Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Messelink, Gerben J. ; Calvo, F.J. ; Marín, Francisco ; Janssen, Dirk - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 537 - 566.
    Several cucurbits species are cultivated in greenhouses worldwide. The most important genera are (1) Cucurbita, which includes squash, pumpkin, zucchini and gourds, (2) Citrullus, which includes watermelon and (3) Cucumis, which includes cucumber and various melons. Pests and diseases affecting cucurbit crops can vary considerably in relation to geographic area and cropping system. Growing in soil or on hydroponics strongly determines the presence of certain soil pathogens or nematodes. Also the way the crop is cultivated, the number of cropping cycles and the transition between cycles strongly affects the performance of pests, diseases and biological control agents. The main pests and diseases detrimental to cucurbits in various parts of the globe are reported here, along with the most effective or sustainable control strategies currently applied to manage them. Many pests can be controlled very successfully with natural enemies, but despite the recent developments on microbiological control agents, integrated pest management (IPM) with a low input of pesticides and, particularly fungicides, remains challenging in cucurbits, mainly because of viruses and diseases that are difficult to manage biologically or with selective control methods. Plant breeding programmes that develop disease tolerant cultivars that can be combined with arthropod natural enemies for pest control are promising to further develop robust IPM systems for cucurbits.
    Implementation of IPDM in Greenhouses: Customer Value as Guideline
    Buurma, J.S. ; Velden, N.J.A. Van Der - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 681 - 691.
    The objective of this chapter is to provide IPDM researchers and advisers with ideas on how to enhance the implementation of innovative IPDM knowledge and tools into practice. The chapter is based on research into innovation dynamics in food chains, willingness to pay of consumers, quality standards of high market segments, product prices in different market segments and motivations of greenhouse growers. The challenge of innovation in food chains rests in joint action between knowledge partners, primary producers and value chain partners. Experience has taught that reduction of pesticide use and substitution of chemical pesticides by biocontrol alone is not enough to make a distinction in the market. New product concepts have to be supplied to provoke a willingness to pay amongst consumers. The resulting higher consumer prices generate more money to be shared among the partners in the value chain. The main motivations of greenhouse growers are to produce a customer product (market-oriented subgroup), grow a healthy crop (crop-oriented subgroup) and achieve a lower cost price (cost-oriented subgroup). Implementation of IPDM technologies has best chances in the market-oriented and crop-oriented subgroups. They are more willing and able to integrate customer values in new product concepts and production systems than their cost-oriented colleagues.
    Sweet Peppers
    Messelink, Gerben J. ; Labbé, Roselyne ; Marchand, Geneviève ; Tavella, Luciana - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 513 - 535.
    Sweet pepper is an important greenhouse vegetable crop and highly attractive to multiple pest and pathogen species. The main pests and diseases detrimental to pepper crops in various parts of the globe are reported here, along with the most effective or sustainable control strategies currently applied to manage them. Biological control of the main pest species, such as thrips, whiteflies and spider mites, is in general very successful with generalist predators, because of their ability to establish populations prior to pest invasions by using the plant-provided pollen as an alternative food source. However, other pest species, such as aphids, stink bugs and the pepper weevil, are still hard to control without pesticides and require new tools for management that do not disrupt the robust system of biological control. Most diseases can be controlled well by managing the climate, soil solarization, growing out of soil or by applying bacterial or fungal antagonists. All these tools together offer the opportunity to manage most pest and diseases with a minimal use of pesticides.
    Biological Control Agents for Control of Pests in Greenhouses
    Lenteren, Joop C. Van; Alomar, Oscar ; Ravensberg, Willem J. ; Urbaneja, Alberto - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing (Plant Pathology in the 21st Century ) - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 409 - 439.
