Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Influence of soaking time on the mechanical properties of rapeseed and their effect on oleosome extraction
    Romero-Guzmán, María Juliana ; Vardaka, Eirini ; Boom, Remko M. ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. - \ 2020
    Food and Bioproducts Processing 121 (2020). - ISSN 0960-3085 - p. 230 - 237.
    Aqueous extraction - Oil bodies - Oleosomes - Rapeseed - Rapeseed microstructure - Soaking time - Twin-screw press

    Oleosomes (or oil-bodies) are the oil storage structures of plant seeds. We typically extract oil by disrupting the oleosomes through mechanical-pressing of dry seeds and by using organic solvents. Nevertheless, it is possible to extract whole oleosomes, by breaking pre-soaked seeds. A key point to avoid oleosome damage seems to be the soaking step. Hence the aim of this work was to understand the effect of soaking time on the mechanical properties of rapeseed and its effect on oleosome extraction. The results showed that the diffusion of water through the seeds was negatively associated to the mechanical strength of the seeds. This effect occurs in 3 stages and reaches a plateau at 8 h. The extraction of oleosomes and proteins kept constant for all different treatments. However, the duration of the soaking step influences oleosome integrity, as oleosomes extracted after shorter soaking times (<8 h) yielded bigger oleosomes with extraneous proteins bounded to them. After 8 h soaking time, the mechanical properties of the seeds kept constant and oleosomes of native size and with oleosome endogenous proteins were recovered. Therefore, a minimum soaking time of 8 h is required to achieve the extraction of intact oleosomes.

    Designing a sustainable oleosome aqueous extraction : A new way to make emulsion-based foods
    Romero Guzmán, María-Juliana - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.M. Boom, co-promotor(en): C.V. Nikiforidis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463952651 - 183

    Many food products are emulsion-based. These are generally produced from refined oils that have been extracted using hexane and have been refined to yield a very pure oil. The oils are then emulsified using emulsifiers and stabilizers. In this work we proposed a different route, where the oil-storing structures in oil-bearing seeds, oleosomes, are extracted intact into natural emulsion. While the phospholipid-protein monolayer provides physical and chemical stability to these natural droplets, it also makes aqueous extraction possible. Existing procedures to extract oleosomes exist, however they are not sufficient scalable or sustainable. Therefore, this work considered process re-design to enable larger-scale production but did also investigate the relation between the process conditions, and the properties of the resulting emulsions.

    Controlled oleosome extraction to produce a plant-based mayonnaise-like emulsion using solely rapeseed seeds
    Romero-Guzmán, María Juliana ; Köllmann, Nienke ; Zhang, Lu ; Boom, Remko M. ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. - \ 2020
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 123 (2020). - ISSN 0023-6438
    Emulsion - Mayonnaise - Novel-ingredients - Oil-bodies - Oleosomes - Plant-based

    Oleosomes are oil storage structures in seeds, consisting of triglycerides surrounded by a protein-phospholipid mixed monolayer. They can be extracted aqueously together with other seed components such as proteins and soluble fibers. The co-extracted biomolecules can affect the properties of the extracts. Nevertheless, it is possible to control the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between these biomolecules and oleosomes by adjusting the extraction conditions. Hence, our aim was to adjust the extraction conditions in order to recover a natural emulsion with a specific functionality: a plant-based mayonnaise-like product, derived solely from rapeseed seeds. By varying the pH of extraction, the droplet size was customized and by increasing the number of purification steps, the right amount of co-extracted material was removed. A combination of these conditions shifted the rheological properties of the obtained natural emulsion to a range similar to the benchmark mayonnaises. This work shows that it is feasible to produce a plant-based mayonnaise with an oil content ranging from 61.7 g/100g to 72.0 g/100g through a simple and continuous oleosome extraction process by controlling the interactions between oleosomes and co-extracted material.

