Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Senses Stress Levels to Coordinate Auxin-Induced Reprogramming From Seed Germination to Somatic Embryogenesis—A Role Relevant for Seed Vigor Prediction and Plant Robustness
Mohanapriya, Gunasekaran ; Bharadwaj, Revuru ; Noceda, Carlos ; Costa, José Hélio ; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev ; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam ; Thiers, Karine Leitão Lima ; Santos Macedo, Elisete ; Silva, Sofia ; Annicchiarico, Paolo ; Groot, Steven P.C. ; Kodde, Jan ; Kumari, Aprajita ; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis ; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
developmental plasticity - endophytes - environmental stress - metabolic biomarker - plant performance prediction - seed technology

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the most striking and prominent example of plant plasticity upon severe stress. Inducing immature carrot seeds perform SE as substitute to germination by auxin treatment can be seen as switch between stress levels associated to morphophysiological plasticity. This experimental system is highly powerful to explore stress response factors that mediate the metabolic switch between cell and tissue identities. Developmental plasticity per se is an emerging trait for in vitro systems and crop improvement. It is supposed to underlie multi-stress tolerance. High plasticity can protect plants throughout life cycles against variable abiotic and biotic conditions. We provide proof of concepts for the existing hypothesis that alternative oxidase (AOX) can be relevant for developmental plasticity and be associated to yield stability. Our perspective on AOX as relevant coordinator of cell reprogramming is supported by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and gross metabolism data from calorespirometry complemented by SHAM-inhibitor studies on primed, elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO)–stressed, and endophyte-treated seeds. In silico studies on public experimental data from diverse species strengthen generality of our insights. Finally, we highlight ready-to-use concepts for plant selection and optimizing in vivo and in vitro propagation that do not require further details on molecular physiology and metabolism. This is demonstrated by applying our research & technology concepts to pea genotypes with differential yield performance in multilocation fields and chickpea types known for differential robustness in the field. By using these concepts and tools appropriately, also other marker candidates than AOX and complex genomics data can be efficiently validated for prebreeding and seed vigor prediction.

Earth System Governance : Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project 2018
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Yumie Aoki Inoue, Christina ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, Joost ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael John ; Djalante, Riyanti ; Dryzek, John S. ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renee ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, Ruben - \ 2019
Utrecht : Earth System Governance - 128 p.
Taming equity in multilateral climate politics: A shift from responsibilities to capacities
Klinsky, Sonja ; Gupta, A. - \ 2019
In: What Next for Sustainable Development? / Meadowcroft, James, Banister, David, Holden, Erling, Langhelle, Oluf, Linnerud, Kristin, Gilpin, Geoffrey, Cheltenham UK / Northampton MA, USA : Edward Elgar - ISBN 9781788975193 - p. 159 - 179.
Equity has remained a deeply contested concept in multilateral climate politics ever since the Brundtland Commission report, with academic debate and geopolitical conflict alike focusing on how to conceptualize the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities’ (CBDR-RC) of industrialized and developing countries in combating climate change, enshrined within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The focus here is on scrutinizing equity-in-practice, i.e. how equity is being operationalized within multilateral climate governance. The authors trace how the two component elements of the CBDR-RC principle (‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ and ‘respective capabilities’) are being operationalized within the obligations and institutional arrangements relating to mitigation and adaptation within the UNFCCC. The focus of equity is shifting away from the ‘responsibility’ component to that of ‘capabilities’ (with capabilities reduced, furthermore, to a technical notion of capacity building). Equity-in-practice is thus increasingly coming to be equated, within the UNFCCC, with capacity building. The authors discuss whether such a taming of equity is also discernible in newer developments, such as negotiating the rule-book for the enhanced transparency framework of the 2015 Paris Agreement, and debating the role within climate policy of climate engineering technologies. The authors draw out the implications of this analysis for the prospects of UN-led multilateralism to deliver on climate equity in the pursuit of sustainable development.
Governing Climate Engineering: A Proposal for Immediate Governance of Solar Radiation Management
Jinnah, Sikina ; Nicholson, Simon ; Morrow, David R. ; Dove, Zachary ; Wapner, Paul ; Valdivia, Walter ; Thiele, Leslie Paul ; McKinnon, Catriona ; Light, Andrew ; Lahsen, M.H. ; Kashwan, Prakash ; Gupta, A. ; Gillespie, A. ; Falk, Richard ; Conca, Ken ; Chong, Dan ; Chhetri, Netra - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)14. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 9 p.
solar geoengineering - global governance - solar radiation management - climate change
Solar radiation management (SRM) technologies would reflect a small amount of incoming solar radiation back into space before the radiation can warm the planet. Although SRM may emerge as a useful component of a global response to climate change, there is also good reason for caution. In June 2017, the Academic Working Group on Climate Engineering Governance released a policy report, “Governing Solar Radiation Management”, which developed a set of objectives to govern SRM in the near-term future: (1) keep mitigation and adaptation first; (2) thoroughly and transparently evaluate risks, burdens, and benefits; (3) enable responsible knowledge creation; and (4) ensure robust governance before any consideration of deployment. To advance the governance objectives identified above, the working group developed twelve recommendations, grouped into three clusters: (1) create politically legitimate deliberative bodies; (2) leverage existing institutions; and (3) make research transparent and accountable. This communication discusses the rationale behind each cluster and elaborates on a subset of the recommendations from each cluster.
The Earth System Governance Project as a network organization: a critical assessment after ten years
Biermann, F. ; Betsill, Michele M. ; Burch, S. ; Dryzek, John ; Gordon, Christopher ; Gupta, A. ; Gupta, Joyeeta ; Inoue, Cristina ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Kanie, Norichika ; Olsson, Lennart ; Persson, Åsa ; Schroeder, H. ; Scobie, Michelle - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 39 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 17 - 23.