    First we describe the different types of biocontrol used in greenhouses and present examples of each type. Next we summarize the history of greenhouse biocontrol, which started in 1926, showed a problematic period when synthetic chemical pesticides became available after 1945, and flourished again since the 1970s. After 1970, the number of natural enemies becoming available for commercial augmentative biocontrol in greenhouses grew very fast, as well as the industry producting these control agents. Biocontrol of the most important clusters of greenhouse pests is summarized, as well as the taxonomic groups of natural enemies that play a main role in greenhouses. More than 90% of natural enemy species used in greenhouses belong to the Arthropoda and less than 10%, many belonging to the Nematoda, are non-arthropods. This is followed by sections on finding and evaluation of potential biocontrol agents, and on mass production, storage, release and quality control of natural enemies. Since the 1970s, production of biocontrol agents has moved from a cottage industry to professional research and production facilities. Many efficient agents have been identified, quality control protocols, mass-production, shipment and release methods matured, and adequate guidance for farmers has been developed. Most natural enemy species (75%) are produced in low or medium numbers per week (hundreds to a hundred thousand), and are applied in situations where only low numbers are needed, such as private gardens, hospitals, banks, and shopping malls. The other 25% of the species are produced in numbers of 100,000 to up to millions per week and regularly released in many of the greenhouse crops. Microbial pesticides are predominantly used as corrective treatments in greenhouse crops where natural enemies are providing insufficient control. Europe is still the largest commercial market for arthropod greenhouse biocontrol agents, and North America is the largest market for microbial control agents. We then continue with a discussion on the pros and cons of use of polyphagous predators, and the use of semiochemicals. Finally, we summarize factors that indicate a positive future for greenhouse biocontrol, as well as developments frustrating its implementation.
    Integrated Pest Management Methods and Considerations Concerning Implementation in Greenhouses
    Lenteren, Joop C. Van; Nicot, Philippe C. - \ 2020
    In: Integrated Pest and Disease Management in Greenhouse Crops / Gullino, Maria Lodovica, Albajes, Ramon, Nicot, Philippe C., Springer International Publishing (Plant Pathology in the 21st Century ) - ISBN 9783030223038 - p. 177 - 193.
    We consider IPM as a combination of durable, environmentally, toxicologically and economically justifiable farming practices which prevent pest damage primarily through the use of natural factors limiting pest population growth and disease development, and which resort only if needed to other, preferably non-chemical, measures. IPM is not simply a combination of various control methods. We give an overview of IPM measures used in greenhouses and refer to specific chapters in this book for examples. In IPM, each practical situation dictates a number of special aspects for consideration, and IPM methods need continuous adaptation, making IPM knowledge intensive and interactive. Successful IPM programmes for greenhouse crops have a number of characteristics in common: (a) their use was promoted only after a complete IPM programme had been developed, (b) intensive support by the extension service was essential during initial implementation, (c) the costs of crop protection with IPM should not be higher than those of a chemical control programme, and (d) non-chemical management methods, such as biocontrol agents and resistant plant material, should be as easily available, as reliable, and as constant in quality, as chemical agents. IPM research and implementation in greenhouses during the past 50 years has taught us the lesson that the development of an IPM programme needs to be discussed in a very early stage with all stakeholders, including growers, pest management specialists, extension services and researchers. Such a meeting often results in a pragmatic design of a draft, very pragmatic IPM programme, which is continuously adapted during later meetings, based on growers’ experience and new research results.
    Gullino, Maria Lodovica ; Bonants, Peter J.M. - \ 2014
    In: Detection and Diagnostics of Plant Pathogens / Gullino, M.L., Bonants, P.J.M., Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789401790192 - p. v - v.
    Results of the EU Project QBOL, Focusing on DNA Barcoding of Quarantine Organisms, Added to an International Database (Q-Bank) on Identification of Plant Quarantine Pathogens and Relatives
    Bonants, P.J.M. - \ 2014
    In: Detection and Diagnostics of Plant Pathogens. Part III, Role of Diagnostics in Plant Disease Management / Gullino, M.L., Bonants, P.J.M., Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer (Plant Pathology in the 21st Century 5) - ISBN 9789401790192 - p. 119 - 134.