    Assessment of rapeseed oil body (oleosome) lipolytic activity as an effective predictor of emulsion purity and stability
    Chirico, Simone De; Bari, Vincenzo di; Romero Guzmán, María Juliana ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. ; Foster, Tim ; Gray, David - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 316 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Lipolytic activity - Oil bodies - Purity - Rapeseed - Stability

    The lipolytic activity in oil body creams as affected by recovery and washing protocols was investigated. The effect of thermal treatment on the hydrolytic activity and physical stability of fresh and aged (up to 30 days) oil body emulsions was studied. The use of alkaline pH solutions (9.5) to soak and grind rapeseeds were more effective reducing the contamination of oil body material from seed proteins/enzymes, compared with neutral pHs. Soaking and grinding seeds with a NaHCO3 solution (0.1 M, pH 9.5) yielded oil bodies with a similar composition to those prepared in urea (9 M); however, the physical stability over storage was compromised due to the presence of hydrolytic enzymes. Heating a dispersion of oil bodies for 6 mins at 95 °C did not alter the physical properties of oil bodies and significantly reduced lipolytic activity (>90% enzyme inactivation), resulting in a stable emulsion.

    Efficient single-step rapeseed oleosome extraction using twin-screw press
    Romero-Guzmán, M.J. ; Jung, L. ; Kyriakopoulou, K. ; Boom, R.M. ; Nikiforidis, C.V. - \ 2020
    Journal of Food Engineering 276 (2020). - ISSN 0260-8774
    Aqueous extraction - Natural emulsion - Oil-bodies - Oleosomes - Twin-screw press

    Oil in seeds is encapsulated in oleosomes, which are small lipid droplets surrounded by a phospholipid-protein monolayer. The currently proposed method to extract intact oleosomes includes mixing seeds with alkaline media in a ratio 1:7, batch blending and filtering. In this work, we propose the use of a twin-screw press to perform the oleosome extraction at pH 7. The results show that similarly to blender extraction, twin-screw press recovers ⁓60% of the oleosomes; however the twin-screw press is able to achieve this yield even when just pure water is used. While in the blender extraction, the yield depends on ionic strength and pH of the extraction media, when using twin-screw press, the oleosome extraction yield predominantly depends on the mechanical forces. These shear forces are able to break the cell walls and release the cellular material while maintaining the integrity of oleosomes. The oleosomes extracted with twin-screw press have similar characteristics than those obtained by the blending process. Overall, twin-screw press seems a promising alternative to scale-up the oleosome aqueous extraction, especially as neutral pH can be used and the water usage is significantly reduced. Additionally, preliminary results showed that the yield can increase up to 90 wt%.

    The effect of monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+, Mg2+) cations on rapeseed oleosome (oil body) extraction and stability at pH 7
    Romero-Guzmán, Maria Juliana ; Petris, Vasileios ; Chirico, Simone De; Bari, Vincenzo di; Gray, David ; Boom, Remko M. ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. - \ 2020
    Food Chemistry 306 (2020). - ISSN 0308-8146
    Extraction - Natural emulsion - Oil bodies - Oleosomes - Rapeseed

    Oleosomes are storage vehicles of TAGs in plant seeds. They are protected with a phospholipid-protein monolayer and extracted with alkaline aqueous media; however, pH adjustment intensifies the extraction process. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the extraction mechanism of rapeseed oleosomes at pH 7 and at the presence of monovalent and divalent cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+ , and Ca+2). The oleosome yield at pH 9.5 was 64 wt%, while the yield at pH 7 with H2O was just 43 wt.%. The presence of cations at pH 7, significantly enhanced the yield, with K+ giving the highest yield (64 wt.%). The cations affected the oleosome interface and their interactions. The presence of monovalent cations resulted in aggregation and minor coalescence, while divalent cations resulted in extensive coalescence. These results help to understand the interactions of oleosomes in their native matrix and design simple extraction processes at neutral conditions.

