacts in important sectors such as agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, and heat-related human mortality, while impacts on water resources and hydropower are overestimated in some river basins; and the spread across models is often large. This has important implications for economic assessments of climate change impacts that rely on these models. It also means that societal risks from future extreme events may be greater than previously thought.
Characteristics and drivers of drought in Europe-a summary of the DROUGHT-R&SPI project
Tallaksen, Lena M. ; Stagge, James H. ; Stahl, Kerstin ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Orth, Rene ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Loon, Anne F. van; Lanen, Henny A.J. van - \ 2015
In: Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing - Proceedings of the International Conference on Drought: Research and Science-Policy Interfacing. - CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138027794 - p. 15 - 22.

A prerequisite to mitigate the wide range of drought impacts is to establish a good understanding of the drought generating mechanisms from their initiation as a meteorological drought through to their development as soil moisture and hydrological drought. The DROUGHT-R&SPI project has contributed to increased understanding of: (i) drought as a natural hazard through analysis of historical large-scale droughts in Europe, (ii) drought-controlling mechanisms for various scales, including large-scale climate drivers and local-scale processes, (iii) the potential for drought early warning and forecasting, and (iv) suitable drought indicators. The results provide new insight into key characteristics and drivers of major historical droughts as well as projected future drought. The paper summarises the main outcomes of these studies and identifies further research needs.

Candidate Distributions for Climatological Drought Indices (SPI and SPEI)
Stagge, James H. ; Tallaksen, Lena M. ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Loon, Anne F. Van; Stahl, Kerstin - \ 2015
International Journal of Climatology 35 (2015)13. - ISSN 0899-8418 - p. 4027 - 4040.
Drought index - Potential evapotranspiration - Probability distribution - SPEI - SPI - Standardized Precipitation Index

The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a well-reviewed meteorological drought index recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and its more recent climatic water balance variant, the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), both rely on selection of a univariate probability distribution to normalize the index, allowing for comparisons across climates. Choice of an improper probability distribution may impart bias to the index values, exaggerating or minimizing drought severity. This study compares a suite of candidate probability distributions for use in SPI and SPEI normalization using the 0.5° × 0.5° gridded Watch Forcing Dataset (WFD) at the continental scale, focusing on Europe. Several modifications to the SPI and SPEI methodology are proposed, as well as an updated procedure for evaluating SPI/SPEI goodness of fit based on the Shapiro-Wilk test. Candidate distributions for SPI organize into two groups based on their ability to model short-term accumulation (1-2 months) or long-term accumulation (>3 months). The two-parameter gamma distribution is recommended for general use when calculating SPI across all accumulation periods and regions within Europe, in agreement with previous studies. The generalized extreme value distribution is recommended when computing the SPEI, in disagreement with previous recommendations.

