Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Using faecal glucocorticoid metabolites as a method for assessing physiological stress in reindeer
Meisfjord Jørgensen, Grete Helen ; Eilertsen, Svein Morten ; Hansen, Inger ; Hagen, Snorre B. ; Fløystad, Ida ; Palme, Rupert ; Ozkan-Gulzari, Seyda - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 53rd Congress of the ISAE. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863389 - p. 332 - 332.
Electronic monitoring in fisheries: Lessons from global experiences and future opportunities
Helmond, Aloysius T.M. ; Mortensen, Lars O. ; Plet‐hansen, Kristian S. ; Ulrich, Clara ; Needle, Coby L. ; Oesterwind, Daniel ; Kindt‐Larsen, Lotte ; Catchpole, Thomas ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, Christopher ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, Nick ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, Jørgen ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Peterson, Lisa ; Mcelderry, Howard ; Ruiz, Jon ; Pierre, Johanna P. ; Dykstra, Claude ; Poos, Jan Jaap - \ 2019
Fish and Fisheries (2019). - ISSN 1467-2960
catch documnetation - discard monitoring - electronic monitoring - fully documented fisheries - video-based monitoring
Since the beginning of the 21st century, electronic monitoring (EM) has emerged as a cost‐efficient supplement to existing catch monitoring programmes in fisheries. An EM system consists of various activity sensors and cameras positioned on vessels to remotely record fishing activity and catches. The first objective of this review was to describe the state of play of EM in fisheries worldwide and to present the insights gained on this technology based on 100 EM trials and 12 fully implemented programmes. Despite its advantages, and its global use for monitoring, progresses in implementation in some important fishing regions are slow. Within this context, the second objective was to discuss more specifically the European experiences gained through 16 trials. Findings show that the three major benefits of EM were as follows: (a) cost‐efficiency, (b) the potential to provide more representative coverage of the fleet than any observer programme and (c) the enhanced registration of fishing activity and location. Electronic monitoring can incentivize better compliance and discard
reduction, but the fishing managers and industry are often reluctant to its uptake. Improved understanding of the fisher's concerns, for example intrusion of privacy, liability and costs, and better exploration of EM benefits, for example increased traceability, sustainability claims and market access, may enhance implementation on a larger scale. In conclusion, EM as a monitoring tool embodies various solid strengths that are not diminished by its weaknesses. Electronic monitoring has the opportunity to be a powerful tool in the future monitoring of fisheries, particularly when integrated within existing monitoring programmes.
A relational perspective on women’s empowerment: Intimate partner violence and empowerment among women entrepreneurs in Vietnam
Huis, Marloes Anne ; Hansen, Nina ; Lensink, Robert ; Otten, Sabine - \ 2019
British journal of social psychology (2019). - ISSN 0144-6665
empowerment - financial intra-household decision-making - gender inequity - intimate partner violence - self-esteem - women

Research has mainly studied women’s empowerment assessing personal (e.g., self-esteem) or relational (e.g., decision-making) empowerment indicators. Women are not isolated individuals; they are embedded in social relationships. This is especially relevant in more collectivist societies. The current research provides a relational perspective on how husbands may hamper women’s empowerment by inflicting intimate partner violence (IPV) assessing women’s self-reported experience. We tested the link between self-esteem and experienced IPV on financial intra-household decision-making power among women entrepreneurs (N = 1,347) in Northern Vietnam, a collectivistic society undergoing economic development. We report two measurement points. As expected, self-esteem (and not IPV) was positively related to more power in intra-household decision-making on small expenditures, which are traditionally taken by women. However, IPV (and not self-esteem) was related to less decision-making power on larger expenditures, traditionally a domain outside women’s power. We test and discuss the directionality of the effects and stress the importance of considering women’s close relationship when investigating signs of women’s empowerment.

Associations between antimicrobial use and the faecal resistome on broiler farms from nine European countries
Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Gompel, Liese Van; Munk, Patrick ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Joosten, Philip ; Dorado-García, Alejandro ; Borup Hansen, Rasmus ; Knudsen, Berith E. ; Bossers, Alex ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Schmitt, Heike - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)9. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 2596 - 2604.

