Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Associations between antimicrobial use and the faecal resistome on broiler farms from nine European countries
Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Gompel, Liese Van; Munk, Patrick ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Joosten, Philip ; Dorado-García, Alejandro ; Borup Hansen, Rasmus ; Knudsen, Berith E. ; Bossers, Alex ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Schmitt, Heike - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)9. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 2596 - 2604.

OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between farm- and flock-level antimicrobial usage (AMU), farm biosecurity status and the abundance of faecal antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) on broiler farms. METHODS: In the cross-sectional pan-European EFFORT study, conventional broiler farms were visited and faeces, AMU information and biosecurity records were collected. The resistomes of pooled faecal samples were determined by metagenomic analysis for 176 farms. A meta-analysis approach was used to relate total and class-specific ARGs (expressed as fragments per kb reference per million bacterial fragments, FPKM) to AMU (treatment incidence per DDD, TIDDDvet) per country and subsequently across all countries. In a similar way, the association between biosecurity status (Biocheck.UGent) and the resistome was explored. RESULTS: Sixty-six (38%) flocks did not report group treatments but showed a similar resistome composition and roughly similar ARG levels to antimicrobial-treated flocks. Nevertheless, we found significant positive associations between β-lactam, tetracycline, macrolide and lincosamide, trimethoprim and aminoglycoside antimicrobial flock treatments and ARG clusters conferring resistance to the same class. Similar associations were found with purchased products. In gene-level analysis for β-lactams and macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins, a significant positive association was found with the most abundant gene clusters blaTEM and erm(B). Little evidence was found for associations with biosecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The faecal microbiome in European broilers contains a high diversity of ARGs, even in the absence of current antimicrobial selection pressure. Despite this, the relative abundance of genes and the composition of the resistome is positively related to AMU in European broiler farms for several antimicrobial classes.

Patient’s characteristics and outcomes in necrotising soft-tissue infections: results from a Scandinavian, multicentre, prospective cohort study
Madsen, Martin Bruun ; Skrede, Steinar ; Perner, Anders ; Arnell, Per ; Nekludov, Michael ; Bruun, Trond ; Karlsson, Ylva ; Hansen, Marco Bo ; Polzik, Peter ; Hedetoft, Morten ; Rosén, Anders ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Bergey, François ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Norrby-teglund, Anna ; Hyldegaard, Ole - \ 2019
Intensive Care Medicine 45 (2019)9. - ISSN 0342-4642 - p. 1241 - 1251.
Purpose: Necrotising soft-tissue infections (NSTI) are characterised by necrosis, fast progression, and high rates of morbidity and mortality, but our knowledge is primarily derived from small prospective studies and retrospective studies. Methods: We performed an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study of adults with NSTI describing patient’s characteristics and associations between baseline variables and microbiological findings, amputation, and 90-day mortality. Results: We included 409 patients with NSTI; 402 were admitted to the ICU. Cardiovascular disease [169 patients (41%)] and diabetes [98 (24%)] were the most common comorbidities; 122 patients (30%) had no comorbidity. Before surgery, bruising of the skin [210 patients (51%)] and pain requiring opioids [172 (42%)] were common. The sites most commonly affected were the abdomen/ano-genital area [140 patients (34%)] and lower extremities [126 (31%)]. Monomicrobial infection was seen in 179 patients (44%). NSTI of the upper or lower extremities was associated with monomicrobial group A streptococcus (GAS) infection, and NSTI located to the abdomen/ano-genital area was associated with polymicrobial infection. Septic shock [202 patients (50%)] and acute kidney injury [82 (20%)] were common. Amputation occurred in 22% of patients with NSTI of an extremity and was associated with higher lactate level. All-cause 90-day mortality was 18% (95% CI 14–22); age and higher lactate levels were associated with increased mortality and GAS aetiology with decreased mortality. Conclusions: Patients with NSTI were heterogeneous regarding co-morbidities, initial symptoms, infectious localisation, and microbiological findings. Higher age and lactate levels were associated with increased mortality, and GAS infection with decreased mortality.
The impact of husbands' involvement in goal-setting training on women's empowerment : First evidence from an intervention among female microfinance borrowers in Sri Lanka
Huis, Marloes Anne ; Hansen, Nina ; Otten, Sabine ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2019
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 29 (2019)4. - ISSN 1052-9284 - p. 336 - 351.
empowerment - goal setting - partner interaction - training - women