    The rate of introduction and establishment of damaging plant pests and diseases has increased steadily over the last century as a result of expanding globalisation of trade in plant material, climate change, EU expansion, and by a recognised decline in the resources supporting plant health activities. Furthermore there is a constant decline in the number of taxonomic specialists in the different disciplines (mycology, bacteriology, etc.), capable of identifying plant pathogens, and funds to support this kind of work are very hard to obtain. Also the number of other specialists in phytopathology and other fields, which are vital for sustaining sound public policy on phytosanitary issues, are diminishing. These problems affect all countries. In this context QBOL (, an EU project on DNA barcoding, started in 2009 to generate DNA barcoding data of quarantine organisms and their taxonomically relatives to support plant health diagnostics. The data are included in a database, called Q-bank (, which now consists of a dynamic open-access database of quarantine plant pests and look-alikes, linked to curated and publicly accessible reference collections. It contains sequence and morphological data including photographs, nomenclatural and diagnostic data of specimens available in reference collections. Within Q-bank curators from many countries with expertise on taxonomy, phytosanitary and collection issues for the different groups have been appointed and links with other databases have been made; this in order to provide Q-bank an international role in supporting plant health agencies
    Detection and Diagnostics of Plant Pathogens
    Gullino, M.L. ; Bonants, P.J.M. - \ 2014
    Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer (Plant pathology in the 21st Century volume 5) - ISBN 9789401790192 - 200
    plantenziekteverwekkers - detectie - diagnostiek - plantenziekten - diagnostische technieken - plant pathogens - detection - diagnostics - plant diseases - diagnostic techniques
    This book is part of the Plant Pathology in the 21st Century Series, started in the occasion of the IX International Congress of Plant Pathology, Torino, 2008. In conjunction with the Xth International Congress of Plant Pathology, held in Beijing in August 2013. Although deriving from a Congress, the book will not have the format of traditional Proceedings, but will be organized as a resource book. It will be based on invited lectures presented at the Congress as well as by other chapters selected by the editors among offered papers. This book will cover a topic very important in the field of plant pathology, dealing with detection and diagnostics. This field of research is continuously moving forwards, due to innovation in techniques. The application of new detection and diagnostic technologies are relevant to many applied fields in agriculture. The different chapters will provide a very complete figure of the topic, from general and basic aspects to practical aspects. Contents: 1. New developments in identification and quantification of airborne inoculum 2. siRNA deep sequencing and assembly: piecing together viral infections 3. Use of airborne inoculum detection for disease management decisions 4. Proximal sensing of plant diseases Case studies and special applications 5. Diagnostic Challenges for the Detection of Emerging Pathogens: A Case Study Involving the Incursion of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in New Zealand 6. Detection of Human Pathogens on Plants - 7. Plant Disease Diagnostics For Forensic Applications III. Role of diagnostics in plant disease management 8. Results of the EU project QBOL, focusing on DNA barcoding of quarantine organisms, added to an international database (Q-bank) on identification of plant quarantine pathogens and relatives 9. On-site testing - moving decision making from the lab to the field 10. Virtual Diagnostic Networks: A platform for collaborative diagnostics 11. Development and implementation of rapid and specific detection techniques for seed-borne pathogens of leafy vegetable crops. 12. Diagnosis of plant pathogens and implications for plant health regulation: the European Food Safety Authority perspective
    The potential of organic amendments to enhance soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani disease in different soils and crops
    Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Stevens, L.H. - \ 2014
    In: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1044: VIII International Symposium on Chemical and Non-Chemical Soil and Substrate Disinfestation, 18 July 2014, Turin, Italy. - Leuven : ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 127 - 132.
    Enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agricultural farming systems. The current research demonstrated that suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB in sugar beet could be elevated in different soils. Feather meal was most effective and disease spread was reduced with 36-87% in clay as well as in sandy soils. Chitin was effective in clay, but less in sand. Whereas suppressiveness was hardly elevated in loess soils. The potential to enhance suppressiveness was lost after frost (4 weeks -15°C) as well as after flooding soil during 1 or 4 weeks. R. solani was not only suppressed in sugar beet seedlings, but also in cauliflower with AG 2-1 and lettuce with AG 1-1B. R. solani was not suppressed in lettuce with AG 4 HGI and carrot with AG 2-2IIIB. These results indicate that Rhizoctonia-suppressiveness can be enhanced in different soils and different crops, but specificity of the suppressiveness among Rhizoctonia-crop combinations is expected
    Alternative methods to control Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry cultivated in soilless growing media
    Evenhuis, B. ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Lamers, J.G. ; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Postma, J. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Chemical and Non-Chemical Soil and Substrate Disinfestation. - Leuven : ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 337 - 342.
