Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Afgraven, bodemtransplantaties en uitstrooien van maaisel op voormalige landbouwgronden
    Noppen, F. van; Bosch, M. ; Wubs, E.R.J. ; Haanstra, L. ; Verbaan, D. ; Houwelingen, G.D.B. van; Philippona, J. ; Ekeris, R. van; Putten, W.H. van der; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2015
    De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 222 - 226.
    heidegronden - heidegebieden - herstelbeheer - ecologisch herstel - natuurontwikkeling - bodem - bodembeheer - experimenten - natuurbeheer - gelderland - veluwe - heathland soils - heathlands - restoration management - ecological restoration - nature development - soil - soil management - experiments - nature management - gelderland - veluwe
    Op de Reijerscamp bij Wolfheze zijn de effectiviteit van bodemtransplantaties en het uitstrooien van maaisel voor het ontwikkelen van heide en heischraal grasland op een voormalig landbouwgebied vergeleken. Deze natuurherstelmaatregelen zijn toegepast en getest in gebieden waar de toplaag van de bodem (de voormalige bouwvoor) is afgegraven en in niet-afgegraven gebieden. Wat zijn de resultaten van dit experiment en welke meerwaarde levert bodemtransplantatie voor natuurontwikkeling op?
    Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper
    Eggink, P.M. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Rooij, H. de; Vogelaar, A. ; Gutteling, E.W. ; Freymark, G. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2014
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 127 (2014)2. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 373 - 390.
    plastid compartment size - lycopersicon-esculentum - volatile compounds - anthracnose resistance - chemical-composition - gas-chromatography - sensory evaluation - mass-spectrometry - candidate gene - essential oils
    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in interspecific hybridization. However, to exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population. Volatile and non-volatile compounds plus some physical characters were measured in mature fruits, in combination with taste evaluation by a sensory panel. An enormous variation in biochemical composition and sensory attributes was found, with almost all traits showing transgression. A population-specific genetic linkage map was developed for QTL mapping. BC2S1 QTLs were validated in an experiment with near-isogenic lines, resulting in confirmed genetic effects for physical, biochemical and sensory traits. Three findings are described in more detail: (1) A small C. baccatum LG3 introgression caused an extraordinary effect on flavor, resulting in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected. (2) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least 15 different monoterpenes. (3) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix without negative effects on fruit size. The mapping strategy, the potential application of studied traits and perspectives for breeding are discussed.
    A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor
    Eggink, P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Chris Maliepaard; J.P.W. Haanstra. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737243 - 159
    capsicum annuum - paprika's - wilde verwanten - genotypen - chemische samenstelling - smaak - geur en smaak - capsicum baccatum - introgressie - plantenveredeling - capsicum annuum - sweet peppers - wild relatives - genotypes - chemical composition - taste - flavour - capsicum baccatum - introgression - plant breeding

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were expected to have extraordinary flavors. The complete set consisted of 35 genotypes of which 24 genotypes were non-pungent. Volatile and non-volatile compounds as well as some breeding parameters were measured in mature fruits of all genotypes throughout the growing season. In addition, from three harvests the non-pungent genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory panel.

    The biochemical profiling with use of SPME-GC-MS allowed visualization of between- and within-species volatile compound variation. Principal components analysis (PCA) on the intensity patterns of 391 putative volatile compounds revealed individual grouping of C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum, indicating potentially interesting volatile variation present in the former two groups. A large group of saturated and unsaturated esters were mainly responsible for the individual grouping of the C. chinense accessions. Due to the elevated acid concentrations and aberrant volatile profiles of the C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions PEN45 and PEN79, the two BIL populations derived from these accessions were identified as interesting candidates for further study. Compared to e.g. Mazurka the citrate concentration of the C. baccatum accessions was 2.5-3 times higher and the malate concentrations were even up to 12 times higher (Chapter 2).