The social sciences have engaged since the late 1980s in international collaborative programmes to study questions of sustainability and global change. This article offers an in-depth analysis of the largest long-standing social-science network in this field: the Earth System Governance Project. Originating as a core project of the former International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, the Earth System Governance Project has matured into a global, self-sustaining research network, with annual conferences, numerous taskforces, research centers, regional research fellow meetings, three book series, an open access flagship journal, and a lively presence in social media. The article critically reviews the experiences of the Earth System Governance network and its integration and interactions with other programmes over the last decade.

Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

Development of quantitative PCR for the detection of Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus and Thioalkalibacter halophilus in gas biodesulfurization processes
Kiragosyan, Karine ; Veelen, Pieter van; Gupta, Suyash ; Tomaszewska-Porada, Agnieszka ; Roman, Pawel ; Timmers, Peer H.A. - \ 2019
AMB Express 9 (2019). - ISSN 2191-0855
Gas biodesulfurization - Primers - qPCR - Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are crucial key players in biotechnological processes to remove hydrogen sulfide from sour gas streams. Several different haloalkaliphilic SOB have been detected and isolated from lab- and full-scale facilities, which all performed differently considering end product yields (sulfur and sulfate) and conversion rates. Understanding and regulating bacterial community dynamics in biodesulfurization processes will enable optimization of the process operation. We developed quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to quantify haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacterial species Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus, and Thioalkalibacter halophilus that dominate bacterial communities of biodesulfurization lab- and full-scale installations at haloalkaline conditions. The specificity and PCR efficiency of novel primer sets were evaluated using pure cultures of these target species. We further validated the qPCR assays by quantification of target organisms in five globally distributed full-scale biodesulfurization installations. The qPCR assays perform a sensitive and accurate quantification of Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus and Thioalkalibacter halophilus, thus providing rapid and valuable insights into process performance and SOB growth dynamics in gas biodesulfurization systems.

New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
Biofuel governance in Brazil and the EU
Stattman, Sarah L. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.P.J. Mol; A. Gupta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439183 - 141
Transparency and Accountability in Multilateral Climate Politics
Gupta, A. ; Asselt, H. van - \ 2019
In: Global Environmental Governance and the Accountability Trap / Park, Susan, Kramarz, Teresa, MIT Press (Earth System Governance ) - ISBN 9780262536233 - p. 37 - 62.
Climate financing needs in the land sector under the Paris Agreement: An assessment of developing country perspectives
Kissinger, Gabrielle ; Gupta, A. ; Mulder, I. ; Unterstell, Natalie - \ 2019
Land Use Policy 83 (2019). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 256 - 269.
Climate finance - climate change - Paris agreement - Nationally Determined Contributions - Land use - Land-use change and forestry - REDD+ - Developing countries
This paper explores the potential of climate finance to support developing country efforts to shift away from unsustainable land use patterns in the context of the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. We pursue two research objectives here. Through a meta-analysis of 40 developing country Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), we provide, first, a comprehensive qualitative overview of developing country perspectives on climate financing needs for mitigation and adaptation activities in the land use, land-use change and forestry sectors (LULUCF).
Second, we examine whether countries acknowledge a role for domestic financing and international and domestic fiscal policy reform within these NDCs, as a way to address drivers of land use conversion. We supplement our meta-analysis of NDCs with a brief assessment of climate financing in two forest-rich countries, Brazil and Indonesia. Our analysis of NDCs reveals that only 14 of the 40 countries provide clear cost estimates for proposed climate-related forest activities, with most activities being conditional on provision of international climate finance. While some discuss domestic sources, few note the need for (international or national) fiscal policy reform to counteract direct and underlying drivers of land use conversion. The challenges inherent in doing so are also highlighted in our discussion of Brazil and Indonesia. Our findings suggest that, while much attention is directed to inadequate quantities of international climate finance, a lack of fiscal reform remains a key hurdle to realizing transformative change in the land use sector.
Linearization and Labeling of Single-Stranded DNA for Optical Sequence Analysis
Basak, Rajib ; Liu, Fan ; Qureshi, Sarfraz ; Gupta, Neelima ; Zhang, Ce ; Vries, Renko de; Kan, Jeroen A. van; Dheen, S.T. ; Maarel, Johan R.C. van der - \ 2019
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10 (2019)3. - ISSN 1948-7185 - p. 316 - 321.

