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Building bridges through dialogue for the Brahmaputra River Basin
Gulati, Vishaka ; Deka, Arundhati ; Fanaian, Safa ; Vij, Sumit ; Barua, Anamika - \ 2017
In: China and Transboundary Water Politics in Asia Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138060654 - p. 177 - 196.
Management of the freshwater resources has been a global challenge, especially for transboundary river waters (TBW). Management of such communal goods or common resources becomes difficult as the interests of the diverse stakeholders involved will always vary. The assumption that the basin actors will share a common understanding and sympathy towards the issues associated with the basin, cannot be held as true. Only rarely there will be common characteristics present among the knowledge and information shared with the stakeholders regarding the crisis associated with TBW basins. In fact, the various case studies conducted on this discourse show that different regions along the boundary will have diverse level of interplay in the political dimension as well as during the stage of actual resource management (Adams, Brockington, Dyson, & Vira, 2003). The final consequence of water sharing amongst the riparian nations and the level of management success will rely on the dynamics of the level of influence that are at play at the national, regional, and international positions in the region. Therefore, the management of TBW that cut across national, political, social, economic, and sectoral boundaries is regarded as one of the supreme security challenges of the decade (Wouters & Ziganshina, 2011). This is because as rivers cross borders, their flows are diverted, dammed, or stored by national governments for multiple purposes.
|Inter-organizational network analysis in synergy parks
Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, G. ; Wubben, E.F.M. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
Organizational collaborations are important means for organizations to access new resources and enhance the sustainable performance. Recent examples of inter-organizational collaborations towards more sustainable production are synergy parks, such as eco-industrial parks and agroparks. Synergy parks are collaborations among organizations across different sectors, mainly from agriculture and industry, aiming at enhanced economic and environmental performance, sustainable agri-food and bio-energy production through exchanging waste and by-products, creating production synergies. Because synergy parks connect organizations in their non-core business activities, these organizations are not always keen in the realization of synergy parks. A synergy park consists of multiple organizations from various sectors linked through multiple ties, its coordination can be explained by means of organizational network theory (Van de Ven & Fery, 1980). Consequently, a synergy park can be seen as a network where companies are the nodes and their collaborations the ties. Companies with direct ties, can affect the behavior of one another (Rowley, 1997). Recently more and more scholars use network analysis in understanding firms, stakeholders, and their social and behavioral phenomena (Ahuja, 2000; Ahuja, et al., 2009; Corsaro, et al., 2012; Gulati, 2007; Gulati, et al., 2000). Theories that discuss organizational networks, however, pay more attention to relations at dyadic level. Network analysis use in understanding firms, stakeholders, and their social and behavioral phenomena beyond dyadic level is slowly increasing (Ackermann & Eden, 2011; Frooman, 1999; Rowley, 1997). It provides scholars new insights to develop the inter-organizational network theory, to further it from dyadic relationship and examine systems of dyadic interactions capturing the influence of multiple and interdependent relations on network development. The purpose of the study is to understand how the structure of inter-organizational networks impact the realization of synergy parks by analyzing network attributes. In this study we answer the following questions: What is the impact of the network structure attributes (size, type of relation, centrality, and density) on realization of inter-organizational collaborations, such as a synergy park? What alternative network structures are effective in different inter-organizational collaborations? We suggest the following propositions: 1) The relation between the size of the network and the potential of a synergy park realization has an inverse convex shape (n shape) 2) Companies connected with both formal and informal ties have stronger and enduring relationships than the ones connected with formal ties only. 3) Decentralized and dense network structures are more suited for the realization of a synergy park if the set of involved companies are more heterogeneous. We conducted cross-case analysis in three synergy parks through using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods. The unit of analysis is the exchange relationship among the organizations within the networks. We focus on formal, informal, and trust related relations. We identified the boundary spanners in each organization, and asked managers who are the most knowledgeable about the relation of other organizations in the parks. These persons are formally or informally responsible for managing the collaborative relationships with other organizations. The main method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. The network survey has complex design comparing to standard surveys, therefore, we decided to interview each respondent personally by using ONA online survey tools. Concerning to network ties, we gather value and binary data. Each tie among the same companies have been measured and analyzed separately, and compared with one another. The data is coded and analyzed by using UCINET network analysis software (Borgatti, et al., 2002; Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). Networks are framed and analyzed per synergy park separate, which is followed by the analysis across networks. The discussion and the conclusion will be presented in the full paper. Reference Ackermann, F., & Eden, C., 2011. Strategic Management of Stakeholders: Theory and Practice. Long Range Planning, 44(3): 179-196. Ahuja, G., 2000. Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and Innovation: A Longitudinal Study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3): 425-455. Ahuja, G., Polidoro, F., & Mitchell, W., 2009. Structural homophily or social asymmetry? The formation of alliances by poorly embedded firms. Strategic Management Journal, 30(9): 941-958. Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Freeman, L. C., 2002. UCINET for Windows, Version 6.59: Software for Social Network Analysis. Harvard, MA Analytic Technologies. Corsaro, D., Cantu, C., & Tunisini, A., 2012. Actors' Heterogeneity in Innovation Networks. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(5): 780-789. Frooman, J., 1999. Stakeholder influence strategies. Academy of Management Review, 24(2): 191-205. Gulati, R., 2007. Managing network resources: alliances, affiliations and other relational assets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gulati, R., Nohria, N., & Zaheer, A., 2000. Strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3): 203-215. Hanneman, R. A., & Riddle, M., 2005. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside CA: University of California. Rowley, T. J., 1997. Moving beyond dyadic ties: A network theory of stakeholder influences. Academy of Management Review, 22(4): 887-910. Van de Ven, A. H., & Fery, D. L., 1980. Measuring and Assessing Organizations: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Soft matter approaches as enablers for food macroscale simulation
Datta, A.K. ; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Gulati, T. ; Warning, A. - \ 2012
Faraday Discussions 158 (2012). - ISSN 1359-6640 - p. 435 - 459.
multiphase porous-media - free-volume theory - moisture transport - mechanical-properties - mass-transfer - hydraulic conductance - model development - large-deformation - fluid transport - wetting liquid
Macroscopic deformable multiphase porous media models have been successful in describing many complex food processes. However, the properties needed for such detailed physics-based models are scarce and consist of primarily empirical models obtained from experiment. Likewise, driving forces such as swelling pressure have also been approached empirically, without physics-based explanations or prediction capabilities. Soft matter based prediction of properties will provide an additional avenue to obtaining properties and also provide a deeper and critical understanding of how these properties change with composition, temperature and other process variables.
Prospects for EU-India Dairy. Deliverable D7.4 of the Collaborative Project ‘Trade, Agricultural Policies and Structural Changes in India’s Agrifood System; Implications for National and Global Markets (TAPSIM)’
Jongeneel, R.A. ; Silvis, H.J. ; Joshi, P.K. ; Kumar, A. ; Joshi, S. ; Gulati, A. ; Ganguly, K. - \ 2012
The Hague / New Delhi : LEI, part of Wageningen UR / International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (KBBE-212617 ) - 126 p.
Indian agriculture : unfolding structural changes and their relevance to the EU
Gulati, A. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Ganguly, K. - \ 2012
EuroChoices 11 (2012)1. - ISSN 1478-0917 - p. 19 - 25.
India has emerged from the global financial crisis registering an estimated GDP growth of 8.6 per cent in 2010–11. Following a severe drought in 2009 agricultural growth bounced back to 5.4 per cent in 2010–11. Inter-state variations in agricultural performance – Gujarat is a front runner – can be explained by differences in investments in infrastructure, irrigation, R&D etc. There is potential to improve performance sustainably, keeping in view increasing stress on water resources and other environmental issues. More than 52 per cent of the workforce depends on agriculture, which accounts for 17 per cent of GDP. Per capita food expenditure averages more than 50 per cent of total expenditure. Overall income growth is triggering a shift in consumption from cereals to high-value commodities. To meet demand shifts, India can either increase domestic production and/or participate more in world markets. The Indian agri-food system is being transformed: farming is becoming integrated with input supplies, warehouse/logistics, processing and retailing, and the entire value chain is being streamlined. This is stimulating increased trade and investment opportunities in India. EU Member States may find opportunities in niche markets e.g. cheese, wine, olive oil, which are still in their infancy, or to invest in food technology, irrigation, farm management practices (especially dairy) or the development of sustainable value chains
Challenges and opportunities for integrating lake ecosystem modelling approaches
Mooij, W.M. ; Trolle, D. ; Jeppesen, E. ; Arhonditsis, G. ; Belolipetsky, P.V. ; Chitamwebwa, D.B.R. ; Degermendzhy, A.G. ; DeAngelis, D.L. ; Domis, L.N.D. ; Downing, A.S. ; Elliott, J.A. ; Fragoso, C.R. ; Gaedke, U. ; Genova, S.N. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Hakanson, L. ; Hamilton, D.P. ; Hipsey, M.R. ; Hoen, J. 't; Hulsmann, S. ; Los, F.H. ; Makler-Pick, V. ; Petzoldt, T. ; Prokopkin, I.G. ; Rinke, K. ; Schep, S.A. ; Tominaga, K. ; Dam, A.A. van; Nes, E.H. van; Wells, S.A. ; Janse, J.H. - \ 2010
Aquatic Ecology 44 (2010)3. - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 633 - 667.