    Based on the non-pungent genotypes, we found highly correlated clusters of volatiles and non-volatiles, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors (Chapter 3). Contrasts between genotypes were caused by both qualitative and quantitative differences in these metabolic clusters, with the phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles forming the major determinants. For the description of the non-pungent genotypes the panelists used fourteen attributes to describe the flavor sensation in the mouth/throat, which were the texture attributes crunchiness, stickiness of the skin, toughness and juiciness, the basic taste attributes sweetness and sourness and the retronasal flavor attributes aroma intensity, grassiness, green bean, carrot, fruity/apple, perfume, petrochemical and musty. The variation in flavor could be reduced into two major sensory contrasts, which were a texture related contrast and the basic sweet-sour contrast. The structure of the PCA plots resulting from the analysis with one harvest (Chapter 3) and the analysis with the combined three harvests (Chapter 4) remained almost identical, indicating the stability of these contrasts. To relate the sensory attributes to the metabolite data and to determine the importance of the individual compounds we used Random Forest regression on the individual harvests and on the three harvests together. Several predictors for the attributes aroma, fruity/apple, sourness and sweetness were found in common between harvests, which we proposed as key-metabolites involved in flavor determination of sweet pepper (Chapter 4). This list contains compounds with known relations to attributes, like sweetness and sugars, but also several compounds with new relations. In this respect we have demonstrated for the first time, that the metabolites p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, and 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene are related to fruity/apple taste and/or sweetness of pepper. For sourness the only compound with a consistent significant contribution was an unknown C6H8O2 compound. We postulated therefore the hypothesis that in pepper the effect of sourness related metabolites is masked by other volatile and non-volatile compounds or texture differences (Chapter 3). Subsequently in Chapter 4 we described a clear sweetness-sourness interaction and demonstrated that the masking effect of fructose and other sugars explained why we did not find organic acids contributing to the prediction of sourness. The major sensory attributes were also predicted between harvests. The Random Forest predictions of the texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were very good. The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests, especially in the second harvest. In general, we concluded that prediction of attributes with higher heritabilities works better and is more consistent over harvests (Chapter 4).

    Based on the results of the initial experiments (Chapter 2) the species C. baccatum was chosen for further study. To exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum PEN45 we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population, that was characterized for sensory and biochemical variation (Chapter 5). We developed a population specific genetic linkage map for QTL mapping of characterized traits. Because of the complex structure of our BC2S1 mapping population we encountered several limitations, such as accidental co-segregation, underrepresentation of color linked markers and pre-selection leading to skewness, which might have resulted in false positive or missed QTLs. Despite these limitations, we were still fairly well able to map several biochemical, physical and sensory traits, as demonstrated at first for the (monogenic) control traits red color and pungency in the BC2S1 mapping population and in second instance by validation of genetic effects via an experiment with near-isogenic lines (NILs).This two-step approach turned out to be very powerful, since it led to the identification of the main results from this thesis: (i) Asmall C. baccatum LG3 introgression causing an extraordinary effect on flavor, which resulted in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected, including the well-known pepper compound 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (down) and 6-methyl-4-oxo-5-heptenal (up); (ii) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least fifteen different monoterpenes; (iii) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix (total soluble solids) without negative effects on fruit size (Chapter 5).

    In Chapter 6 some extra sensory results of the pungent genotypes are given and a comparison between the two C. baccatum pendulum BILs (PEN45 and PEN79 derived) is made in light of the overall results. Finally the perspectives for breeding are discussed and presented in the form of a flowchart for flavor improvement.