    How to Advocate Scientific Evidence to Decision-makers?
    Bekker, Marleen ; Guzman, Viveka ; Mensah, Keitly - \ 2019
    Public health research aims to change the world, or at least contribute to the development of healthier and more equitable societies. However, the availability of health information does not inherently lead to its increased use in policy and decision-making. Significant gap remains between the knowledge of public health researchers and the actions taken by decision-makers. Various tools and mechanisms can help to increase the use of scientific evidence in policy development by making policymakers appreciate, understand and incorporate such scientific information into policy decisions. As part of this process, it is crucial that researchers and public health practitioners acquire the ability to translate their knowledge and become skilled on communicating the evidence effectively. To this aim, we will present firstly a WHO approach for that on the basis of EVIPNet Europe. Member countries have benefited of EVIPNet Europe’s capacity building efforts, its training workshops, coaching and mentoring schemes, leading to increased knowledge and skills in view of identifying, accessing, appraising, synthesizing and communicating the best available evidence. The presentation will focus on the ways to trigger tangible changes at policy and legislative levels. The second presentation will give more specific information about the process of real-life applications. Main question will be “How to advocate scientific evidence to decision-makers in the frame of evidence-informed policy-making?”. The presentation will help the participants to analyze to whom they are targeting, what their interests are and how to communicate scientific information to a decision-maker effectively. Last but not least, common challenges of evidence-informed policy-making process in health care and ways to tackle them will be presented. By doing so, special attention will be paid to the methodologies for joint fact-finding, responsive evaluation and citizen science. The workshop will engage participants interactively and leave time for answering their questions at the end.
    2.N. How to Advocate Scientific Evidence to Decision-makers?
    Bekker, Marleen ; Guzman, Viveka ; Mensah, Keitly - \ 2019
    Development of a bioelectrochemical system as a tool to enrich H2-producing syntrophic bacteria
    Guzman, Juan J.L. ; Sousa, Diana Z. ; Angenent, Largus T. - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019)FEB. - ISSN 1664-302X
    Bioelectrochemistry - Hydrogen - Methanogenic partner - Syntrophic bacterium - Syntrophus - Syntrophy

    Syntrophic microbial partnerships are found in many environments and play critical roles in wastewater treatment, global nutrient cycles, and gut systems. An important type of syntrophy for the anaerobic conversion of carboxylic acids is H2 syntrophy. In this type of microbial partnership, dissolved H2 is produced by a bacterium and rapidly consumed by an archeon (methanogen), resulting in methane gas. This is referred to as interspecies H2 transfer, and some conversions rely on this mechanism to become thermodynamically feasible. For this reason, syntrophic partners are often not possible to separate in the lab, which hampers the full understanding of their physiology. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) may show promise to ultimately separate and study the behavior of the syntrophic bacterium by employing an abiotic H2 oxidation reaction at the anode, actively removing dissolved H2. Here, we performed a proof-of-concept study to ascertain whether an H2-removing anode can: (1) provide a growth advantage for the syntrophic bacterium; and (2) compete with the methanogenic partner. A mathematical model was developed to design a BES to perform competition experiments. Indeed, the operated BES demonstrated the ability to provide a growth advantage to the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus compared to its methanogenic partner Methanospirillum hungatei when grown in co-culture. Further, the BES provided the never-before isolated Syntrophomonas zehnderi with a growth advantage compared to Methanobacterium formicicum. Our results demonstrate a potential to use this BES to enrich H2-sensitive syntrophic bacteria, and gives prospects for the development of an effective method for the separation of obligate syntrophs.

    Enzyme promiscuity shapes adaptation to novel growth substrates
    Guzmán, Gabriela I. ; Sandberg, Troy E. ; LaCroix, Ryan A. ; Nyerges, Ákos ; Papp, Henrietta ; Raad, Markus de; King, Zachary A. ; Hefner, Ying ; Northen, Trent R. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Pál, Csaba ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papp, Balázs ; Feist, Adam M. - \ 2019
    Molecular Systems Biology 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1744-4292 - p. e8462 - e8462.
    adaptive evolution - enzyme promiscuity - genome‐scale modeling - systems biology