Likelihood of future drought hazards: selected European case studies
Lanen, H.A.J. van; Alderlieste, M.A.A. ; Heijden, A. van der; Assimacopoulos, D. ; Dias, S. ; Gudmundsson, L. ; Haro Monteagudo, D. ; Andreu, J. ; Bifulco, C. ; Gero, F. ; Paredes, J. ; Solera, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (DROUGHt-R&SPI Technical Report 11) - 52 p.
Quantitative analysis of historic droughts in selected European case study areas
Lanen, H.A.J. van; Alderlieste, M.A.A. ; Acacio, V. ; Andreu, J. ; Garnier, E. ; Gudmundsson, L. ; Haro Monteagudo, D. ; Lekkas, D. ; Paredes, J. ; Solera, A. ; Assimacopoulos, D. ; Rego, F. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (DROUGHt-R&SPI Technical Report 8) - 61 p.
Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements
Falge, E. ; Tenhunen, J. ; Baldocchi, D. ; Aubinet, M. ; Bakwin, P. ; Berbigier, P. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Bonnefond, J.M. ; Burba, G. ; Clement, R. ; Davis, K.J. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Falk, M. ; Goldstein, A.H. ; Grelle, A. ; Granier, A. ; Grünwald, T. ; Gudmundsson, J. ; Hollinger, D. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Keronen, P. ; Kowalski, A.S. ; Katul, G. ; Law, B.E. ; Malhi, Y. ; Meyers, T. ; Monson, R.K. ; Moors, E.J. ; Munger, J.W. - \ 2002
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 (2002)1-4. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 75 - 95.
bos - broeikaseffect - ecologie - energiebalans - klimaat - koolstofhuishouding - meteorologie - vegetatie
Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurements
Falge, E. ; Baldocchi, D. ; Tenhunen, J. ; Aubinet, M. ; Bakwin, P. ; Berbigier, P. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Burba, G. ; Clement, R. ; Davis, K.J. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Goldstein, A. ; Grelle, A. ; Granier, A. ; Gudmundsson, J. ; Hollinger, D. ; Kowalski, A.S. ; Katul, G. ; Law, B.E. ; Malhi, Y. ; Meyers, T. ; Monson, R.K. ; Munger, J.W. ; Oechel, W. ; Paw U, K.T. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Rannik, Ü. ; Rebmann, C. ; Suyker, A. - \ 2002
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 113 (2002)1-4. - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 53 - 74.
bos - broeikaseffect - ecologie - energiebalans - klimaat - meteorologie - koolstofhuishouding - vegetatie - verdamping
Productivity overshadows temperature in determining soil and ecosystem respiration across European forests
Janssens, I.A. ; Lankreijer, H. ; Matteucci, G. ; Kowalski, A.S. ; Buchmann, N. ; Epron, D. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Kutsch, W. ; Longdoz, B. ; Grünwald, T. ; Montagnani, L. ; Dore, S. ; Rebmann, C. ; Moors, E.J. ; Grelle, A. ; Rannik, Ü. ; Morgenstern, K. ; Oltchev, S. ; Clement, R. ; Gudmundsson, J. ; Minerbi, S. ; Berbigier, P. ; Ibrom, A. ; Moncrieff, J. ; Aubinet, M. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Jensen, N.O. ; Vesala, T. ; Granier, A. - \ 2001
Global Change Biology 7 (2001)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 269 - 278.
This paper presents CO2 flux data from 18 forest ecosystems, studied in the European Union funded EUROFLUX project. Overall, mean annual gross primary productivity (GPP, the total amount of carbon (C) fixed during photosynthesis) of these forests was 1380 ± 330 gC m-2y-1 (mean ± SD). On average, 80 f GPP was respired by autotrophs and heterotrophs and released back into the atmosphere (total ecosystem respiration, TER = 1100 ± 260 gC m-2y-1). Mean annual soil respiration (SR) was 760 ± 340 gC m-2y-1 (55 f GPP and 69 f TER). Among the investigated forests, large differences were observed in annual SR and TER that were not correlated with mean annual temperature. However, a significant correlation was observed between annual SR and TER and GPP among the relatively undisturbed forests. On the assumption that (i) root respiration is constrained by the allocation of photosynthates to the roots, which is coupled to productivity, and that (ii) the largest fraction of heterotrophic soil respiration originates from decomposition of young organic matter (leaves, fine roots), whose availability also depends on primary productivity, it is hypothesized that differences in SR among forests are likely to depend more on productivity than on temperature. At sites where soil disturbance has occurred (e.g. ploughing, drainage), soil espiration was a larger component of the ecosystem C budget and deviated from the relationship between annual SR (and TER) and GPP observed among the less-disturbed forests. At one particular forest, carbon losses from the soil were so large, that in some years the site became a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Excluding the disturbed sites from the present analysis reduced mean SR to 660 ± 290 gC m-2y-1, representing 49 f GPP and 63 f TER in the relatively undisturbed forest ecosystems.
Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests
Valentini, R. ; Matteucci, G. ; Dolman, A.J. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Rebmann, C. ; Moors, E.J. ; Granier, A. ; Gross, P. ; Jensen, N.O. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Lindroth, A. ; Grelle, A. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Grünwald, T. ; Aubinet, M. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Kowalski, A.S. ; Vesala, T. ; Rannik, Ü. ; Berbigier, P. ; Loustau, D. ; Gudmundsson, J. ; Thorgeirsson, H. ; Ibrom, A. ; Morgenstern, K. ; Clement, R. ; Moncrieff, J. ; Montagnani, L. ; Minerbi, S. ; Jarvis, P.G. - \ 2000
Nature 404 (2000)6780. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 861 - 865.
Carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is one of the key processes that need to be assessed in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Several studies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere is gaining carbon, but these estimates are obtained primarily by indirect methods, and the factors that control terrestrial carbon exchange, its magnitude and primary locations, are under debate. Here we present data of net ecosystem carbon exchange, collected between 1996 and 1998 from 15 European forests, which confirm that many European forest ecosystems act as carbon sinks. The annual carbon balances range from an uptake of 6.6 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year to a release of nearly 1 t C ha-1 yr-1, with a large variability between forests. The data show a significant increase of carbon uptake with decreasing latitude, whereas the gross primary production seems to be largely independent of latitude. Our observations indicate that, in general, ecosystem respiration determines net ecosystem carbon exchange. Also, for an accurate assessment of the carbon balance in a particular forest ecosystem, remote sensing of the normalized difference vegetation index or estimates based on forest inventories may not be sufficient.
Naturally occurring mutations within 39 amino acids in the envelope glycoprotein of maedi-visna virus alter the neutralization phenotype
Skraban, R. ; Matthiasdottir, S. ; Torsteindottir, S. ; Agnarsdottir, G. ; Gudmundsson, B. ; Georgsson, G. ; Meloen, R.H. ; Andresson, O.S. ; Staskus, K.A. ; Thormar, H. ; Andresdottir, V. - \ 1999
Journal of Virology 73 (1999). - ISSN 0022-538X - p. 8064 - 8072.
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