    A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste
    Eggink, P.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2012
    Food Chemistry 132 (2012)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 301 - 310.
    bell peppers - gas-chromatography - tomato - fruit - flavor - metabolomics - frutescens - diversity - quality - aroma
    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-beta-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed.
    Prediction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) flavour over different harvests
    Eggink, P.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Pohu-Flament, L.M.M. ; Wit-Maljaars, S.C. de; Willeboordse-Vos, F. ; Bos, S. ; Benning-de Waard, C. ; Grauw-van Leeuwen, P.J. de; Freymark, G. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2012
    Euphytica 187 (2012)1. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 117 - 131.
    lycopersicon-esculentum - chemical-composition - volatile compounds - metabolomics - tomatoes
    To better understand and predict the complex multifactorial trait flavor, volatile and non-volatile components were measured in fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits throughout the growing season in a diverse panel of 24 breeding lines, hybrids, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. Biochemical profiles were linked to individual flavor attributes, that were objectively quantified by a trained descriptive expert panel. We used a Random Forest regression approach for prediction of the flavor attributes within and between harvests. Predictions of texture related attributes (juiciness, toughness, crunchiness and stickiness of the skin) and sweetness were good (around 60–65 %in the analyses with the three harvests combined). The predictions of the attributes aroma intensity, sourness and fruity/apple were somewhat lower and more variable between harvests. (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, neopentane, p-menth-1-en-9-al, 3-hepten-2-one, (Z)-b-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene, glucose, fructose and three unknown volatile compounds were identified as key-metabolites involved in the flavor differences between both genotypes and harvests. The complex nature of flavor is exemplified by the observed masking effect of fructose and other sugars on sourness and sourness related metabolites, like citrate. The knowledge obtained from the overall biochemical, sensory and prediction analyses forms a basis for targeted flavor improvement by breeding.
    Wat u moet weten over stikstof : vragen en antwoorden
    Haanstra, J. - \ 2011
    stikstof - bemesting - akkerbouw - emissie - mest - nitrogen - fertilizer application - arable farming - emission - manures
    In deze leaflet is alle actuele kennis opgenomen om stikstof zodanig toe te dienen dat: stikstof zoveel mogelijk ten goede komt aan de gewasgroei; het verlies van stikstof zoveel mogelijk wordt voorkomen.
    Wat u moet weten over fosfaat : vragen en antwoorden
    Haanstra, J. ; PRI, - \ 2011
    fosfaat - bemesting - akkerbouw - emissie - mest - phosphate - fertilizer application - arable farming - emission - manures
    Fosfaat is vaak de beperkende factor in de hoeveelheid mineralen die u kunt toedienen. Hoe u hiermee kunt omgaan, kunt u lezen in deze leaflet.
    Characterization of volatile and non-volatile compounds of fresh pepper (Capsicum annuum)
    Eggink, P.M. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2010
    In: Proceedings of the XIVth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum & Eggplant, Valencia, Spain. - Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - ISBN 9788469341391 - p. 251 - 259.
    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds and several agronomical important parameters were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids and several genebank accessions from different Capsicum species. The sweet pepper breeding lines and hybrids were chosen to roughly represent the expected variation in flavor of Capsicum annuum in the Rijk Zwaan germplasm. The genebank accessions were either chosen because they were expected to have unique combinations of aromas and flavors, according to experience and/or literature, or were parents of mapping populations. The biochemical profiling allowed visualization of between- and within-species metabolic variation and stability during the year. In general, total soluble solids content (Brix) was genotype-dependent and fluctuated only slightly throughout the growing season, with uncultivated genotypes showing the largest changes. The species C. chinense, C. baccatum var. pendulum and C. annuum could be clearly separated by principle component analysis based on profiles of 391 volatile compounds. Especially for breeding purposes it seems to be interesting to study this variation in more detail, trying to unravel the complex genetics of the different pepper flavor aspects.
    An Atlas of Wader Populations in Africa and Western Eurasia
    Delany, S. ; Scott, D. ; Helmink, A.T.F. ; Dodman, T. ; Flink, S. ; Stroud, D. ; Haanstra, L. - \ 2009
    London : Wetlands International - ISBN 9789058820471 - 524
    populatie-ecologie - conservering - zoögeografie - afrika - europa - waadvogels - vogeltrek - population ecology - conservation - zoogeography - africa - europe - waders - bird migration