    Evidence suggests that novel enzyme functions evolved from low-level promiscuous activities in ancestral enzymes. Yet, the evolutionary dynamics and physiological mechanisms of how such side activities contribute to systems-level adaptations are not well characterized. Furthermore, it remains untested whether knowledge of an organism's promiscuous reaction set, or underground metabolism, can aid in forecasting the genetic basis of metabolic adaptations. Here, we employ a computational model of underground metabolism and laboratory evolution experiments to examine the role of enzyme promiscuity in the acquisition and optimization of growth on predicted non-native substrates in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. After as few as approximately 20 generations, evolved populations repeatedly acquired the capacity to grow on five predicted non-native substrates-D-lyxose, D-2-deoxyribose, D-arabinose, m-tartrate, and monomethyl succinate. Altered promiscuous activities were shown to be directly involved in establishing high-efficiency pathways. Structural mutations shifted enzyme substrate turnover rates toward the new substrate while retaining a preference for the primary substrate. Finally, genes underlying the phenotypic innovations were accurately predicted by genome-scale model simulations of metabolism with enzyme promiscuity.

    Accounting for Water: Questions of Environmental Representation in a Nonmodern World
    Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Smit, H.C. ; Dominguez Guzman, C. ; Fantini, E. ; Rap, E.R. ; Zaag, P. van der; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2018
    In: Rethinking Environmentalism / Lele, S., Brondizio, E.S., Byrne, J., Mace, G.M., Martinez-Alier, J., MIT Press (Strüngmann Forum Reports ) - ISBN 9780262038966 - p. 227 - 250.
    Flavour diffusion through oil body membrane
    Sridharan, Lakshminarasimhan ; Romero Guzman, Juliana ; Nikiforidis, K. - \ 2018
    Temporal patterns of nutrient availability: the importance of tropical seasonality on bioavailability of phosphorus in the Central Amazon
    Schaap, Karst ; Fuchslueger, L. ; Valverde-Barrantes, O. ; Oblitas, E. ; Hofhansl, F. ; Fleischer, K. ; Garcia, S. ; Grandis, A. ; Araujo, A.C. de; Lapola, D. ; Norby, R. ; Hartley, I. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Quesada, C.A. - \ 2018
    In: 6th Symposium on Phosphorus in Soils and Plants. - - p. 136 - 136.
    A strategy to replace the mouse bioassay for detecting and identifying lipophilic marine biotoxins by combining the neuro-2a bioassay and LC-MS/MS analysis
    Bodero, Marcia ; Gerssen, Arjen ; Portier, Liza ; Klijnstra, Mirjam D. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Guzmán, Leonardo ; Hendriksen, Peter J.M. ; Bovee, Toine F.H. - \ 2018
    Marine Drugs 16 (2018)12. - ISSN 1660-3397
    Lipophilic marine toxins - Mouse bioassay - Neuro-2a assay

    Marine biotoxins in fish and shellfish can cause several symptoms in consumers, such as diarrhea, amnesia, or even death by paralysis. Monitoring programs are in place for testing shellfish on a regular basis. In some countries testing is performed using the so-called mouse bioassay, an assay that faces ethical concerns not only because of animal distress, but also because it lacks specificity and results in high amounts of false positives. In Europe, for lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs), a chemical analytical method using LC-MS/MS was developed as an alternative and is now the reference method. However, safety is often questioned when relying solely on such a method, and as a result, the mouse bioassay might still be used. In this study the use of a cell-based assay for screening, i.e., the neuro-2a assay, in combination with the official LC-MS/MS method was investigated as a new alternative strategy for the detection and quantification of LMBs. To this end, samples that had been tested previously with the mouse bioassay were analyzed in the neuro-2a bioassay and the LC-MS/MS method. The neuro-2a bioassay was able to detect all LMBs at the regulatory levels and all samples that tested positive in the mouse bioassay were also suspect in the neuro-2a bioassay. In most cases, these samples contained toxin levels (yessotoxins) that explain the outcome of the bioassay but did not exceed the established maximum permitted levels.