OBJECTIVES: To determine associations between farm- and flock-level antimicrobial usage (AMU), farm biosecurity status and the abundance of faecal antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) on broiler farms. METHODS: In the cross-sectional pan-European EFFORT study, conventional broiler farms were visited and faeces, AMU information and biosecurity records were collected. The resistomes of pooled faecal samples were determined by metagenomic analysis for 176 farms. A meta-analysis approach was used to relate total and class-specific ARGs (expressed as fragments per kb reference per million bacterial fragments, FPKM) to AMU (treatment incidence per DDD, TIDDDvet) per country and subsequently across all countries. In a similar way, the association between biosecurity status (Biocheck.UGent) and the resistome was explored. RESULTS: Sixty-six (38%) flocks did not report group treatments but showed a similar resistome composition and roughly similar ARG levels to antimicrobial-treated flocks. Nevertheless, we found significant positive associations between β-lactam, tetracycline, macrolide and lincosamide, trimethoprim and aminoglycoside antimicrobial flock treatments and ARG clusters conferring resistance to the same class. Similar associations were found with purchased products. In gene-level analysis for β-lactams and macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins, a significant positive association was found with the most abundant gene clusters blaTEM and erm(B). Little evidence was found for associations with biosecurity. CONCLUSIONS: The faecal microbiome in European broilers contains a high diversity of ARGs, even in the absence of current antimicrobial selection pressure. Despite this, the relative abundance of genes and the composition of the resistome is positively related to AMU in European broiler farms for several antimicrobial classes.

Patient’s characteristics and outcomes in necrotising soft-tissue infections: results from a Scandinavian, multicentre, prospective cohort study
Madsen, Martin Bruun ; Skrede, Steinar ; Perner, Anders ; Arnell, Per ; Nekludov, Michael ; Bruun, Trond ; Karlsson, Ylva ; Hansen, Marco Bo ; Polzik, Peter ; Hedetoft, Morten ; Rosén, Anders ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Bergey, François ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Norrby-teglund, Anna ; Hyldegaard, Ole - \ 2019
Intensive Care Medicine 45 (2019)9. - ISSN 0342-4642 - p. 1241 - 1251.
Purpose: Necrotising soft-tissue infections (NSTI) are characterised by necrosis, fast progression, and high rates of morbidity and mortality, but our knowledge is primarily derived from small prospective studies and retrospective studies. Methods: We performed an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study of adults with NSTI describing patient’s characteristics and associations between baseline variables and microbiological findings, amputation, and 90-day mortality. Results: We included 409 patients with NSTI; 402 were admitted to the ICU. Cardiovascular disease [169 patients (41%)] and diabetes [98 (24%)] were the most common comorbidities; 122 patients (30%) had no comorbidity. Before surgery, bruising of the skin [210 patients (51%)] and pain requiring opioids [172 (42%)] were common. The sites most commonly affected were the abdomen/ano-genital area [140 patients (34%)] and lower extremities [126 (31%)]. Monomicrobial infection was seen in 179 patients (44%). NSTI of the upper or lower extremities was associated with monomicrobial group A streptococcus (GAS) infection, and NSTI located to the abdomen/ano-genital area was associated with polymicrobial infection. Septic shock [202 patients (50%)] and acute kidney injury [82 (20%)] were common. Amputation occurred in 22% of patients with NSTI of an extremity and was associated with higher lactate level. All-cause 90-day mortality was 18% (95% CI 14–22); age and higher lactate levels were associated with increased mortality and GAS aetiology with decreased mortality. Conclusions: Patients with NSTI were heterogeneous regarding co-morbidities, initial symptoms, infectious localisation, and microbiological findings. Higher age and lactate levels were associated with increased mortality, and GAS infection with decreased mortality.
The impact of husbands' involvement in goal-setting training on women's empowerment : First evidence from an intervention among female microfinance borrowers in Sri Lanka
Huis, Marloes Anne ; Hansen, Nina ; Otten, Sabine ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2019
Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 29 (2019)4. - ISSN 1052-9284 - p. 336 - 351.
empowerment - goal setting - partner interaction - training - women

Offering women access to microcredit and business training is a prominent approach to stimulate women's empowerment. Whereas men seem to profit from business training, women do not. We adjusted a goal-setting training session on the basis of women's needs in collaboration with a women organization in Sri Lanka. We invited female microfinance borrowers and their husbands to the training as both parties should be involved to change existing gender roles with respect to their income-generating activity. We investigated the impact of the training on goal-setting skills, self-esteem, and the couples' interaction in a subsequent task. In two field experiments, female borrowers and their husbands (nstudy1 = 68; nstudy2 = 76) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) goal-setting training and setting goals as couple, (b) goal-setting training and setting goals individually, or (c) no training (control condition). Participation in the training increased women's SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time bound) goal-setting skills. We coded couples' interactions in a subsequent decision-making task to assess signs of women's empowerment. Descriptively, we found some initial evidence of increased women's empowerment in the interaction (Study 2). We critically discuss results and how gendered power imbalances may need to be addressed to stimulate social change towards gender equity.

Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability

Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.

Urban green infrastructure – connecting people and nature for sustainable cities
Pauleit, Stephan ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Jagt, Sander Van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 1 - 3.
Impacts of the Gender and Entrepreneurship Together Ahead (GET Ahead) training on empowerment of female microfinance borrowers in Northern Vietnam
Huis, Marloes ; Lensink, Robert ; Vu, Nhung ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2019
World Development 120 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 46 - 61.
Asia - GET Ahead training - Randomized controlled trial - Vietnam - Women empowerment

Across the world the Gender and Entrepreneurship Together (GET Ahead) training originally developed by the International Labour Organization has been implemented to improve business outcomes and enhance women's empowerment. This randomized controlled trial is the first rigorous attempt to examine the impact of the GET Ahead training on women's empowerment. We focus on the impact of offering this training to female microfinance borrowers of TYM, the largest microfinance organization in North Vietnam. A major contribution of this study is that it focuses on different dimensions of women's empowerment: (1) personal empowerment, measured by control beliefs, and (2) relational empowerment, measured by relational friction and intra-household decision making power. This study also stands out in that we explicitly study whether involving husbands affects the impact of the training. We find that the GET Ahead training improves women's empowerment on all three aspects: increased control beliefs and intra-household decision making power (only on larger expenditures), and decreased relational friction. However, the results on relational frictions should be taken with care due to possible underreporting. Moreover, in general, we find no additional impacts of inviting husbands to the training. Finally, our results suggest that it takes some time before the training starts to improve women's empowerment. We observe no short-term but only mid-term effects from before the training to 12 months after the training.

The antimicrobial resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and biosecurity in pig farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine European countries
Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Munk, Patrick ; Knudsen, Berith E. ; Hansen, Rasmus B. ; Bossers, Alex ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik J. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Heederik, Dick J.J. ; Dorado-García, Alejandro ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)4. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 865 - 876.

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies in food-producing animals have shown associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in specifically isolated bacterial species. Multi-country data are scarce and only describe between-country differences. Here we investigate associations between the pig faecal mobile resistome and characteristics at the farm-level across Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 conventional pig farms from nine European countries. Twenty-five faecal samples from fattening pigs were pooled per farm and acquired resistomes were determined using shotgun metagenomics and the Resfinder reference database, i.e. the full collection of horizontally acquired AMR genes (ARGs). Normalized fragments resistance genes per kilobase reference per million bacterial fragments (FPKM) were calculated. Specific farm-level data (AMU, biosecurity) were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed by country, relating farm-level data to relative ARG abundances (FPKM). RESULTS: Total AMU during fattening was positively associated with total ARG (total FPKM). Positive associations were particularly observed between widely used macrolides and tetracyclines, and ARGs corresponding to the respective antimicrobial classes. Significant AMU-ARG associations were not found for β-lactams and only few colistin ARGs were found, despite high use of these antimicrobial classes in younger pigs. Increased internal biosecurity was directly related to higher abundances of ARGs mainly encoding macrolide resistance. These effects of biosecurity were independent of AMU in mutually adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Using resistome data in association studies is unprecedented and adds accuracy and new insights to previously observed AMU-AMR associations. Major components of the pig resistome are positively and independently associated with on-farm AMU and biosecurity conditions.