    This publication is a compilation of current knowledge of the numbers, distribution and movements of one of the most remarkable groups of birds in the region covered by the African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA). Long-term waterbird count data have been combined with an extensive literature review, especially published results of bird ringing and national bird atlases, to produce maps showing the population boundaries that are used as a basis of the conservation of these species. The maps are supported by informative species accounts that highlight the movements, population status and conservation of waders in the AEWA region.
    Het IPCC-rapport en de betekenis voor Nederland
    Dorland, R. van; Janssen, B. ; Brink, H. van den; Drijfhout, S. ; Haak, H. ; Haarsma, R. ; Hazelegger, W. ; Hurk, B. van den; Katsman, C. ; Kattenberg, A. ; Komen, G. ; Lenderink, G. ; Oldenborgh, G.J. van; Reijmerink, M. ; Siegmund, P. ; Weber, N. ; Hove, B. van; Veraart, J.A. ; Verhagen, J. ; Berkhout, F. ; Bouwer, L. ; Eickhout, B. ; Haanstra, H. ; Kabat, P. ; Leemans, R. ; Tak, M. ; Meyer, L. ; Vuuren, D.P. van; Seedrechts, A. ; Bosch, P. ; Daniëls, B. ; Ybema, R. ; Drunen, M. van; Meijer, N. - \ 2007
    De Bilt / Wageningen : PCCC - Platform Communication on Climate Change - 52
    klimaatverandering - inventarisaties - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - climatic change - inventories - scientific research
    Het IPCC brengt verspreid over 2007 in vier delen het vierde klimaatrapport uit (Fourth Assessment Report - AR4). Het geeft daarmee de nieuwste inzichten op het gebied van klimaatverandering in de wereld. Aan het AR4 hebben honderden gerenommeerde klimaatonderzoekers uit de hele wereld meegewerkt, waaronder verschillende uit Nederland. De hoofdrapporten met de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing komen dit jaar stapsgewijs beschikbaar. Eind november volgt het zogeheten ‘synthesis report’ van het IPCC. In dit rapport zullen de bevindingen en conclusies van de drie werkgroeprapporten in samenhang beschouwd worden om zo een integraal wetenschappelijk beeld te geven van ons huidige begrip van klimaatverandering. Deze stand van zaken rond klimaatverandering en Nederland wordt gegeven door: MNP, KNMI, VU Amsterdam, Universiteit Utrecht, NWO, Wageningen UR en ECN
    Klimaatverandering: gevolgen, adaptatie en kwetsbaarheid in beeld gebracht : brochure naar aanleiding van de presentatie van het IPCC Working Group II Fourth Assessment Report
    Hove, B. van; Verhagen, J. ; Veraart, J.A. ; Jansen, B. ; Berkhout, F. ; Bouwer, B. ; Eickhout, B. ; Haanstra, H. ; Kabat, P. ; Leemans, R. ; Tak, M. - \ 2007
    [S.l.] : LNV, directie Platteland en Wageningen UR, Alterra - 34
    klimaatverandering - effecten - adaptatie - zeeniveau - mitigatie - climatic change - effects - adaptation - sea level - mitigation
    Deze brochure presenteert de belangrijkste conclusies uit het Fourth Assessment Report van Werkgroep II (WGII 4AR) van het Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). De werkzaamheden van deze werkgroep bestrijken de mondiale en regionale gevolgen van klimaatverandering en zeespiegelstijging, de kwetsbaarheid van verschillende sectoren, en de mogelijkheden van aanpassing of adaptatie
    The Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene Cf-ECP3 is part of the Orion cluster on the short arm of tomato chromosome 1.
    Yuan, Yinan ; Haanstra, J. ; Lindhout, P. ; Bonnema, A.B. - \ 2002
    Molecular Breeding 10 (2002)1-2. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 45 - 50.
    disease resistance - mapping strategy - avirulence gene - cf-9 genes - pathogen - locus - homologs - proteins
    The resistance of tomato to the pathogenic fungus Cladosporiumfulvum complies with the gene-for-gene relationship. Race specificresistance is based on Cf-gene mediated recognition ofsecreted avirulence products, resulting in a hypersensitive response (HR).Besides the avirulence gene products, C. fulvum secretes anumber of extra cellular proteins (ECPs) into the apoplast. Two L.esculentum accessions have previously been identified that reactedwith a HR upon injection with purified ECP3. The corresponding resistance genedesignated Cf-ECP3 was mapped by using an F2population composed of 192 plants from the cross of susceptible MoneyMaker toresistant L. esculentum G1.1153.Cf-ECP3 inherited monogenically, cosegragated with theChromosome 1 Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (CAPS) marker CT116 and wasmapped accurately at Orion, a locus harbouring Cf-ECP2 inother genotypes. RFLP anaysis with a Cf-9 probe furtherdemonstrated cosegregation of Cf-ECP3 with anHcr9 (Homologue of Cladosporiumfulvumresistance gene Cf-9) indicating that this gene is likelyan Hcr9. Thus in addition to the Milky Way locusharbouringthe Cf-4, Cf-4A andCf-9 resistance genes targeted against AVR4, AVR4A andAVR9, Orion is another complex locus on the short arm of Chromosome 1 thatharbours at least two functional Cf-genes,Cf-ECP2 and Cf-ECP3, targeted againstthe fungal excreted proteins ECP2 and ECP3.
    Numbers and distribution of wintering waterbirds in the Western Palearctic and Southwest Asia in 1997, 1998 and 1999; results from the international waterbird census
    Gilissen, N. ; Haanstra, L. ; Delany, S. ; Boere, G. ; Hagemeijer, W. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Wetlands International - ISBN 9789058820112 - 182
    vogels - watervogels - monitoring - inventarisaties - overwintering - zuidwest-azië - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - trekvogels - Europa - Azië - Noord-Afrika - birds - waterfowl - inventories - south west asia
    Growth of Rhizophora mangroves in Vietnam affected by salinity