fresh-water ecosystems - of-the-art - daphnia population-dynamics - trophic state indicators - predator-prey system - causes regime shifts - library salmo-oo - shallow lakes - climate-change - submerged macrophytes
A large number and wide variety of lake ecosystem models have been developed and published during the past four decades. We identify two challenges for making further progress in this field. One such challenge is to avoid developing more models largely following the concept of others ('reinventing the wheel'). The other challenge is to avoid focusing on only one type of model, while ignoring new and diverse approaches that have become available ('having tunnel vision'). In this paper, we aim at improving the awareness of existing models and knowledge of concurrent approaches in lake ecosystem modelling, without covering all possible model tools and avenues. First, we present a broad variety of modelling approaches. To illustrate these approaches, we give brief descriptions of rather arbitrarily selected sets of specific models. We deal with static models (steady state and regression models), complex dynamic models (CAEDYM, CE-QUAL-W2, Delft 3D-ECO, LakeMab, LakeWeb, MyLake, PCLake, PROTECH, SALMO), structurally dynamic models and minimal dynamic models. We also discuss a group of approaches that could all be classified as individual based: super-individual models (Piscator, Charisma), physiologically structured models, stage-structured models and traitbased models. We briefly mention genetic algorithms, neural networks, Kalman filters and fuzzy logic. Thereafter, we zoom in, as an in-depth example, on the multi-decadal development and application of the lake ecosystem model PCLake and related models (PCLake Metamodel, Lake Shira Model, IPH-TRIM3D-PCLake). In the discussion, we argue that while the historical development of each approach and model is understandable given its 'leading principle', there are many opportunities for combining approaches. We take the point of view that a single 'right' approach does not exist and should not be strived for. Instead, multiple modelling approaches, applied concurrently to a given problem, can help develop an integrative view on the functioning of lake ecosystems. We end with a set of specific recommendations that may be of help in the further development of lake ecosystem models.
|Transaction Costs and Marketing Chain Efficiency: The Case of Tomatoes in Nanjing City
Ruben, R. ; Lu Hualiang, ; Kuiper, W.E. - \ 2007
In: The Dragon and the Elephant: Agricultural and Rural Reforms in China and India / Gulati, A., Fan, S., Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press - ISBN 9780801887871 - p. 403 - 421.
|The subsidy syndrome in Indian agriculure by A. Gulati and S. Narayanan
Heerink, N.B.M. - \ 2004
Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 43 (2004). - ISSN 0049-8599 - p. 198 - 200.
|Life-time contributions of Joop Ringelbergs to new apporaches in aquatic ecology, father of modern aquatic ecology in the Netherlands
Flik, B. ; Daan, N. ; Meulemans, J. ; Gulati, R. - \ 1997
Aquatic Ecology 3 (1997). - ISSN 1386-2588 - p. 1 - 8.
|Phytoplankton and food web changes in a shallow biomanipulated lake: multivariate analyses.
Romo, S. ; Donk, E. van; Gylstra, R. ; Gulati, R.D. - \ 1996
Freshwater Biology 36 (1996). - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 683 - 696.
|Transition of a lake to turbid state six years after biomanipulation: mechanisms and pathways.
Donk, E. van; Gulati, R.D. - \ 1995
Water Science and Technology 32 (1995). - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 197 - 206.
Modelling nutrient cycles in relation to food web structure in a biomanipulated shallow lake.
Janse, J.H. ; Donk, E. van; Gulati, R.D. - \ 1995
Netherlands journal of aquatic ecology 29 (1995). - ISSN 1380-8427 - p. 67 - 79.
Macrophyte-related shifts in the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the different trophic levels in a biomanipulated shallow lake.
Donk, E. van; Gulati, R.D. ; Iedema, A. ; Meulemans, J. - \ 1993
Hydrobiologia 251 (1993)1-3. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 19 - 26.
|Growth and nutrient uptake of two species of Elodea in experimental conditions and their role in nutrient accumulation in a macrophyte dominated lake.