    The burden of cardiovascular diseases among us states, 1990-2016
    Roth, Gregory A. ; Johnson, Catherine O. ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Ahmed, Muktar ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ansari, Hossein ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Awoke, Tadesse ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bennett, Derrick ; Bensenor, Isabela ; Biadgilign, Sibhatu ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Davletov, Kairat ; Dharmaratne, Samath ; Ding, Eric L. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Feigin, Valery ; Fernandes, João ; Frostad, Joseph ; Gebru, Alemseged ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru ; Griswold, Max ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hassen, Hamid Yimam ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon ; Heckbert, Susan R. ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; James, Spencer Lewis ; Jara, Dube ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khera, Sahil ; Khoja, Abdullah T. ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Daniel ; Kolte, Dhaval ; Lal, Dharmesh ; Larsson, Anders ; Linn, Shai ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mazidi, Mohsen ; Meier, Toni ; Mendoza, Walter ; Mensah, George A. ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Moran, Andrew Edward ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nguyen, Minh ; Ong, Kanyin Liane ; Owolabi, Mayowa ; Pletcher, Martin ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Purcell, Caroline A. ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rahman, Mahfuzar ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Reitsma, Marissa Bettay ; Renzaho, Andre M.N. ; Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus ; Safiri, Saeid ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Sartorius, Benn ; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Silva, Diego ; Stranges, Saverio ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele ; Thakur, J.S. ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tuzcu, E.M. ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Vlassov, Vasiliy ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wakayo, Tolassa ; Weintraub, Robert ; Wolfe, Charles ; Workicho, Abdulhalik ; Xu, Gelin ; Yadgir, Simon ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Zipkin, Ben ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2018
    JAMA Cardiology 3 (2018)5. - ISSN 2380-6583 - p. 375 - 389.
    Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017. Exposures: Residing in the United States. Main outcomes ans measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-Adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors. Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
    A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis
    Díaz-Trujillo, C. ; Chong, P. ; Stergiopoulos, I. ; Cordovez, V. ; Guzman, M. de; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Scalliet, G. ; Sierotzki, Helge ; Peralta, E.L. ; Arango Isaza, R. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2018
    Molecular Plant Pathology 19 (2018)6. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 1491 - 1503.
    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs puts a considerable selection pressure on natural P. fijiensis populations enabling the selection of novel genotypes with reduced sensitivity. The hitherto explanatory mechanism for this reduced sensitivity was the presence of non-synonymous point mutations in the target gene Pfcyp51, encoding the sterol 14α-demethylase enzyme. Here, we demonstrate a second mechanism involved in DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. We identified a 19bp element in the wild type (wt) Pfcyp51 promoter that concatenates in strains with reduced DMI sensitivity. A PCR assay identified up to six Pfcyp51 promoter repeats in four field populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica. We used transformation experiments to swap the wild type promoter of a sensitive field isolate with a promoter from a strain with reduced DMI sensitivity that comprised multiple insertions. Comparative in vivo phenotyping showed a functional and proportional upregulation of Pfcyp51, which consequently decreased DMI sensitivity. Our data demonstrate that point mutations in the Pfcyp51 coding domain as well as promoter inserts contribute to reduced DMI sensitivity of P. fijiensis. These results bring new insights into the importance of the appropriate use of DMIs and the need for the discovery of new molecules for black Sigatoka management.
    Rural development: From practices and policies towards theory
    Ploeg, Jan Douwe Van Der; Renting, Henk ; Brunori, Gianluca ; Knickel, Karlheinz ; Mannion, Joe ; Marsden, Terry ; Roest, Kees De; Sevilla-Guzmán, Eduardo ; Ventura, Flaminia - \ 2017
    In: The Rural / Munton, R., Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780754627210 - p. 201 - 218.