    Haanstra, L. ; Van Be, Le; Elemans, M. ; Diemont, W.H. - \ 2002
    In: Selected papers of the workshop on integrated management of coastal resources in the Mekong delta, Vietnam : Can Tho, Vietnam, August 2000 / van Mensvoort, M.E.F., Quang Tri, Le, - p. 37 - 43.
    mangroves - mangrovebossen - gewasproductie - verzilting - plant-water relaties - modellen - vietnam - bodem - bosbouw - houtproductie - mangrove - overstroming - Azië - Mekong - mangrove forests - crop production - salinization - plant water relations - models
    An atlas of wader populations in Africa and western Eurasia
    Underhill, L.G. ; Kirby, J.S. ; West, R.B. ; Scott, D.A. ; Davidson, N.C. ; Haanstra, L. ; Piersma, T. ; Hotker, H. ; Stroud, D.A. - \ 2001
    Ostrich 72 (2001)Suppl 015. - ISSN 0030-6525 - p. 176 - 177.
    atlas - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - steltlopers - trekvogels - watervogels - Europa - Afrika - Azië - atlas - fauna
    The African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) came into force on 1 November 1999. Effective implementation of the AEWA Agreement and Action Plan requires that detailed knowledge be readily available on the limits of the populations of migratory waterbirds covered by the Agreement; their migration routes; the sizes and trends of their populations; and the networks of sites which are critical for their survival. It is particularly important that the limits of each population be defined on amap, since these constitute the units on which the estimation of population size and 1% criteria, determination of trends, and identification of key sites are based. For the ducks, geese and swans of the AEWA region, this information was compiled in the Atlas of Anatidae Populations in Africa and Western Eurasia. Following this, the International Wader Study Group, a Specialist Group of Wetlands International, is now preparing a similar publication on the waders covered by AEWA, the Atlas of Wader Populations in Africa and Western Eurasia, referred to hereafter as the Wader Atlas. Introductory chapters and 39 species accounts have been written. These were distributed as a consultation draft at the First Meeting of Parties of AEWA in Cape Town in November 1999. The consultation draft of the Wader Atlas includes 29 species that breed in Eurasia (but often winter in Africa), and 10 Afrotropical species. Species accounts still need to be written for 20 species breeding in Eurasia, and 29 that live in Africa. In this paper we discuss the way the project has been tackled, some results, its strong points, aspects that could perhaps be improved upon, and how amateur and professional ornithologists active in Africa might contribute.
    The international waterbird census database
    Haanstra, L. - \ 2001
    In: New perspectives for monitoring migratory animals - improving knowledge for conservation; proceedings of a workshop on behalf of the 20th anniversary of the "Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals" (Bonn Convention) at the Center for Development Research, University of Bonn, June 1999. Bonn (Germany), BfN, 2001 / Riede, K., - p. 151 - 152.
    database - fauna - ecologie - ornithologie - watervogels
    Using population trend analyses to debug the wader database
    Ens, B.J. ; Haanstra, L. ; Delany, S. - \ 2001
    Bulletin / Wader Study Group 96 (2001). - ISSN 0260-3799 - p. 28 - 28.
    database - fauna - database - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - steltlopers - vogels
    Mapping strategy for resistance against Cladosporium fulvum on the short arm of Chromosome 1 of tomato : Cf-ECP5 near the Hcr9 Milky Way cluster
    Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Meijer-Dekens, F. ; Lauge, R. ; Seetanah, D.C. ; Joosten, M.H.A.J. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Lindhout, P. - \ 2000
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 101 (2000). - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 661 - 668.
    Dispersion of Cf-4 in Lycopersicon germplasm
    Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Thomas, C.M. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Lindhout, P. - \ 2000
    Heredity 85 (2000). - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 266 - 270.
    In the past, numerous Cf genes have been reported in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) that confer resistance against leaf mould (Cladosporium fulvum Cke.). We are interested in genetic variation at Cf loci. Therefore, previously uncharacterized Cf genes were further analysed. Recognition of the AVR4 elicitor, DNA gel blot analysis, PCR analysis and sequencing of part of the Cf-4 locus showed that a large proportion of the accessions tested harboured the Cf-4 resistance gene. We concluded that despite differences in nomenclature, all these accessions harbour the same Cf-4 locus, probably introgressed from the same donor. The origin of the Cf-4 locus and the reasons for discrepancies with earlier reports are discussed
    Characterization of resistance genes to Cladosporium fulvum on the short arm of chromosome 1 of tomato
    Haanstra, J. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P. Stam; P. Lindhout. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081421 - 119
    tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - passalora fulva - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - ziekteresistentie - pathogeniteit - plantenveredeling - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - passalora fulva - plant pathogenic fungi - disease resistance - pathogenicity - plant breeding

