Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Collective behavior of evaporating droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces
    Moradi Mehr, Shiva ; Businaro, Luca ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Moradi, Ali Reza - \ 2020
    AIChE Journal 66 (2020)8. - ISSN 0001-1541
    collective behavior - droplets - superhydrophobic surface - water evaporation

    We study the evaporation dynamics of multiple water droplets deposited in ordered arrays or randomly distributed (sprayed) on superhydrophobic substrates (SHP) and smooth silicon wafers (SW). The evaluation of mass of the droplets as a function of time shows a power-law behavior with exponent 3/2, and from the prefactor of the power-law an evaporation rate can be determined. We find that the evaporation rate on a SHP surface is slower than a normal surface for both single droplet and collection of droplets. By dividing a large droplet into more smaller ones, the evaporation rate increases and the difference between the evaporation rates on SHP and SW surfaces becomes higher. The evaporation rates depend also on the distance of the droplets which increase with increasing this distance.

    Interfacial viscoelasticity and aging effect on droplet formation and breakup
    Giménez-Ribes, Gerard ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Habibi, Mehdi - \ 2020
    Food Hydrocolloids 103 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
    Bovine serum albumin - Capillary breakup - Drop formation - Escin - SDS - Surface rheology - Surfactant - Viscoelastic interfaces - β-Lactoglobulin

    Interfacial rheology of interfaces stabilized by food ingredients has been studied extensively within the limits of small and slow deformations, within the linear viscoelastic regime (LVR). However, in practice, products such as foams or emulsions undergo fast and large deformations during food processes such as chewing. emulsifying, or foaming. In this study, we used capillary break-up and droplet formation to observe and quantify large and fast deformations of such interfaces, in the presence of surface viscoelasticity. We studied the inertial thinning of the liquid neck during drop formation using high-speed imaging. We tested solutions of several surface active molecules, including two low molecular weight surfactants (SDS and Tween 20), two milk proteins (β-Lactoglobulin, Bovine Serum Albumin) and the saponin Escin. Escin showed the most significant effect on the shape of the neck and neck thinning dynamics. Interfacial shear rheology measurements indicated that the unusual breakup observation of Escin solutions was related to the high viscoelastic surface shear moduli. These high moduli, and the resulting more symmetric and shorter neck shape observed for the proteins and Escin, are associated with the formation of solid-like interfacial structures. However, the presence of a viscoelastic interface did not affect the inertial thinning regime, which indicates that the solid structures were broken down locally at the area of minimum radius (Rmin), and affected only the shape outside this region. The results of this work therefore, show that interfacial measurements within the LVR are not entirely representative for fast and large deformations well beyond linearity.

    Interfacial rheology and relaxation behavior of adsorption layers of the triterpenoid saponin Escin
    Giménez-Ribes, Gerard ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. - \ 2020
    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 563 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 281 - 290.
    Dilatational - Escin - Interfacial rheology - Non-linear Viscoelastic (NLVE) regime - Relaxation - Saponin - Shear - Stretched exponential

    Hypothesis: Escin, a monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponin, was shown previously to form viscoelastic interfaces with a very high dilatational and surface shear storage modulus. This is expected to be due to the arrangement of Escin into 2D disordered soft viscoelastic solid interfacial structures, which results in turn in a distribution of relaxation times. Experiments: The responses to dilatational and surface shear deformations of Escin-stabilized air-water interfaces were studied, both in the linear viscoelastic (LVE) and non-linear (NLVE) regime. Step relaxation and amplitude sweeps were performed in dilatation experiments. For surface shear, amplitude sweeps and creep recovery experiments were performed. Findings: Escin stabilized-interfaces displayed a highly non-linear behavior in dilatation as seen in the Lissajous plots. In large oscillatory shear the Lissajous curves had a rhomboidal shape, indicating intracycle yielding and recovery, typical of glassy systems. The relaxation of the interface showed stretched exponential behavior, with stretched exponents typical of disordered solids with dynamic heterogeneity. The use of surface rheological measurements beyond the commonly measured LVE regime clearly has provided new insights into the behavior of these interfaces and their microstructure. These results highlight the need to reconsider other complex interfaces as disordered solids and not as 2D homogenous viscoelastic fluids.