A flexible semi-empirical model for estimating ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry
Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Carozzi, Marco ; Chantigny, Martin ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Kupper, Thomas ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2019
Atmospheric Environment 199 (2019). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 474 - 484.
This work describes a semi-empirical dynamic model for predicting ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry. Total volatilization is the sum of first-order transfer from two pools: a "fast" pool representing slurry in direct contact with the atmosphere, and a “slow” one representing fractions less available for emission due to infiltration or other processes. This simple structure is sufficient for reproducing the characteristic course of emission over time. Values for parameters that quantify effects of the following predictor variables on partitioning and transfer rates were estimated from a large data set of emission from cattle and pig slurry (490 field plots in 6 countries from the ALFAM2 database): slurry dry matter, application method, application rate, incorporation (shallow or deep), air temperature, wind speed, and rainfall rate. The effects of acidification were estimated using a smaller dataset. Model predictions generally matched the measured course of emission over time in a reserved data subset used for evaluation, although the model over- or under-estimated emission for many individual plots. Mean error was ca. 12% of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (and as much as 82% of measured emission) for 72 h cumulative emission, and model efficiency (fraction of observed variation explained by the model) was 0.5–0.7. Most of the explanatory power of the model was related to application method. The magnitude and sign of (apparent) model error varied among countries, highlighting the need to understand why measured emission varies among locations. The new model may be a useful tool for predicting fertilizer efficiency of field-applied slurries, assessing emission factors, and quantifying the impact of mitigation. The model can readily be applied or extended, and is available as an R package (ALFAM2, https://github.com/sashahafner/ALFAM2) or a simple spreadsheet (http://www.alfam.dk).
Tools and Technologies for the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Unwanted Catches
James, Kelly M. ; Campbell, Neill ; Viðarsson, Jónas R. ; Vilas, Carlos ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian S. ; Borges, Lisa ; González, Óscar ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I. ; Antelo, Luis Taboada ; Pérez-Bouzada, Jorge ; Ulrich, Clara - \ 2019
In: The European Landing Obligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030033071 - p. 363 - 382.
A key requirement for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation is the need to monitor and regulate unwanted catches at sea. This issue is
particularly challenging because of the large number of vessels and trips that need to be monitored and the remoteness of vessels at sea. Several options exist in theory, ranging from patrol vessels to onboard observers and self-sampling. Increasingly though, technology is developing to provide remote Electronic Monitoring (EM) with cameras at lower costs. This chapter first provides an overall synthesis of the pro’s and con’s of several monitoring tools and technologies. Four EM technologies already trialled in EU fisheries are then summarised. We conclude that it is now possible to conduct reliable and cost-effective monitoring of unwanted catches at sea, especially if various options are used in combination. However, effective monitoring is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation but insufficient unless it is implemented with a high level of coverage and with the support of the fishing industry.
Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 4 - 16.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Mosaic governance for urban green infrastructure: Upscaling active citizenship from a local government perspective
Buijs, Arjen ; Hansen, Rieke ; Jagt, Sander Van Der; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Elands, Birgit ; Lorance Rall, Emily ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Pauleit, Stephan ; Runhaar, Hens ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Steen Møller, Maja - \ 2019
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 40 (2019). - ISSN 1618-8667 - p. 53 - 62.
Compact urban development, social demands and austerity measures are increasing pressures on urban greenspace. Meanwhile, active citizens, defined as voluntary individuals or groups who self-organize to contribute to urban green space development, provide ecological and social benefits to urban societies. This has inspired local governments to seek collaborations with non-state actors, including active citizens. However, the diverging aims, place-specific focus, and varying expertise of active citizenship may inhibit its contribution to ecological connectivity and upscaling beyond the local scale.