Ozimek, T. ; Donk, E. van; Gulati, R.D. - \ 1993
Hydrobiologia 251 (1993). - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 13 - 18.
|Ecological management of aquatic ecosystems: a complementary technique to reduce eutrophication-related perturbation.
Donk, E. van; Gulati, R.D. - \ 1991
In: Perturbation and recovery of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems / Ravera, O., - p. 556 - 575.
|Can macrophytes be useful in biomanupulation of lake?. The Lake Zwemlust example.
Ozimek, T. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Donk, E. van - \ 1990
Hydrobiologia 200/201 (1990). - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 619 - 628.
The first biomanipulation conference: a synthesis.
Lammens, E.H.R.R. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Meijer, M.L. ; Donk, E. van - \ 1990
Hydrobiologia 200-201 (1990)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 619 - 627.
At the First Biomanipulation Conference held in Amsterdam (8-11 August 1989), studies presented considered mainly trophic interactions in lakes, enclosures and laboratory systems. Studies on the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton emphasized the edibility of the phytoplankton in relation to the zooplankton size structure and the trophic state. Most lake experiments involved 50-100% reduction in fish standing stock or alternatively heavy stocking with piscivorous fish. The most dramatic effects of biomanipulation were found in shallow, eutrophic lakes which exhibited radical changes in ecosystem structure because of changes in light climate and consequently, luxuriant development of macrophytes. There was still much controversy about the top-down effects in relation to trophic state, especially those concerning the role of fish and zooplankton in the development and succession of phytoplankton. Many experiments showed indirect effects within the food web, emphasizing the importance of feedbacks and the complexity of the food web rather than the simplicity of the food chain. The stabilizing effects of refugia for zooplankton and fish on the ecosystem were stressed. Shallow lakes responded generally more rapidly to biomanipulation and this was most successfully accomplished when TP concentration was<50μg l-1, even though in a few cases at 10-20 fold higher TP concentrations (mostly PO4-P lakes) the results achieved could be maintained for two or more summers. For a guaranteed success of the measures an almost complete removal of fish appeared to be indispensible; moreover in many cases removal of benthivorous fish appeared to be even more important than that of planktivorous fish.
|Hydrophyte macroinvertebrate interactions in Zwemlust, a lake undergoing biomanipulation.
Kornijow, R. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Donk, E. van - \ 1990
Hydrobiologia 200-201 (1990)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 467 - 474.
In two years after biomanipulation of Lake Zwemlust (The Netherlands), macrophytes (helophytes, elodeids) and filamentous algae developed luxuriantly in the lake. They influenced the structure of macroinvertebrate communities inhabiting them. Macrophytes and algae, by changing environmental and trophic conditions, also affected the composition of macrozoobenthos. Vascular plants served as an important source of food for zoobenthos and phytofauna, mainly after they were decomposed. Filamentous algae were consumed readily alive by many animals. Invertebrates appeared to be important as a potential nutrient source for hydrophytes.
|Biomanipulation - Tool for water management.
Gulati, E.D. ; Lammens, E.H.R.R. ; Meijer, M.L. ; Donk, E. van - \ 1990
Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers (Developments in hydrobiology 61) - 628 p.
First attempt to apply whole-lake food-web manipulation on a large scale in The Netherlands.
Donk, E. van; Grimm, M.P. ; Gulati, R.D. ; Heuts, P.G.M. ; Kloet, W.A. de; Liere, L. van - \ 1990
Hydrobiologia 200-201 (1990). - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 291 - 301.
Lake Breukeleveen is a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970-1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2g m-2y-1 to 0.35g m-2y-1. Water transparency (Secchi-depth c30cm), however, has not improved. In March 1989 the standing crop of planktivorous and benthivorous fish populations was reduced by intensive fishery, from 150kg ha-1 to 57kg ha-1. The lake was made inaccessible to fish migrating from the other lakes and it was stocked with large-sized daphnids and 0+ pike Esox lucius, water transparency did not increase in the following summer and autumn 1989. The main explanations for the negative outcome in Lake Breukeleveen are: 1) the rapid increase of the planktivorous fish biomass and carnivorous cladocerans, predating on the zooplankton community; 2) suppression of the large daphnids by the high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria; 3) high turbidity of the lake due to resuspension of bottom material induced by wind, unlike in smaller lakes, and thus inability of submerged macrophytes to develop and to stabilize the ecosystem. -from Authors