    Rapid Spreading of a Droplet on a Thin Soap Film
    Motaghian, M. ; Shirsavar, R. ; Erfanifam, M. ; Sabouhi, M. ; Linden, E. Van Der; Stone, H.A. ; Bonn, D. ; Habibi, Mehdi - \ 2019
    Langmuir 35 (2019)46. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 14855 - 14860.

    We study the spreading of a droplet of surfactant solution on a thin suspended soap film as a function of dynamic surface tension and volume of the droplet. Radial growth of the leading edge (R) shows power-law dependence on time with exponents ranging roughly from 0.1 to 1 for different surface tension differences (Δσ) between the film and the droplet. When the surface tension of the droplet is lower than the surface tension of the film (Δσ > 0), we observe rapid spreading of the droplet with R ≈ tα, where α (0.4 < α < 1) is highly dependent on Δσ. Balance arguments assuming the spreading process is driven by Marangoni stresses versus inertial stresses yield α = 2/3. When the surface tension difference does not favor spreading (Δσ < 0), spreading still occurs but is slow with 0.1 < α < 0.2. This phenomenon could be used for stretching droplets in 2D and modifying thin suspended films.

    Cohesion-driven mixing and segregation of dry granular media
    Jarray, Ahmed ; Shi, Hao ; Scheper, Bert J. ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Luding, Stefan - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 1 p.

    Granular segregation is a common, yet still puzzling, phenomenon encountered in many natural and engineering processes. Here, we experimentally investigate the effect of particles cohesion on segregation in dry monodisperse and bidisperse systems using a rotating drum mixer. Chemical silanization, glass surface functionalization via a Silane coupling agent, is used to produce cohesive dry glass particles. The cohesive force between the particles is controlled by varying the reaction duration of the silanization process, and is measured using an in-house device specifically designed for this study. The effects of the cohesive force on flow and segregation are then explored and discussed. For monosized particulate systems, while cohesionless particles perfectly mix when tumbled, highly cohesive particles segregate. For bidisperse mixtures of particles, an adequate cohesion-tuning reduces segregation and enhances mixing. Based on these results, a simple scheme is proposed to describe the system's mixing behaviour with important implications for the control of segregation or mixing in particulate industrial processes.

    Speckle pattern analysis of crumpled papers
    Rad, Vahideh Farzam ; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E. ; Cabrera, Humberto ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Moradi, Ali Reza - \ 2019
    Applied Optics 58 (2019)24. - ISSN 1559-128X - p. 6549 - 6554.

    In this paper, we show that laser speckle analysis (LSA) can provide valuable information about the structure of crumpled thin sheets. Crumpling and folding of slender objects are present in several phenomena and in various ranges of size, e.g., paper compaction, cortical folding in brains, DNA packing in viral capsids, and flower buds, to name a few. The analysis of laser speckles, both numerical and graphical, is a source of information about the activity of biological or non-biological materials, and the development of digital electronics, which brought the ease of image processing, has opened new perspectives for a spectrum of LSA applications. LSA is applied on randomly crumpled and one-, two-, and three-times folded papers, and appreciable differences in LSA parameters are observed. The methodology can be applied for easy-to-implement quantitative assessment of similar phenomena and samples.

    Using friction and ductility for tailoring relaxation and mechanical memory of crumpled metamaterials
    Bruggen, Eric van; Linden, E. van der; Habibi, M. - \ 2019
    Tailoring relaxation dynamics and mechanical memory of crumpled materials by friction and ductility
    Bruggen, Eric Van; Linden, Erik Van Der; Habibi, Mehdi - \ 2019
    Soft Matter 15 (2019)7. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 1633 - 1639.

    Crumpled sheets show slow mechanical relaxation and long lasting memory of previous mechanical states. By using uniaxial compression tests, the role of friction and ductility on the stress relaxation dynamics of crumpled systems is investigated. We find a material dependent relaxation constant that can be tuned by changing ductility and adhesive properties of the sheet. After a two-step compression protocol, nonmonotonic aging is reported for polymeric, elastomeric and metal sheets, with relaxation dynamics that are dependent on the material's properties. These findings can contribute to tailoring and programming of crumpled materials to get desirable mechanical properties.

    The yield normal stress
    Cagny, Henri De; Fazilati, Mina ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Denn, Morton M. ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2019
    Journal of Rheology 63 (2019)2. - ISSN 0148-6055 - p. 285 - 290.