    Plant breeders generally use qualitative resistance that is associated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR) to obtain cultivars that are resistant to pathogens and pests. The genetics of this resistance is based on the gene-for-gene relationship, which involves the product of a plant resistance gene and the product of an avirulence gene of the pathogen occurs. The interaction between leaf mold ( Cladosporium fulvum ) and its solely host, tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ), complies with this model. In the last few years, the isolation of several avirulence ( Avr ) and resistance ( R ) genes have contributed to an increase in our knowledge on this interaction. Several resistance genes to C. fulvum ( Cf genes) have been isolated from tomato. These Cf genes are located on two different clusters on the tomato genome, which contain not only functional Cf genes, but also several homologs with yet unknown function.. The short arm of Chromosome 1 harbors one of these clusters, designated "Milky Way", comprising functional Cf genes ( Cf-4 , Cf-4A , Cf-9 ). Moreover, two other clusters are located on the short arm of Chromosome 1, designated "Northern Lights" and "Southern Cross", which only harbor homologs ( Hcr9 s), but no functional Cf genes. Also, there are several reports about the presence of other Cf genes on the short arm of Chromosome 1.

    To increase our knowledge on the genetic and molecular organization of Cf genes on the short arm of Chromosome 1, an experimental approach was chosen to identify Cf genes with novel specificities that map on the short arm of Chromosome 1. To saturate the tomato genome with molecular markers, an integrated high-density AFLP-RFLP map was constructed using two different L. esculentum x L. pennellii F 2 mapping populations. Although 1175 AFLP markers were mapped on the tomato genome, covering 1482 cM, only nine AFLP markers were detected between the RFLP markers CT233 and TG51, which mark a 23.6 cM interval, comprising several Hcr9 clusters, on the short arm of Chromosome 1. This relatively low number of markers is due to the clustering of most Eco RI/ Mse I AFLP markers around the centromeres (Chapter 2).