Offering women access to microcredit and business training is a prominent approach to stimulate women's empowerment. Whereas men seem to profit from business training, women do not. We adjusted a goal-setting training session on the basis of women's needs in collaboration with a women organization in Sri Lanka. We invited female microfinance borrowers and their husbands to the training as both parties should be involved to change existing gender roles with respect to their income-generating activity. We investigated the impact of the training on goal-setting skills, self-esteem, and the couples' interaction in a subsequent task. In two field experiments, female borrowers and their husbands (nstudy1 = 68; nstudy2 = 76) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) goal-setting training and setting goals as couple, (b) goal-setting training and setting goals individually, or (c) no training (control condition). Participation in the training increased women's SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time bound) goal-setting skills. We coded couples' interactions in a subsequent decision-making task to assess signs of women's empowerment. Descriptively, we found some initial evidence of increased women's empowerment in the interaction (Study 2). We critically discuss results and how gendered power imbalances may need to be addressed to stimulate social change towards gender equity.

Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability

Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.

Urban green infrastructure – connecting people and nature for sustainable cities
Pauleit, Stephan ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Jagt, Sander Van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 1 - 3.
Impacts of the Gender and Entrepreneurship Together Ahead (GET Ahead) training on empowerment of female microfinance borrowers in Northern Vietnam
Huis, Marloes ; Lensink, Robert ; Vu, Nhung ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2019
World Development 120 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 46 - 61.
Asia - GET Ahead training - Randomized controlled trial - Vietnam - Women empowerment

Across the world the Gender and Entrepreneurship Together (GET Ahead) training originally developed by the International Labour Organization has been implemented to improve business outcomes and enhance women's empowerment. This randomized controlled trial is the first rigorous attempt to examine the impact of the GET Ahead training on women's empowerment. We focus on the impact of offering this training to female microfinance borrowers of TYM, the largest microfinance organization in North Vietnam. A major contribution of this study is that it focuses on different dimensions of women's empowerment: (1) personal empowerment, measured by control beliefs, and (2) relational empowerment, measured by relational friction and intra-household decision making power. This study also stands out in that we explicitly study whether involving husbands affects the impact of the training. We find that the GET Ahead training improves women's empowerment on all three aspects: increased control beliefs and intra-household decision making power (only on larger expenditures), and decreased relational friction. However, the results on relational frictions should be taken with care due to possible underreporting. Moreover, in general, we find no additional impacts of inviting husbands to the training. Finally, our results suggest that it takes some time before the training starts to improve women's empowerment. We observe no short-term but only mid-term effects from before the training to 12 months after the training.

The antimicrobial resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and biosecurity in pig farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine European countries
Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Munk, Patrick ; Knudsen, Berith E. ; Hansen, Rasmus B. ; Bossers, Alex ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Dorado-García, Alejandro ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 865 - 876.

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies in food-producing animals have shown associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in specifically isolated bacterial species. Multi-country data are scarce and only describe between-country differences. Here we investigate associations between the pig faecal mobile resistome and characteristics at the farm-level across Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 conventional pig farms from nine European countries. Twenty-five faecal samples from fattening pigs were pooled per farm and acquired resistomes were determined using shotgun metagenomics and the Resfinder reference database, i.e. the full collection of horizontally acquired AMR genes (ARGs). Normalized fragments resistance genes per kilobase reference per million bacterial fragments (FPKM) were calculated. Specific farm-level data (AMU, biosecurity) were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed by country, relating farm-level data to relative ARG abundances (FPKM). RESULTS: Total AMU during fattening was positively associated with total ARG (total FPKM). Positive associations were particularly observed between widely used macrolides and tetracyclines, and ARGs corresponding to the respective antimicrobial classes. Significant AMU-ARG associations were not found for β-lactams and only few colistin ARGs were found, despite high use of these antimicrobial classes in younger pigs. Increased internal biosecurity was directly related to higher abundances of ARGs mainly encoding macrolide resistance. These effects of biosecurity were independent of AMU in mutually adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Using resistome data in association studies is unprecedented and adds accuracy and new insights to previously observed AMU-AMR associations. Major components of the pig resistome are positively and independently associated with on-farm AMU and biosecurity conditions.