    Normal stresses in complex fluids lead to new flow phenomena because they can be comparable to, or even larger than, the shear stress. In addition, they are of paramount importance for formulating and testing constitutive equations for predicting nonviscometric flow behavior. Very little attention has thus far been paid to the normal stresses of yield stress fluids, which are difficult to measure. We report the first systematic study of the first and second normal stress differences in both continuous and slow oscillatory shear of three model nonthixotropic yield stress fluids, with N 1 > 0 and N 2 < 0. We show that both normal stress differences are quadratic functions of the shear stress both above and below the shear yield stress, leading to the existence of a yield normal stress. However, the contribution of the normal stresses to the von Mises yield criterion for these materials is small.

    Optimized rotation of an optically trapped particle for micro mixing
    Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud ; Hajizadeh, Faegheh ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Milani Moghaddam, Hossain ; Reihani, S.N.S. - \ 2018
    Applied physics letters 113 (2018)22. - ISSN 0003-6951

    The angular momentum transferred by circularly polarized photons is able to rotate an optically trapped microparticle. Here, the optically rotating particle is introduced as an active micromixer to reduce the mixing time in a microfluidic system. To optimize the system for microfluidic application, the effect of several optical parameters such as spherical aberration and the numerical aperture of the objective on the rotation rate of a trapped particle is investigated. The results show that the optimized depth for the rotation of a particle is located close to the coverslip and can be changed by a fine adjustment of the refractive index of the immersion oil. By applying the obtained optimized optical parameters on a trapped particle at the interface of two fluids in a microchannel, the mixing length is reduced by a factor of ∼2.

    Granular chain escape from a pore in a wall in the presence of particles on one side : a comparison to polymer translocation
    Samadi Taheri, Fereshteh ; Fazli, Hossein ; Doi, Masao ; Habibi, Mehdi - \ 2018
    Soft Matter 14 (2018)26. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 5420 - 5427.

    Escape of a granular chain from a pore in a wall in the presence of diffusing granular particles on one side of the wall is studied experimentally. The escape time shows power-law behavior as a function of the chain length (τ ∝ Nα). A Langevin dynamics simulation of a polymer chain in a similar geometry is also performed and similar results to those for a granular system are obtained. A simple scaling argument and an energetic argument (based on the Onsager principle) are introduced which explain our results very well. Experiments (simulations) show that by increasing the number of particles on one side of the wall from zero, the exponent α decreases from 2.6 ± 0.1 (3.1 ± 0.1) to about 2. Both scaling and the Onsager principle argument predict α = 2 at high particle concentration, in agreement with the experiments and simulations. In the absence of particles, the scaling predicts τ = N2.5 (in agreement with the experimental result for the granular chain) and the Onsager principle predictsτ = N3lnN, supporting the simulation result for the polymer chain. Experiments, simulations, scaling, and the Onsager principle confirm an inverse relation between τ and the density of particles on one side of the wall.

    Characterisation and prediction of meteorological drought using stochastic models in the semi-arid Chéliff–Zahrez basin (Algeria)
    Habibi, Brahim ; Meddi, Mohamed ; Torfs, Paul J.J.F. ; Remaoun, Mohamed ; Lanen, Henny A.J. Van - \ 2018
    Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 16 (2018). - ISSN 2214-5818 - p. 15 - 31.
    Chéliff–Zahrez basin - Drought maps - Markov chain - Meteorological drought - SPI - Time series modelling
    Study region: North Algeria. Study focus: The semi-arid to arid Chéliff–Zahrez basin faced several droughts with severe impacts on agriculture due to the high temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall. We explored the potential of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Markov chain models, the Drought Index and time series modelling to characterize meteorological drought. Time series of annual precipitation (1960–2010) from 65 meteorological stations across the basin were used. The basin was subdivided into five subbasins to account for spatial variability. New hydrological insights for the regions: The analysis of the Standardized Precipitation Index showed few droughts in the period 1960–1970, whereas in the 1990s a multi-year drought occurred with SPIs as low as −2 (extremely dry) in many subbasins. The Markov chain analysis learnt that the probability of having two consecutive drought years appears to be higher in the southern subbasins. The Drought Index derived from transition probabilities indicates that the southern and the southwestern parts of the Chéliff–Zahrez basin are most drought prone. Time series modelling was applied to compute the SPI for different return periods (6‐17 years). Eleven models were tested and it appeared that the Asymmetric Power Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (APARCH) approach was best performing based on several information criteria. For a return period of 17 years, the SPI is lower than −1.5 (severely dry) in many subbasins.
    Dependence of nonlinear elasticity on filler size in composite polymer systems
    Mermet-Guyennet, Marius ; Dinkgreve, Maureen ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Martzel, Nicolas ; Sprik, Rudolf ; Denn, Morton ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2017
    Rheologica Acta 56 (2017)6. - ISSN 0035-4511 - p. 583 - 589.
    Composites - Filled rubbers - Nanoparticles - Normal stress - Reinforcement