Genetic profiling would benefit from linearization of ssDNA through the exposure of the unpaired bases to gene-targeting probes. This is compromised by ssDNA's high flexibility and tendency to form self-annealed structures. Here, we demonstrate that self-annealing can be avoided through controlled coating with a cationic-neutral diblock polypeptide copolymer. Coating does not preclude site-specific binding of fluorescence labeled oligonucleotides. Bottlebrush-coated ssDNA can be linearized by confinement inside a nanochannel or molecular combing. A stretch of 0.32 nm per nucleotide is achieved inside a channel with a cross-section of 100 nm and a 2-fold excess of polypeptide with respect to DNA charge. With combing, the complexes are stretched to a similar extent. Atomic force microscopy of dried complexes on silica revealed that the contour and persistence lengths are close to those of dsDNA in the B-form. Labeling is based on hybridization and not limited by restriction enzymes. Enzyme-free labeling offers new opportunities for the detection of specific sequences.

Long-term spatial-temporal trends and variability of rainfall over Eastern and Southern Africa
Muthoni, Francis Kamau ; Odongo, Vincent Omondi ; Ochieng, Justus ; Mugalavai, Edward M. ; Mourice, Sixbert Kajumula ; Hoesche-Zeledon, Irmgard ; Mwila, Mulundu ; Bekunda, Mateete - \ 2019
Theoretical and Applied Climatology 137 (2019)3-4. - ISSN 0177-798X - p. 1869 - 1882.

This study investigates the spatial-temporal trends and variability of rainfall within East and South Africa (ESA) region. The newly available Climate Hazards group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS-v2) gridded data spanning 37 years (1981 to 2017) was validated against gauge observations (N = 4243) and utilised to map zones experiencing significant monotonic rainfall trends. Standardised annual rainfall anomalies revealed the spatial-temporal distribution of below and above normal rains that are associated with droughts and floods respectively. Results showed that CHIRPS-v2 data had a satisfactory skill to estimate monthly rainfall with Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE = 0.68 and a high temporal agreement (r = 0.73) while also preserving total amount (β = 0.99) and variability (γ = 0.8). Two contiguous zones with significant increase in annual rainfall (3–15 mm year−1) occurred in Southwest Zambia and in Northern Lake Victoria Basin between Kenya and Uganda. The most significant decrease in annual rainfall (− 20 mm year−1) was recorded at Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Other significant decreases in annual rainfall ranging between − 4 and − 10 mm year−1 were observed in Southwest Tanzania, Central-South Kenya, Central Uganda and Western Rwanda. CHIRPS-v2 rainfall product provides reliable high spatial resolution information on amount of rainfall that can complement sparse rain gauge network in rain-fed agricultural systems in ESA region. The observed spatial-temporal trends and variability in rainfall are important basis for guiding targeting of appropriate adaptive measures across multiple sectors.