A flexible semi-empirical model for estimating ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry
Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Carozzi, Marco ; Chantigny, Martin ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Kupper, Thomas ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2019
Atmospheric Environment 199 (2019). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 474 - 484.
This work describes a semi-empirical dynamic model for predicting ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry. Total volatilization is the sum of first-order transfer from two pools: a "fast" pool representing slurry in direct contact with the atmosphere, and a “slow” one representing fractions less available for emission due to infiltration or other processes. This simple structure is sufficient for reproducing the characteristic course of emission over time. Values for parameters that quantify effects of the following predictor variables on partitioning and transfer rates were estimated from a large data set of emission from cattle and pig slurry (490 field plots in 6 countries from the ALFAM2 database): slurry dry matter, application method, application rate, incorporation (shallow or deep), air temperature, wind speed, and rainfall rate. The effects of acidification were estimated using a smaller dataset. Model predictions generally matched the measured course of emission over time in a reserved data subset used for evaluation, although the model over- or under-estimated emission for many individual plots. Mean error was ca. 12% of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (and as much as 82% of measured emission) for 72 h cumulative emission, and model efficiency (fraction of observed variation explained by the model) was 0.5–0.7. Most of the explanatory power of the model was related to application method. The magnitude and sign of (apparent) model error varied among countries, highlighting the need to understand why measured emission varies among locations. The new model may be a useful tool for predicting fertilizer efficiency of field-applied slurries, assessing emission factors, and quantifying the impact of mitigation. The model can readily be applied or extended, and is available as an R package (ALFAM2, https://github.com/sashahafner/ALFAM2) or a simple spreadsheet (http://www.alfam.dk).
Tools and Technologies for the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Unwanted Catches
James, Kelly M. ; Campbell, Neill ; Viðarsson, Jónas R. ; Vilas, Carlos ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian S. ; Borges, Lisa ; González, Óscar ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I. ; Antelo, Luis Taboada ; Pérez-Bouzada, Jorge ; Ulrich, Clara - \ 2019
In: The European Landing Obligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030033071 - p. 363 - 382.
A key requirement for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation is the need to monitor and regulate unwanted catches at sea. This issue is
particularly challenging because of the large number of vessels and trips that need to be monitored and the remoteness of vessels at sea. Several options exist in theory, ranging from patrol vessels to onboard observers and self-sampling. Increasingly though, technology is developing to provide remote Electronic Monitoring (EM) with cameras at lower costs. This chapter first provides an overall synthesis of the pro’s and con’s of several monitoring tools and technologies. Four EM technologies already trialled in EU fisheries are then summarised. We conclude that it is now possible to conduct reliable and cost-effective monitoring of unwanted catches at sea, especially if various options are used in combination. However, effective monitoring is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation but insufficient unless it is implemented with a high level of coverage and with the support of the fishing industry.
Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 4 - 16.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Mosaic governance for urban green infrastructure: Upscaling active citizenship from a local government perspective
Buijs, Arjen ; Hansen, Rieke ; Jagt, Sander Van Der; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Elands, Birgit ; Lorance Rall, Emily ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Pauleit, Stephan ; Runhaar, Hens ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Steen Møller, Maja - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 53 - 62.
Compact urban development, social demands and austerity measures are increasing pressures on urban greenspace. Meanwhile, active citizens, defined as voluntary individuals or groups who self-organize to contribute to urban green space development, provide ecological and social benefits to urban societies. This has inspired local governments to seek collaborations with non-state actors, including active citizens. However, the diverging aims, place-specific focus, and varying expertise of active citizenship may inhibit its contribution to ecological connectivity and upscaling beyond the local scale.