    Nanosized filler particles enhance the mechanical properties of polymer composites in a size-dependent fashion. This is puzzling, because classical elasticity is inherently scale-free, and models for the elasticity of composite systems never predict a filler-size dependence. Here, we study the industrially important system of silica-filled rubbers, together with a well-characterized model-filled crosslinked gel and show that at high filler content both the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of these systems exhibit a unique scaling proportional to the cube of the volume fraction divided by the particle size. This remarkable behavior makes it possible to predict the full mechanical response of particle-filled rubbers for small but finite deformations based solely on the rheology of the matrix and the size and modulus of the filler particles.

    Normal stresses in shear thickening granular suspensions
    Pan, Zhongcheng ; Cagny, Henri de; Habibi, M. ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2017
    Soft Matter 13 (2017). - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 3734 - 3740.
    When subjected to shear, granular suspensions exhibit normal stresses perpendicular to the shear plane but the magnitude and sign of the different components of the normal stresses are still under debate. By performing both oscillatory and rotational rheology measurements on shear thickening granular suspensions and systematically varying the particle diameters and the gap sizes between two parallel-plates, we show that a transition from a positive to a negative normal stress can be observed. We find that frictional interactions which determine the shear thickening behavior of suspensions contribute to the positive normal stresses. Increasing the particle diameters or decreasing the gap sizes leads to a growing importance of hydrodynamic interactions, which results in negative normal stresses. We determine a relaxation time for the system, set by both the pore and the gap sizes, that governs the fluid flow through the inter-particle space. Finally, using a two-fluid model we determine the relative contributions from the particle phase and the liquid phase.
    Crumpling-based soft metamaterials : The effects of sheet pore size and porosity
    Mirzaali, M.J. ; Habibi, M. ; Janbaz, S. ; Vergani, L. ; Zadpoor, A.A. - \ 2017
    Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 7 p.

    Crumpled-based materials are relatively easy to fabricate and show robust mechanical properties for practical applications, including meta-biomaterials design aimed for improved tissue regeneration. For such requests, however, the structure needs to be porous. We introduce a crumpled holey thin sheet as a robust bio-metamaterial and measure the mechanical response of a crumpled holey thin Mylar sheet as a function of the hole size and hole area fraction. We also study the formation of patterns of crease lines and ridges. The area fraction largely dominated the crumpling mechanism. We also show, the crumpling exponents slightly increases with increasing the hole area fraction and the total perimeter of the holes. Finally, hole edges were found to limit and guide the propagation of crease lines and ridges.

    Segregation of a binary granular mixture in a vibrating sawtooth base container
    Mobarakabadi, Shahin ; Adrang, Neda ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Oskoee, Ehsan Nedaaee - \ 2017
    European Physical Journal E. Soft Matter and Biological Physics 40 (2017)9. - ISSN 1292-8941 - 7 p.
    Flowing Matter: Granular Matter

    Abstract.: A granular mixture of identical particles of different densities can be segregated when the system is shaken. We present an efficient method of continuously segregating a flow of randomly mixed identical spherical particles of different densities by shaking them in a quasi-two-dimensional container with a sawtooth-shaped base. Using numerical simulation we study the effect of direction of shaking (horizontal/vertical), geometry of the sawtooth, and the friction coefficient between the grains and the container walls on the segregation quality. Finally by performing experiments on the same system we compare our simulation results with the experimental results. The good agreement between our simulation and experiment indicates the validity of our simulation approach and will provide a practical way for granular segregation in industrial applications. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    Effect of the material properties on the crumpling of a thin sheet
    Habibi, Mehdi ; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2017
    Soft Matter 13 (2017)22. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 4029 - 4034.