    Phytophthora cactorum is an important threat in strawberry propagation and production. No reliable non-chemical control measures are available. Therefore different control strategies were tested. Spread of pathogen infection can be reduced by disinfection of the irrigation water. Slow sand filtration effectively removed P. cactorum from drain water, i.e., disease severity in strawberry plants was reduced with 45 to 65% and rhododendron baits showed a 95-100% reduction of P. cactorum after the drain water had passed the sand filter. However, upstream movement of P. cactorum was detected within the unit. A complementary strategy to reduce the damage caused by P. cactorum is to enhance disease suppressive properties of the soilless substrate. Pasteurization of the substrate mixtures showed increased levels of disease, indicating that biological factors might play a role in disease suppression. Antagonistic bacteria inhibiting growth of P. cactorum were present in roots, rhizosphere as well as in the crown. However, compost amendment or other additions did not elevate suppressiveness. Further experiments were performed where different beneficial microorganisms and/or elicitors were added. The most promising treatments were salicylic acid, followed by inoculation with the endophytic fungus Acremonium strictum and growing Lepidium sativum previous to the crop
    Inundation as tool for management of Globodera pallida and Verticillium dahliae
    Runia, W.T. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Stevens, L. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Postma, J. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the 7th IS on Chemical and Non-Chemical Soil and Substrate Disinfestation. - ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 195 - 201.
    Seed potato production is threatened by potato cyst nematodes (PCN). Seed potatoes can only be grown on PCN-free declared potato fields. A seed potato grower chose inundation, flooding his soil, for controlling PCN because resistant cultivars are economically less advantageous and catch crops or granular fumigants gave insufficient results. Inundation is widely used in bulb cultures in The Netherlands to control parasitic nematodes and selectively also pathogenic fungi. Research was performed on the efficiency of inundation against PCN species Globodera pallida and the causal fungal agent of potato wilt Verticillium dahlia (Vd) in a 30 ha field. The effect on soil fertility and texture was also studied. A technical manual for large-scale inundation was written for growers and economic evaluation was performed. Results showed that after 16 weeks of inundation 99.9% of the contents of artificially applied G. pallida cysts was eliminated. Vitality of V. dahlia was reduced with 84%. Incorporation of B. juncea did not increase efficiency. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) with incorporated B. juncea in the dike surrounding the field, showed a lower efficiency against G. pallida due to incorrect application. Naturally occurring beet cysts lost their vitality after inundation. Incorporation of B. juncea increased soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani whereas inundation leveled out this effect. By slow release of water after inundation soil texture remained unchanged. Changes in fertilizer content were affected both by the growth and incorporation of B. juncea and by inundation. An increase of sodium and of the electrical conductivity (EC) was noticed. Inundation proved to be highly effective in controlling PCN and Vd and economically feasible for practical application. Long-term effects have to be monitored and effects on other soil quality aspects, both biological, chemical and physical should be taken into account in future research. For some regions in The Netherlands inundation is a new tool for seed potato growers in their Nematode Control Strategy.
    Unravelling the mechanism of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic soil disinfestation
    Runia, W.T. ; Thoden, T.C. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Termorshuizen, A. ; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. ; Streminska, M.A. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on chemical and non-chemical soil and substrate disinfestation. - ISHS - ISBN 9789462610255 - p. 177 - 193.