    Testcross populations of 66 C. fulvum resistant Lycopersicon accessions were obtained by crossing these accessions with the near isogenic line Moneymaker-Cf4 and subsequent crossing of the F 1 with the susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker (Chapter 3). Using disease resistance tests with C. fulvum race 0 on only 24 plants of these testcross populations, susceptible plants were identified. An under-representation of susceptible plants identified Cf resistance linked to Cf-4 , and hence location of the unknown resistance on the short arm of Chromosome 1. Out of the 21 resistant accessions that have been tested in this way, ten showed a Cf-4 linked Cf gene. Among these ten accessions, one accession specifically recognized the extracellular protein ECP5 of C. fulvum and the corresponding gene was designated Cf-ECP5 . This gene was more accurately mapped using a testcross population of 338 plants and an F 2 population of a cross between Moneymaker and CfECP5, consisting of 233 individuals. Cf-ECP5 mapped 4 cM proximal to the Hcr9 locus Milky Way and the corresponding Cf locus was designated Aurora. An amplification product that cosegregated completely with the Cf-ECP5 gene, was cloned and nine clones were sequenced (Chapter 6). These nine clones could be classified into four groups, indicating that the Aurora locus comprises several Hcr9 s.

    Of the 66 resistant Lycopersicon accessions mentioned above, 64 have been screened for the presence of Cf-4 and/or Cf-9 , using PVX:: Avr4 and PVX:: Avr9 , respectively. A relatively large proportion of these accessions all harbored the functional genes Cf-4 and Cf-4A (Chapter 4). Sequence analysis of the 3' end of Cf-4 and part of the 3' untranslated region of Cf-4 showed no differences from the previously published Cf-4 sequences, hence these lines contain an introgression fragment with identical Cf-4 and Cf-4A genes. Since several of these lines were previously designated with different Cf digits, a change in nomenclature is proposed.

    Five out of the 66 accessions studied, showed an HR upon specific recognition of ECP2 and therefore harbor the corresponding resistance gene Cf-ECP2 (Chapter 5). Using two different testcross populations and one F 2 population from a cross between Moneymaker and CfECP2, representing in total 282 individuals, Cf-ECP2 was accurately mapped. Cf-ECP2 cosegregates with the molecular marker CT116, which is located proximal to the Milky Way and Aurora clusters, but distal to the Southern Cross locus. Southern hybridization, using Cf-9 as a probe, showed a hybridizing band of7.5 kb cosegregating with Cf-ECP2 , indicating that Cf-ECP2 is a member of a previously unidentified Hcr9 locus, that has been designated Orion.

    Studies in Chapters 3, 5 and 6 show that functional Cf genes can be located on several different Hcr9 loci on the short arm of Chromosome 1 and that these Hcr9 loci are highly polymorphic.

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