    While simple at first glance, the dense packing of sheets is a complex phenomenon that depends on material parameters and the packing protocol. We study the effect of plasticity on the crumpling of sheets of different materials by performing isotropic compaction experiments on sheets of different sizes and elasto-plastic properties. First, we quantify the material properties using a dimensionless foldability index. Then, the compaction force required to crumple a sheet into a ball as well as the average number of layers inside the ball are measured. For each material, both quantities exhibit a power-law dependence on the diameter of the crumpled ball. We experimentally establish the power-law exponents and find that both depend nonlinearly on the foldability index. However the exponents that characterize the mechanical response and morphology of the crumpled materials are related linearly. A simple scaling argument explains this in terms of the buckling of the sheets, and recovers the relation between the crumpling force and the morphology of the crumpled structure. Our results suggest a new approach to tailor the mechanical response of the crumpled objects by carefully selecting their material properties.

    Compaction of quasi-one-dimensional elastoplastic materials
    Reza Shaebani, M. ; Najafi, Javad ; Farnudi, Ali ; Bonn, Daniel ; Habibi, Mehdi - \ 2017
    Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 7 p.

    Insight into crumpling or compaction of one-dimensional objects is important for understanding biopolymer packaging and designing innovative technological devices. By compacting various types of wires in rigid confinements and characterizing the morphology of the resulting crumpled structures, here, we report how friction, plasticity and torsion enhance disorder, leading to a transition from coiled to folded morphologies. In the latter case, where folding dominates the crumpling process, we find that reducing the relative wire thickness counter-intuitively causes the maximum packing density to decrease. The segment size distribution gradually becomes more asymmetric during compaction, reflecting an increase of spatial correlations. We introduce a self-Avoiding random walk model and verify that the cumulative injected wire length follows a universal dependence on segment size, allowing for the prediction of the efficiency of compaction as a function of material properties, container size and injection force.

    Glutaminolysis and Fumarate Accumulation Integrate Immunometabolic and Epigenetic Programs in Trained Immunity
    Arts, Rob J.W. ; Novakovic, Boris ; Horst, Rob ter; Carvalho, Agostinho ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Rodrigues, Fernando ; Silvestre, Ricardo ; Cheng, Shih Chin ; Wang, Shuang Yin ; Habibi, Ehsan ; Gonçalves, Luís G. ; Mesquita, Inês ; Cunha, Cristina ; Laarhoven, Arjan van; Veerdonk, Frank L. van de; Williams, David L. ; Meer, Jos W.M. van der; Logie, Colin ; O'Neill, Luke A. ; Dinarello, Charles A. ; Riksen, Niels P. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Clish, Clary ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Xavier, Ramnik J. ; Netea, Mihai G. - \ 2016
    Cell Metabolism 24 (2016)6. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 807 - 819.
    cholesterol metabolism - epigenetics - glutamine metabolism - glycolysis - trained immunity

    Induction of trained immunity (innate immune memory) is mediated by activation of immune and metabolic pathways that result in epigenetic rewiring of cellular functional programs. Through network-level integration of transcriptomics and metabolomics data, we identify glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and the cholesterol synthesis pathway as indispensable for the induction of trained immunity by β-glucan in monocytes. Accumulation of fumarate, due to glutamine replenishment of the TCA cycle, integrates immune and metabolic circuits to induce monocyte epigenetic reprogramming by inhibiting KDM5 histone demethylases. Furthermore, fumarate itself induced an epigenetic program similar to β-glucan-induced trained immunity. In line with this, inhibition of glutaminolysis and cholesterol synthesis in mice reduced the induction of trained immunity by β-glucan. Identification of the metabolic pathways leading to induction of trained immunity contributes to our understanding of innate immune memory and opens new therapeutic avenues.

    Evaporation of water : Evaporation rate and collective effects
    Carrier, Odile ; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Noushine ; Zargar, Rojman ; Aytouna, Mounir ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Eggers, Jens ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2016
    Journal of Fluid Mechanics 798 (2016). - ISSN 0022-1120 - p. 774 - 786.
    Condensation/evaporation - drops - phase change

    We study the evaporation rate from single drops as well as collections of drops on a solid substrate, both experimentally and theoretically. For a single isolated drop of water, in general the evaporative flux is limited by diffusion of water through the air, leading to an evaporation rate that is proportional to the linear dimension of the drop. Here, we test the limitations of this scaling law for several small drops and for very large drops. We find that both for simple arrangements of drops, as well as for complex drop size distributions found in sprays, cooperative effects between drops are significant. For large drops, we find that the onset of convection introduces a length scale of approximately 20 mm in radius, below which linear scaling is found. Above this length scale, the evaporation rate is proportional to the surface area.

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