In this paper, we investigate how “mosaic governance” has potential as a framework for understanding active citizenship, its potential for upscaling and its relationship to strategic UGI planning. Using the policy arrangements approach, we analyse the role of discourse, resources, actors and rules of the game in the upscaling of active citizenship. Based on eight empirical cases from seven European cities, we analyse the diversity of collaborations between local governments and active citizens in greenspace development.
The cases show how active citizens can significantly contribute to UGI planning and implementation, for example by developing large parks with volunteers or designing a network of green corridors. The cases reveal multiple ways citizens and local governments benefit from collaborations, as well as different pathways for upscaling innovative discourses and practices from local communities to formal policy or to other cities. To enable upscaling, UGI planning needs to combine long-term, more formalized and higher-scale strategic approaches with more incremental approaches that correspond with localized, fragmented and informal efforts of local communities. While collaborations between municipalities and active citizenship is not without its difficulties, the examples of upscaling in our cases demonstrate the transformative power active citizens may have towards a more green, just and democratic city.
European experiences on the use of remote electronic monitoring
Mortensen, L. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Ulrich, C. ; Needle, C. ; Oesterwind, D. ; Kindt-Larsen, L. ; Catchpole, T. ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, C. ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, N. ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, J. ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Development of benthic imta systems by coupling polychaete production to salmon farming: system development, nutrient dynamics and risk of medicine residues
Jansen, H.M. ; Fang, Jinghui ; Nederlof, M.A.J. ; Brennan, Natalie ; Hansen, Pia Kupka ; Samuelsen, Ole ; Strand, Olivind - \ 2018
- 2 p.
Study on the approaches to management for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries : DRuMFISH : final report - Study
Poos, J.J. ; Oliveira, José De; Ulrich, C. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Mildenberger, Tobias ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Minto, Coilín ; Pawlowski, Lionel ; Robert, Marianne ; Macher, Claire ; Merzereaud, Mathieu ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Ibaibarriaga, L. ; Bertignac, Michel ; Vermard, Youen ; Fischer, Simon ; Carpi, Piera ; Walker, Nicola ; Earl, Timothy ; Davie, Sarah ; Haslob, Holger ; Kempf, A. ; Taylor, Marc ; Martin, Paloma ; Maynou, Francesc ; Recasens, Laura ; Ramirez, John Gabriel ; Lleonart, Jordi ; Garriga, Mariona ; Tserpes, George ; Sgardeli, Viki ; Coro, Gianpolo ; Scarcella, Giuseppe ; Angelini, Silvia - \ 2018
EU - ISBN 9789292024062 - 84 p.
This is the final report of the European Commission funded research project "DRuMFISH" (service contract n° EASME/EMFF/2014/l.3.2.4/ SI2.721116). The main aim of the project was to develop models and strategies for providing advice for mixed fisheries that account for: (i) fishing mortality ranges consistent with MSY, (ii) all fish caught being landed, and (iii) significant components of the marine fish ecosystem lacking key biological information. In order to meet this aim, DRuMFISH delivered a review of assessment approaches for data-poor stocks, extended mixed fisheries simulation frameworks to include data-poor stocks. The assessment approaches and simulation frameworks were implemented in 7 case studies. These case studies were mixed fisheries in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Western Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Within the case studies, 35 data-poor stock assessments were done. These assessments provided exploitation status of data-poor stocks. Different harvest control rules were subsequently tested for their expected yields and stock biomasses from the mixed fisheries in the simulation frameworks. Now that data-poor stocks can be incorporated with in the mixed fisheries simulation frameworks, the design of new management plans can account for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries.
PREVIEW study—Influence of a behavior modification intervention (PREMIT) in over 2300 people with pre-diabetes : Intention, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies during the early phase of a lifestyle intervention
Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Hansen, Sylvia ; Christensen, Pia ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Sandø-Pedersen, Finn ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Adam, Tanja C. ; Macdonald, Ian A. ; Taylor, Moira A. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Navas-Carretero, Santiago ; Handjiev, Svetoslav ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Silvestre, Marta P. ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
Psychology Research and Behavior Management 11 (2018). - ISSN 1179-1578 - p. 383 - 394.
Cognition - Diabetes mellitus - Goals - Habits - Weight loss

Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of ≥ 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni-and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss (“achievers”) and those who did not (“non-achievers”). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between “achievers” (1,857) and “non-achievers” (163) were found. “Non-achievers” tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, “achievers” reported higher intentions (healthy eating χ2 (1)=2.57; P <0.008, exercising χ2 (1)=0.66; P <0.008), self-efficacy (F(2; 1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F(4; 1968)=11.22, P <0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the “new” behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.

Assessment of impact of traffic-related air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Copenhagen Municipality and the health gain of reduced exposure
Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik ; Bender, Anne Mette ; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana ; Sørensen, Jan ; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort ; Boshuizen, Hendriek ; Becker, Thomas ; Diderichsen, Finn ; Loft, Steffen - \ 2018
Environment International 121 (2018). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 973 - 980.
Air pollution - Disease modelling - Effect modelling - Health impact assessment - Prevention

Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) of exposure to air pollution is commonly based on city level (fine) particle concentration and may underestimate health consequences of changing local traffic. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution can be assessed at a high resolution by modelling levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which together with ultrafine particles mainly originate from diesel-powered vehicles in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to estimate the health benefits of reduced exposure to vehicle emissions assessed as NO2 at the residence among the citizens of Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. Methods: We utilized residential NO2 concentrations modelled by use of chemistry transport models to calculate contributions from emission sources to air pollution. The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen Municipality by using NO2 concentration estimates combined with demographic data and data from nationwide registers on incidence and prevalence of selected diseases, cause specific mortality, and total mortality of the population of Copenhagen. We used exposure-response functions linking NO2 concentration estimates at the residential address with the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases derived from a large Danish cohort study with the majority of subjects residing in Copenhagen between 1971 and 2010. Different scenarios were modelled to estimate the dynamic impact of NO2 exposure on related diseases and the potential health benefits of lowering the NO2 level in the Copenhagen Municipality. Results: The annual mean NO2 concentration was 19.6 μg/m3 and for 70% of the population the range of exposure was between 15 and 21 μg/m3. If NO2 exposure was reduced to the annual mean rural level of 6 μg/m3, life expectancy in 2040 would increase by one year. The greatest gain in disease-free life expectancy would be lifetime without ischemic heart disease (1.4 years), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.5 years for men and 1.6 years for women), and asthma (1.3 years for men and 1.5 years for women). Lowering NO2 exposure by 20% would increase disease-free life expectancy for the different diseases by 0.3–0.5 years. Using gender specific relative risks affected the results. Conclusions: Reducing the NO2 exposure by controlling traffic-related air pollution reduces the occurrence of some of the most prevalent chronic diseases and increases life expectancy. Such health benefits can be quantified by DYNAMO-HIA in a high resolution exposure modelling. This paper demonstrates how traffic planners can assess health benefits from reduced levels of traffic-related air pollution.

Lignin Based Functional Additives for Natural Rubber
Barana, Davide ; Orlandi, Marco ; Zoia, Luca ; Castellani, Luca ; Hanel, Thomas ; Bolck, Christiaan ; Gosselink, Richard - \ 2018
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 6 (2018)9. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 11843 - 11852.
Chemical modification - Fractionation - Lignin valorization - Natural rubber - Solubility parameters

In this work, the possibility to conveniently exploit lignin as a functional additive for natural rubber was pursued following two strategies. The first was based on the fractionation of lignin: extraction with organic solvents is suitable to produce lignin fractions with better defined structural features, molecular weight distributions, and physicochemical properties. The second approach was based on the chemical modification of lignin in the attempt to overcome its poor affinity with the rubber: esterification with anhydrides was selected to modify relatively large samples of lignin at laboratory scale. The effectiveness of different modifications of lignin as a drop-in replacement for carbon black was evaluated analyzing the tensile mechanical properties of model elastomeric compounds. In addition, the behavior of the modified lignins was rationalized through Hansen solubility parameters predicted with the group-contribution method.