De facto governance: how authoritative assessments construct climate engineering as an object of governance
Gupta, A. ; Möller, Ina - \ 2019
Environmental Politics 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 0964-4016 - p. 480 - 501.
de facto governance - climate engineering - geoengineering - scientific assessments - carbon dioxide removal - solar radiation management
Analyses of climate engineering (CE) governance have accelerated in the last decade. A key claim is that CE remains a largely ungoverned space, with shared norms, institutional arrangements, and formal rules to regulate CE not yet present. In contrast, here it is argued that de facto governance of CE is underway, discernible in an ordering of this nascent field of inquiry by unacknowledged sources of steering. One key source of de facto governance is analyzed: high-level ‘authoritative assessments’ of CE. The focus is on how these assessments are constructing CE as an object of governance through demarcating and categorizing this emerging field of inquiry, and how this contributes to normalizing and institutionalizing CE research (and CE research communities). Scrutinizing the distinct nature and political implications of de facto governance, particularly of novel and speculative technological trajectories not yet subject to formal steering, remains a key task for governance scholars.
Transparency in multilateral climate politics: Furthering (or distracting from) accountability?
Gupta, A. ; Asselt, Harro van - \ 2019
Regulation & Governance 13 (2019)1. - ISSN 1748-5983 - p. 18 - 34.
accountability - climate governance - Paris Agreement - transparency - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
This article analyzes the interplay between transparency and accountability in multilateral climate politics. The 2015 Paris Agreement calls for a “pledge-and-review” approach to collective climate action with an “enhanced transparency framework” as a key pillar of the Agreement. By making visible who is doing what, transparency is widely assumed to be vital to holding countries to account and building trust. We explore whether transparency is generating such effects in this context, by developing and applying an analytical framework to examine the link between transparency and accountability. We find that the scope and practices of climate transparency reflect (rather than necessarily reduce) broader conflicts over who should be held to account to whom and about what, with regard to responsibility and burden sharing for ambitious climate action. We conclude that the relationship between transparency and accountability is less straightforward than assumed, and that the transformative promise of transparency needs to be reconsidered in this light.
First experiences with a novel farmer citizen science approach : crowdsourcing participatory variety selection through on-farm triadic comparisons of technologies (tricot)
Etten, Jacob van; Beza, Eskender ; Calderer, Lluís ; Duijvendijk, Kees van; Fadda, Carlo ; Fantahun, Basazen ; Kidane, Yosef Gebrehawaryat ; Gevel, Jeske van de; Gupta, Arnab ; Mengistu, Dejene Kassahun - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)S1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 275 - 296.

Rapid climatic and socio-economic changes challenge current agricultural R&D capacity. The necessary quantum leap in knowledge generation should build on the innovation capacity of farmers themselves. A novel citizen science methodology, triadic comparisons of technologies or tricot, was implemented in pilot studies in India, East Africa, and Central America. The methodology involves distributing a pool of agricultural technologies in different combinations of three to individual farmers who observe these technologies under farm conditions and compare their performance. Since the combinations of three technologies overlap, statistical methods can piece together the overall performance ranking of the complete pool of technologies. The tricot approach affords wide scaling, as the distribution of trial packages and instruction sessions is relatively easy to execute, farmers do not need to be organized in collaborative groups, and feedback is easy to collect, even by phone. The tricot approach provides interpretable, meaningful results and was widely accepted by farmers. The methodology underwent improvement in data input formats. A number of methodological issues remain: integrating environmental analysis, capturing gender-specific differences, stimulating farmers' motivation, and supporting implementation with an integrated digital platform. Future studies should apply the tricot approach to a wider range of technologies, quantify its potential contribution to climate adaptation, and embed the approach in appropriate institutions and business models, empowering participants and democratizing science.