    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) for the control of multiple soilborne pathogens is a viable alternative to the application of biocides and soil steaming. ASD implies soil wetting, incorporation of fresh organic matter, and covering with airtight plastic foil for several weeks. To speed up the whole process, Thatchtec has developed a procedure based on defined agricultural products (referred to as Herbie). To further optimize ASD, the mechanism of pathogen inactivation should be unraveled. Therefore, we performed an incubation experiment in 11-L polypropene containers with 6 soil types (glacial sand, dune sand, river clay, marine loam, peat soil, and an artificially composed soil lacking any organic matter) in triplicate. After wetting the soil to field capacity, Herbie was added to it (equivalent to 4 g crude protein L-1 soil) and containers were filled with soil (8 L, head space 3 L). A similar treatment without Herbie served as control. Nylon mesh bags containing cysts of potato cyst nematode (PCN; Globodera pallida) were added and the containers were sealed off. Destructive sampling was performed 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after start of the experiment and biotic (cyst content survival, free-living non-plant parasitic nematode community, total and functional groups of bacteria, fungi and protozoa) and abiotic (organic matter, pH, nutrients, EC, fatty acids) parameters measured. Additionally, concentrations of several gases (O2, H2S, CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O) were measured in the head space before each destructive sampling. Survival of eggs within the cysts declined in all treatments to levels
    Management of irrigation water as a tool for disease management
    Os, E. van; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Postma, J. - \ 2012
    In: Fusarium wilts of greenhouse vegetable and ornamental crops / Gullino, M.L., Katan, J., Garibaldi, A., St.Paul, MN, USA : APS Press - ISBN 9780890544013 - p. 75 - 82.
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds
    Amein, T. ; Wright, S. Al; Wikstrom, M. ; Koch, E. ; Schmitt, A. ; Stephan, D. ; Jahn, M. ; Tinivella, F. ; Gullino, M.L. ; Forsberg, G. ; Werner, S. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2011
    Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 118 (2011)6. - ISSN 1861-3829 - p. 214 - 221.
    vegetable seed - carrot seed - cauliflower - antagonists - fungicides - biocontrol - hot
    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of greenhouse and field experiments in which non-chemical seed treatments were tested for control of A. brassicicola on cabbage seeds naturally infested with the pathogen. In greenhouse experiments, significant improvements were obtained by seed treatment with some commercialised and experimental microbial biocontrol agents, an emulsion of thyme oil in water (0.1%) and by the tested physical seed treatments methods ( i.e. hot water, aerated steam and electron seed treatment). Resistance inducers tended to increase the percentage of healthy plants, but the effects were statistically not significant. Generally the combination of physical treatments with the effective agents did not result in improved performance. Positive effects on crop establishment and yield by the same treatments were also observed in field tests. Overall the results indicate that several options for non-chemical control of A. brassicicola on Brassica seeds exist that are comparable in efficacy to the chemical standard Aatiram (active ingredient thiram) used in this study. german version
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for the control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina on carrot seeds
    Koch, E. ; Schmitt, A. ; Stephan, D. ; Kromphardt, C. ; Jahn, M. ; Krauthausen, H.J. ; Forsberg, G. ; Werner, S. ; Amein, T. ; Wright, S.A.I. ; Tinivella, F. ; Gullino, M.L. ; Roberts, S.J. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2010
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 127 (2010)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 99 - 112.
    physical sanitation treatments - biological-control - vegetable seed - leaf-blight - black rot - germination - hot - sensitivity - infection - diseases
    The current study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of physical methods (hot water, aerated steam, electron treatment) and agents of natural origin (resistance inducers, plant derived products, micro-organisms) as seed treatments of carrots for control of Alternaria dauci and A. radicina. Control of both Alternaria species by seed treatment with the resistance inducers was generally poor. Results were also not satisfactory with most of the formulated commercial micro-organism preparations. Based on the average of five field trials, one of these, BA 2552 (Pseudomonas chlororaphis), provided a low but significant increase in plant stand. Among the experimental micro-organisms, the best results were obtained with Pseudomonas sp. strain MF 416 and Clonostachys rosea strain IK726. A similar level of efficacy was provided by seed treatment with an emulsion (1%) of thyme oil in water. Good and consistent control was generally achieved with the physical methods aerated steam, hot water and electron treatment. Aerated steam treatment was, apart from the thiram-containing chemical standard, the best single treatment, and its performance may at least partially be due to extensive pre-testing, resulting in dosages optimally adapted to the respective seed lot. In some of the experiments the effect of the hot water treatment, which was tested at a fixed, not specifically adapted dosage, was significantly improved when combined with a Pseudomonas sp. MF 416 or C. rosea IK726 treatment. The results are discussed in relation to the outcome of experiments in which the same seed treatment methods and agents were tested in other seed-borne vegetable pathosystems.