    The rural livelihood framework that has emerged from the debate on sustainable rural development is especially useful for analyzing rural development practices as actively constructed household strategies. Many scientists are finding it difficult to come to grips with the new model of rural development that emerges slowly but persistently in both policy and practice. Interactions with non-specific rural development policies at times are more important for their development. By stressing the dialectics between the real and the potential, rural development theory deviates intrinsically from the determinism of modernization approaches. If convincing and more comprehensive definitions are to emerge, it is essential that rural development be recognized as a multi-level process rooted in historical traditions. It is the complex institutional setting of rural development that makes it a multi-actor process. Perhaps the most dramatic expression of this has been the growing squeeze on agriculture and therefore on the rural economy in general.
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Feigin, V.L. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Theadom, A.M. ; Abajobir, A.A. ; Mishra, S.R. ; Ahmed, M.B. ; Abate, K.H. ; Mengistie, M.A. ; Wakayo, T. ; Abd-Allah, F. ; Abdulle, A.M. ; Abera, S.F. ; Mohammed, K.E. ; Abyu, G.Y. ; Asgedom, S.W. ; Atey, T.M. ; Betsu, B.D. ; Mezgebe, H.B. ; Tuem, K.B. ; Woldu, M.A. ; Aichour, A.N. ; Aichour, I. ; Aichour, M.T. ; Akinyemi, R.O. ; Alabed, S. ; Al-Raddadi, R. ; Alvis-Guzman, N. ; Amare, A.T. ; Ansari, H. ; Anwari, P. ; Ärnlöv, J. ; Fereshtehnejad, S. ; Weiderpass, E. ; Havmoeller, R. ; Asayesh, H. ; Avila-Burgos, L. ; Avokpaho, E.F.G.A. ; Afrique, L.E.R.A.S. ; Azarpazhooh, M.R. ; Barac, A. ; Barboza, M. ; Barker-Collo, S.L. ; Bärnighausen, T. ; Farvid, M.S. ; Mohammed, S. ; Bedi, N. ; Beghi, E. ; Giussani, G. ; Bennett, D.A. ; Hay, S.I. ; Goulart, A.C. ; Santos, I.S. ; Bensenor, I.M. ; Lotufo, P.A. ; Berhane, A. ; Jeemon, P. ; Bhaumik, S. ; Dandona, L. ; Dandona, R. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Birlik, S.M. ; Biryukov, S. ; Casey, D. ; Foreman, K.J. ; Goldberg, E.M. ; Khalil, I.A. ; Kyu, H.H. ; Manhertz, T. ; Mokdad, A.H. ; Naghavi, M. ; Nguyen, G. ; Nichols, E. ; Smith, M. ; Carabin, H. ; Roth, G.A. ; Stanaway, J.D. ; Vos, T. ; Ellenbogen, R.G. ; Jakovljevic, M.B. ; Tirschwell, D.L. ; Zunt, J.R. ; Boneya, D.J. ; Hambisa, M. ; Bulto, L.N.B. ; Carabin, H. ; Castañeda-Orjuela, C.A. ; Catalá-López, F. ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R. ; Chen, H. ; Chitheer, A.A. ; Chowdhury, R. ; Christensen, H. ; Deveber, G.A. ; Dharmaratne, S.D. ; Do, H.P. ; Nguyen, C.T. ; Nguyen, Q.L. ; Nguyen, T.H. ; Nong, V.M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Dorsey, E.R. ; Eskandarieh, S. ; Fischer, F. ; Majeed, A. ; Steiner, T.J. ; Rawaf, S. ; Shakir, R. ; Shoman, H. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Gillum, R.F. ; Gona, P.N. ; Gugnani, H.C. ; Gupta, R. ; Hachinski, V. ; Hamadeh, R.R. ; Hankey, G.J. ; Hareri, H.A. ; Heydarpour, P. ; Sahraian, M.A. ; Kasaeian, A. ; Malekzadeh, R. ; Roshandel, G. ; Sepanlou, S.G. ; Hotez, P.J. ; Javanbakht, M. ; Jonas, J.B. ; Kalkonde, Y. ; Kandel, A. ; Karch, A. ; Kastor, A. ; Rahman, M.H.U. ; Keiyoro, P.N. ; Khader, Y.S. ; Khan, E.A. ; Khang, Y. ; Khoja, A.T.A. ; Tran, B.X. ; Khubchandani, J. ; Kim, D. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Kivimaki, M. ; Kokubo, Y. ; Kosen, S. ; Kravchenko, M. ; Piradov, M.A. ; Varakin, Y.Y. ; Defo, B.K. ; Kulkarni, C. ; Kumar, R. ; Larsson, A. ; Lavados, P.M. ; Li, Y. ; Liang, X. ; Liben, M.L. ; Lo, W.D. ; Logroscino, G. ; Loy, C.T. ; Mackay, M.T. ; Meretoja, A. ; Szoeke, C.E.I. ; Abd El Razek, H.M. ; Mantovani, L.G. ; Massano, J. ; Mazidi, M. ; McAlinden, C. ; Mehata, S. ; Mehndiratta, M.M. ; Memish, Z.A. ; Mendoza, W. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Wijeratne, T. ; Miller, T.R. ; Mohamed Ibrahim, N. ; Mohammadi, A. ; Moradi-Lakeh, M. ; Velasquez, I.M. ; Musa, K.I. ; Ngunjiri, J.W. ; Ningrum, D.N.A. ; Norrving, B. ; Stein, D.J. ; Noubiap, J.J.N. ; Ogbo, F.A. ; Renzaho, A.M.N. ; Owolabi, M.O. ; Pandian, J.D. ; Parmar, P.G. ; Pereira, D.M. ; Petzold, M. ; Phillips, M.R. ; Poulton, R.G. ; Pourmalek, F. ; Qorbani, M. ; Rafay, A. ; Rai, R.K. ; Rajsic, S. ; Ranta, A. ; Rezai, M.S. ; Rubagotti, E. ; Sachdev, P. ; Safiri, S. ; Sahathevan, R. ; Samy, A.M. ; Santalucia, P. ; Sartorius, B. ; Satpathy, M. ; Sawhney, M. ; Saylan, M.I. ; Shaikh, M.A. ; Shamsizadeh, M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Shigematsu, M. ; Silva, D.A.S. ; Sobngwi, E. ; Sposato, L.A. ; Stovner, L.J. ; Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R. ; Tanne, D. ; Thrift, A.G. ; Topor-Madry, R. ; Truelsen, T. ; Ukwaja, K.N. ; Uthman, O.A. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Venketasubramanian, N. ; Vlassov, V.V. ; Wadilo, F. ; Wallin, M.T. ; Westerman, R. ; Wiysonge, C.S. ; Wolfe, C.D. ; Xavier, D. ; Xu, G. ; Yano, Y. ; Yimam, H.H. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Yu, C. ; Zaidi, Z. ; Zaki, M.E. - \ 2017
    The Lancet Neurology 16 (2017)11. - ISSN 1474-4422 - p. 877 - 897.

    Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Global, regional, and national age-sex specifc mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Naghavi, Mohsen ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmadi, Alireza ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Syed Danish ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Anber, Nahla ; Andersen, Hjalte H. ; Andrei, Catalina Liliana ; Androudi, Sofa ; Ansari, Hossein ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Liu, Yang ; Nguyen, Cuong Tat ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nguyen, Trang Huyen ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1151 - 1210.

    Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specifc mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods: We estimated cause-specifc deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specifc causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specifc deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16 - age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL signifcantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the fve leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a fner level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and confict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might refect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which efective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.

    An assessment of policies affecting Sustainable Soil Management in Europe and selected member states
    Turpin, Nadine ; Berge, Hein ten; Grignani, Carlo ; Guzmán, Gema ; Vanderlinden, Karl ; Steinmann, Horst-Henning ; Siebielec, Grzegorz ; Spiegel, Adelheid ; Perret, Eric ; Ruysschaert, Greet ; Laguna, Ana ; Giráldez, Juan Vicente ; Werner, Magdalena ; Raschke, Isabell ; Zavattaro, Laura ; Costamagna, Chiara ; Schlatter, Norman ; Berthold, Helen ; Sandén, Taru ; Baumgarten, Andreas - \ 2017
    Land Use Policy 66 (2017). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 241 - 249.
    This paper analyses soils-related policies in Europe and in selected member states and regions. Our approach breaks down policy packages at European, national and regional levels into strategic objectives, operational objectives, policy measures and expected impacts, and assesses the relationships between these elements and soil stakes. Four major policy packages, both at EU and national level (CAP-I, RDP, Environment, national initiatives) were analysed. A numerical scale was developed to quantify the level of “embeddedness” of soil stakes in these policy packages. We found that countries better embed soil stakes into their policies when they also put more efforts on environmental innovation. In turn, countries with a high embeddedness level, with high trust in European institutions and that make more efforts towards renewable energy, tend to propose a wider variety of management practices to farmers for dealing with soil stakes.
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