Performing accountability: face-to-face account-giving in multilateral climate politics
Gupta, A. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Ching, Amy ; Kamil, Nila ; Bernaz, N. - \ 2018
“Embodied Deforestation” as a New EU Policy Debate to Tackle Tropical Forest Loss: Assessing Implications for REDD+ Performance
Weatherley-Singh, Janice ; Gupta, A. - \ 2018
Forests 9 (2018)12. - ISSN 1999-4907 - 23 p.
REDD+ - European Union - forest policy - deforestation drivers - tropical forests
The need to tackle international drivers of deforestation has long been acknowledged; but remains little addressed via policy measures. In the European Union (EU), a new policy debate is emerging around the concept of “embodied deforestation”, which targets EU Agricultural commodity imports as drivers of deforestation. The notion views deforestation as an externality generated by EU imports associated with tropical deforestation. Our article examines whether this
concept represents a shift in tackling international-level drivers of tropical deforestation within EU policy. We also examine, from a networked governance perspective, whether this new debate fuels further fragmentation or rather a move towards a more integrated approach to combating tropical forest loss within EU policy, and what the implications are for other initiatives, such as the climate change related “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation” (REDD+). Our analysis draws on an extensive analysis of EU policy documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and EU decision-makers. We find that, despite growing debate around the concept of embodied deforestation, policy measures necessary to reduce the impact of EU consumption of agricultural commodities associated with tropical deforestation have not yet been developed. We conclude that “embodied deforestation” remains more an idea than reality within EU policy to date, with the burden of responsibility for addressing international deforestation drivers still largely remaining on developing countries. There is still potential, however, for this
debate to lead to a more integrated approach to tackling tropical deforestation within EU policy, if it comes to be seen, together with REDD+, as one of a number of linked approaches to EU efforts to combat deforestation.
Toward Sustainable Biofuels in the European Union? Lessons from a Decade of Hybrid Biofuel Governance
Stattman, S.L. ; Gupta, A. ; Partzsch, Lena ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
biofuels - European Union - Renewable Energy Directive (RED) - hybrid governance - sustainability - certification - multi-stakeholder initiatives
The European Union (EU) stands at a crossroads regarding its biofuel policies. For more than a decade, the EU sought to create a market for and govern sustainable biofuels for the transport sector, even as debates over sustainability escalated. It did so by devising novel hybrid (public and private) governance arrangements. We took stock of the nature and outcomes of this experiment in hybrid biofuel governance. We relied on qualitative methods of analysis, whereby we reviewed and synthesized the evolution of EU biofuel governance arrangements over time, through detailed document analysis of secondary and primary literature, including EU and related policy documents and private certification scheme websites. Our analysis reveals that, instead of yielding an increasingly stringent sustainability framework, the hybrid EU governance arrangements resulted
in a proliferation of relatively lax, industry-driven, sustainability standards, even as the notion of “sustainable biofuels” remained contested in public and political debate. These findings contribute to an ongoing debate about the merits of hybrid (public–private) governance arrangements, and whether a hybrid approach helps strengthen or weaken sustainability objectives. We conclude that a more stringent EU meta-standard on sustainability needs to be developed, to underpin future governance arrangements.
Reconfiguration of Hydrosocial Territories and Struggles for Water Justice : from Part II - Hydrosocial De-Patterning and Re-Composition
Hommes, L.M. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Duarte Abadia, Bibiana ; Hidalgo, Jean Pablo ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2018
In: Water Justice / Boelens, R., Perreault, T., Vos, J., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107179080 - p. 151 - 168.
Introduction A vast and growing body of scholarly studies has shown how large-scale hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects, such as large dam and irrigation developments or market-environmentalist ecosystem payment schemes, have diverse socio-cultural and political-economic implications beyond merely altering water flows and raising socio-economic productivity. Concepts such as the hydrosocial cycle (Boelens, 2014; Linton and Budds, 2014), waterscapes (Baviskar, 2007; Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Swyngedouw, 1999) and water as socio-nature (Barnes and Alatout, 2012; Perreault, 2014) express connected insights about water being coproduced by social relations and in turn shaping these relations. The hydrosocial cycle, for instance, is described as a socio-natural process in which “water and society make and remake each other over space and time” cyclically (Linton and Budds, 2014: 170). Such coproduction of water and society is also reflected in the notion of waterscapes, conceptualized as socio-spatial configurations of water flows, artifacts, institutions and imaginaries embodying a particular world view (Budds and Hinojosa-Valencia, 2012; Zwarteveen 2015). However, these notions have so far largely focused on established hegemonic structures and discourses that drive and succeed from waterscape configurations. Less attention has been given to the multiplicity of diverging and overlapping hydrosocial territories that exist within one and the same space. To address this, we employ the hydrosocial territories approach, analyzing water territories not merely as materializations of dominant discourses and interests, but as multi-scalar networks in which water flows, hydraulic infrastructure, legal-administrative and financial systems, and socio-cultural institutions and practices are interactively produced, aligned, negotiated and contested (Boelens et al., 2016). Furthermore, combining the hydrosocial territories notion with Foucault’s governmentality approach highlights different forms of “government rationalities” and how they are entwined with hydraulic and hydro-managerial projects. We focus specifically on analyzing how ruling groups’ efforts to “conduct the conduct” of the governed (Foucault, 2008: 313) penetrate, operate through, and assimilate the rationality of the governed to advance neoliberal projects (Fletcher, 2010; Hommes et al., 2016; Zwarteveen and Boelens, 2014). Building on the work of Agnew (1994), Gupta and Ferguson (1992) and Elden (2010), we understand territories not as fixed spaces, but as spatially entrenched multi-scalar networks evolving from social interactions and practices, and materializations of these practices (see also Baletti, 2012; Brighenti, 2010). Social encounters and acts, including legal-administrative arrangements, technical reconfigurations and symbolic, cultural and political mechanisms of boundary-and place-making, actively produce territories.
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