    Screening of biocontrol agents for control of foliar diseases
    Köhl, J. - \ 2009
    In: Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases / Gisi, U., Chet, I., Gullino, M.L., Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York : Springer (Plant Pathology in the 21st Century, Vol. 1. Vol. 1, part 2) - ISBN 9781402088032 - p. 107 - 119.
    apple scab pathogen - venturia-inaequalis - biological-control - botrytis-cinerea - trichoderma-harzianum - ulocladium-atrum - solar-radiation - powdery mildew - aphid honeydew - phyllosphere
    Candidate antagonists for the development of biocontrol agents have to fulfill many criteria. The criterion often investigated first in detail is the antagonistic potential of candidates against the target pathogen. However, candidates must also have high ecological competence, must be suitable for an economically feasible production and must be safe in use. Consequently, a broad range of criteria must be tested to fulfill the key factors for success of a biocontrol product. Assays are needed to test such major criteria in simple and inexpensive high throughput systems to exclude candidates in an early stage which may show strong antagonisms but do not fulfill other major criteria for a successful commercialization. The case of a screening program aimed at the biological control of apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis is presented and discussed. Keywords Biological control - Foliar diseases - Screening - Selection criteria
    Alternative seed treatments for organic legume production
    Tinivella, F. ; Hirata, L.M. ; Celan, M.A. ; Wright, S. ; Amein, T. ; Schmitt, A. ; Koch, E. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Groot, S.P.C. ; Garibaldi, A. ; Gullino, M.L. - \ 2008
    Journal of Plant Pathology: rivista di patologia vegetale 90 (2008)2, Suppl.. - ISSN 1125-4653
    European law provides that, in organic farming, organically produced seed should be used. Therefore new sanitation treatments need to be developed which do not use classical fungicides but still produce seed free from pathogens which can strongly affect yield of the crop. Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments alternative to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum causing anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta pisi causing Ascochyta blight on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulated micro-organisms, non-formulated selected strains of different micro- organisms (fungi, bacteria and yeasts) and plant extracts were applied as dry or liquid seed treatments on naturally infested seeds. Seedling emergence and disease incidence and/or severity were recorded. Possible suppression of Ascochyta blight in peas was masked by the high rate of infection (around 20%), so almost all seed treatments turned out to be ineffective in controlling infection, with the exception of treatments with thyme oil and a strain of Clonostachys rosea. C. lindemuthianum infection was successfully controlled by all resistance inducers. However, they also caused a significant reduction of plant emergence. Among the micro-organism formulations, Bacillus subtilis-based formulations provided the best protection to anthrachnose. Some bacterial strains, a disease-suppressive saprophytic strain of Fusarium oxysporum and the mustard powder-based product Tillecur™ proved to be effective against bean anthrachnose. Tillecur™ (Schaette AG, Bald Waldsee, Germany) and thyme oil are promising for application in integrated pest management and could possibly be used in organic farming
    STOVE: Seed treatments for organic vegetable production
    Schmitt, A. ; Jahn, M. ; Kromphardt, C. ; Krauthausen, H.J. ; Roberts, S.J. ; Wright, S.A.I. ; Amein, T. ; Forsberg, G. ; Tinivella, F. ; Gullino, M.L. ; Wikström, M. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Groot, S.P.C. ; Werner, S. ; Koch, E. - \ 2008
    biologische landbouw - zaadproductie - onderzoeksprojecten - groenteteelt - organic farming - seed production - research projects - vegetable growing
    The aim of the EU-financed research project „STOVE“ (Seed Treatments for Organic Vegetable Production) is to evaluate different methods potentially suited for seed treatment of vegetables in organic farming regarding their efficacy, to optimise these methods, and where feasible to combine them with each other. Scientists from seven European research institutions and a producer of organic vegetable seeds carry out the project.
    Biological control of whiteflies
    Lenteren, J.C. van; Martin, N.A. - \ 1999
    In: Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops / Albajes, R., Lodovica Gullino, M., Lenteren, J.C., Elad, Y., Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 202 - 216.
    Mass production, storage, shipment and quality control of natural enemies
    Lenteren, J.C. van; Tommasini, M.G. - \ 1999
    In: Integrated pest and disease mangement in greenhous crops / Albajes, R., Lodovica Gullino, M., van Lenteren, J.C., Elad, Y., Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 276 - 294.
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