Demographic and Social-Cognitive Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Overweight, Pre-diabetic Participants of the PREVIEW Study
Hansen, Sylvia ; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, Alfredo J. ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Poppitt, Sally ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25 (2018)6. - ISSN 1070-5503 - p. 682 - 692.
Behavioral determination - Lifestyle intervention - Social-cognitive factors - Weight loss

Purpose: Weight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes. Method: Prospective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss. Results: Overall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss. Conclusion: The results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.

Author Correction: Abundance and diversity of the faecal resistome in slaughter pigs and broilers in nine European countries
Munk, Patrick ; Knudsen, Berith Elkær ; Lukjancenko, Oksana ; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro ; Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Garcia, Alejandro Dorado ; Hansen, Rasmus Borup ; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl ; Bossers, Alex ; Ruppé, Etienne ; Lund, Ole ; Hald, Tine ; Pamp, Sünje Johanna ; Vigre, Håkan ; Heederik, Dick ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Graveland, Haitske ; Essen, Alieda van; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno ; Moyano, Gabriel ; Sanders, Pascal ; Chauvin, Claire ; David, Julie ; Battisti, Antonio ; Caprioli, Andrea ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Blaha, Thomas ; Wadepohl, Katharina ; Brandt, Maximiliane ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Skarzyńska, Magdalena ; Zajac, Magdalena ; Daskalov, Hristo ; Saatkamp, Helmut W. ; Stärk, Katharina D.C. - \ 2018
Nature Microbiology 3 (2018). - ISSN 2058-5276

In the version of this Article originally published, the surname of author Oksana Lukjancenko was spelt incorrectly as ‘Lukjacenko’. This has now been corrected.

Phenotypic trait variation measured on european genetic trials of fagus sylvatica L
Robson, Matthew T. ; Garzón, Marta Benito ; Miranda, Ricardo Alia ; Egido, Diana Barba ; Bogdan, Saša ; Borovics, Attila ; Božič, Gregor ; Brendel, Oliver ; Clark, Jo ; Vries, Sven M.G. de; Delehan, Ivan I. ; Ducousso, Alexis ; Fady, Bruno ; Fennessy, John ; Forstreuter, Manfred ; Frýdl, Josef ; Geburek, Thomas ; Gömöry, Dušan ; Hauke-Kowalska, Maria ; Huber, Gerhard ; Ibañez, Juan Ignacio ; Ioniţă, Lucia ; Ivankovič, Mladen ; Hansen, Jon Kehlet ; Kóczán-Horváth, Anikó ; Kraigher, Hojka ; Lee, Steve ; Liesebach, Mirko ; Mátyás, Csaba ; Mertens, Patrick ; Muhs, Hans Jakob ; Novotný, Petr ; Parnuţa, Gheorghe ; Paule, Ladislav ; Picardo, Alvaro ; Rasztovics, Ervin ; Rogge, Martin ; Stener, Lars Göran ; Sułkowska, Małgorzata ; Urban, Otmar ; Wuehlisch, Georg Von; Vendramin, Giovanni G. ; Vettori, Cristina ; Wesoły, Wojciech - \ 2018
Scientific Data 5 (2018). - ISSN 2052-4463
We present BeechCOSTe52; a database of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) phenotypic measurements for several traits related to fitness measured in genetic trials planted across Europe. The dataset was compiled and harmonized during the COST-Action E52 (2006-2010), and subsequently cross-validated to ensure consistency of measurement data among trials and provenances. Phenotypic traits (height, diameter at breast height, basal diameter, mortality, phenology of spring bud burst and autumn-leaf discoloration) were recorded in 38 trial sites where 217 provenances covering the entire distribution of European beech were established in two consecutive series (1993/95 and 1996/98). The recorded data refer to 862,095 measurements of the same trees aged from 2 to 15 years old over multiple years. This dataset captures the considerable genetic and phenotypic intra-specific variation present in European beech and should be of interest to researchers from several disciplines including quantitative genetics, ecology, biogeography, macroecology, adaptive management of forests and bioeconomy.
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