In this paper, we investigate how “mosaic governance” has potential as a framework for understanding active citizenship, its potential for upscaling and its relationship to strategic UGI planning. Using the policy arrangements approach, we analyse the role of discourse, resources, actors and rules of the game in the upscaling of active citizenship. Based on eight empirical cases from seven European cities, we analyse the diversity of collaborations between local governments and active citizens in greenspace development.
The cases show how active citizens can significantly contribute to UGI planning and implementation, for example by developing large parks with volunteers or designing a network of green corridors. The cases reveal multiple ways citizens and local governments benefit from collaborations, as well as different pathways for upscaling innovative discourses and practices from local communities to formal policy or to other cities. To enable upscaling, UGI planning needs to combine long-term, more formalized and higher-scale strategic approaches with more incremental approaches that correspond with localized, fragmented and informal efforts of local communities. While collaborations between municipalities and active citizenship is not without its difficulties, the examples of upscaling in our cases demonstrate the transformative power active citizens may have towards a more green, just and democratic city.
European experiences on the use of remote electronic monitoring
Mortensen, L. ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Ulrich, C. ; Needle, C. ; Oesterwind, D. ; Kindt-Larsen, L. ; Catchpole, T. ; Mangi, Stephen ; Zimmermann, C. ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Bailey, N. ; Bergsson, Heidrikur ; Dalskov, J. ; Elson, Jon ; Hosken, Malo ; Poos, J.J. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Development of benthic imta systems by coupling polychaete production to salmon farming: system development, nutrient dynamics and risk of medicine residues
Jansen, H.M. ; Fang, Jinghui ; Nederlof, M.A.J. ; Brennan, Natalie ; Hansen, Pia Kupka ; Samuelsen, Ole ; Strand, Olivind - \ 2018
- 2 p.
Study on the approaches to management for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries : DRuMFISH : final report - Study
Poos, J.J. ; Oliveira, José De; Ulrich, C. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Mildenberger, Tobias ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Minto, Coilín ; Pawlowski, Lionel ; Robert, Marianne ; Macher, Claire ; Merzereaud, Mathieu ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Ibaibarriaga, L. ; Bertignac, Michel ; Vermard, Youen ; Fischer, Simon ; Carpi, Piera ; Walker, Nicola ; Earl, Timothy ; Davie, Sarah ; Haslob, Holger ; Kempf, A. ; Taylor, Marc ; Martin, Paloma ; Maynou, Francesc ; Recasens, Laura ; Ramirez, John Gabriel ; Lleonart, Jordi ; Garriga, Mariona ; Tserpes, George ; Sgardeli, Viki ; Coro, Gianpolo ; Scarcella, Giuseppe ; Angelini, Silvia - \ 2018
EU - ISBN 9789292024062 - 84 p.
This is the final report of the European Commission funded research project "DRuMFISH" (service contract n° EASME/EMFF/2014/l.3.2.4/ SI2.721116). The main aim of the project was to develop models and strategies for providing advice for mixed fisheries that account for: (i) fishing mortality ranges consistent with MSY, (ii) all fish caught being landed, and (iii) significant components of the marine fish ecosystem lacking key biological information. In order to meet this aim, DRuMFISH delivered a review of assessment approaches for data-poor stocks, extended mixed fisheries simulation frameworks to include data-poor stocks. The assessment approaches and simulation frameworks were implemented in 7 case studies. These case studies were mixed fisheries in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Western Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Within the case studies, 35 data-poor stock assessments were done. These assessments provided exploitation status of data-poor stocks. Different harvest control rules were subsequently tested for their expected yields and stock biomasses from the mixed fisheries in the simulation frameworks. Now that data-poor stocks can be incorporated with in the mixed fisheries simulation frameworks, the design of new management plans can account for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries.
PREVIEW study—Influence of a behavior modification intervention (PREMIT) in over 2300 people with pre-diabetes : Intention, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies during the early phase of a lifestyle intervention
Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Hansen, Sylvia ; Christensen, Pia ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Sandø-Pedersen, Finn ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Adam, Tanja C. ; Macdonald, Ian A. ; Taylor, Moira A. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Navas-Carretero, Santiago ; Handjiev, Svetoslav ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Silvestre, Marta P. ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
Psychology Research and Behavior Management 11 (2018). - ISSN 1179-1578 - p. 383 - 394.
Cognition - Diabetes mellitus - Goals - Habits - Weight loss

Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of ≥ 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni-and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss (“achievers”) and those who did not (“non-achievers”). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between “achievers” (1,857) and “non-achievers” (163) were found. “Non-achievers” tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, “achievers” reported higher intentions (healthy eating χ2 (1)=2.57; P <0.008, exercising χ2 (1)=0.66; P <0.008), self-efficacy (F(2; 1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F(4; 1968)=11.22, P <0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the “new” behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.

Assessment of impact of traffic-related air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Copenhagen Municipality and the health gain of reduced exposure
Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik ; Bender, Anne Mette ; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana ; Sørensen, Jan ; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort ; Boshuizen, Hendriek ; Becker, Thomas ; Diderichsen, Finn ; Loft, Steffen - \ 2018
Environment International 121 (2018). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 973 - 980.
Air pollution - Disease modelling - Effect modelling - Health impact assessment - Prevention

Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) of exposure to air pollution is commonly based on city level (fine) particle concentration and may underestimate health consequences of changing local traffic. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution can be assessed at a high resolution by modelling levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which together with ultrafine particles mainly originate from diesel-powered vehicles in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to estimate the health benefits of reduced exposure to vehicle emissions assessed as NO2 at the residence among the citizens of Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. Methods: We utilized residential NO2 concentrations modelled by use of chemistry transport models to calculate contributions from emission sources to air pollution. The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen Municipality by using NO2 concentration estimates combined with demographic data and data from nationwide registers on incidence and prevalence of selected diseases, cause specific mortality, and total mortality of the population of Copenhagen. We used exposure-response functions linking NO2 concentration estimates at the residential address with the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases derived from a large Danish cohort study with the majority of subjects residing in Copenhagen between 1971 and 2010. Different scenarios were modelled to estimate the dynamic impact of NO2 exposure on related diseases and the potential health benefits of lowering the NO2 level in the Copenhagen Municipality. Results: The annual mean NO2 concentration was 19.6 μg/m3 and for 70% of the population the range of exposure was between 15 and 21 μg/m3. If NO2 exposure was reduced to the annual mean rural level of 6 μg/m3, life expectancy in 2040 would increase by one year. The greatest gain in disease-free life expectancy would be lifetime without ischemic heart disease (1.4 years), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.5 years for men and 1.6 years for women), and asthma (1.3 years for men and 1.5 years for women). Lowering NO2 exposure by 20% would increase disease-free life expectancy for the different diseases by 0.3–0.5 years. Using gender specific relative risks affected the results. Conclusions: Reducing the NO2 exposure by controlling traffic-related air pollution reduces the occurrence of some of the most prevalent chronic diseases and increases life expectancy. Such health benefits can be quantified by DYNAMO-HIA in a high resolution exposure modelling. This paper demonstrates how traffic planners can assess health benefits from reduced levels of traffic-related air pollution.

Lignin Based Functional Additives for Natural Rubber
Barana, Davide ; Orlandi, Marco ; Zoia, Luca ; Castellani, Luca ; Hanel, Thomas ; Bolck, Christiaan ; Gosselink, Richard - \ 2018
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 6 (2018)9. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 11843 - 11852.
Chemical modification - Fractionation - Lignin valorization - Natural rubber - Solubility parameters

In this work, the possibility to conveniently exploit lignin as a functional additive for natural rubber was pursued following two strategies. The first was based on the fractionation of lignin: extraction with organic solvents is suitable to produce lignin fractions with better defined structural features, molecular weight distributions, and physicochemical properties. The second approach was based on the chemical modification of lignin in the attempt to overcome its poor affinity with the rubber: esterification with anhydrides was selected to modify relatively large samples of lignin at laboratory scale. The effectiveness of different modifications of lignin as a drop-in replacement for carbon black was evaluated analyzing the tensile mechanical properties of model elastomeric compounds. In addition, the behavior of the modified lignins was rationalized through Hansen solubility parameters predicted with the group-contribution method.

Demographic and Social-Cognitive Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Overweight, Pre-diabetic Participants of the PREVIEW Study
Hansen, Sylvia ; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Sluik, Diewertje ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora ; Macdonald, Ian ; Martinez, Alfredo J. ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Poppitt, Sally ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 25 (2018)6. - ISSN 1070-5503 - p. 682 - 692.
Behavioral determination - Lifestyle intervention - Social-cognitive factors - Weight loss

Purpose: Weight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes. Method: Prospective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss. Results: Overall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss. Conclusion: The results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.

Author Correction: Abundance and diversity of the faecal resistome in slaughter pigs and broilers in nine European countries
Munk, Patrick ; Knudsen, Berith Elkær ; Lukjancenko, Oksana ; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro ; Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Garcia, Alejandro Dorado ; Hansen, Rasmus Borup ; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl ; Bossers, Alex ; Ruppé, Etienne ; Lund, Ole ; Hald, Tine ; Pamp, Sünje Johanna ; Vigre, Håkan ; Heederik, Dick ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik ; Aarestrup, Frank M. ; Graveland, Haitske ; Essen, Alieda van; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno ; Moyano, Gabriel ; Sanders, Pascal ; Chauvin, Claire ; David, Julie ; Battisti, Antonio ; Caprioli, Andrea ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Blaha, Thomas ; Wadepohl, Katharina ; Brandt, Maximiliane ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Skarzyńska, Magdalena ; Zajac, Magdalena ; Daskalov, Hristo ; Saatkamp, Helmut W. ; Stärk, Katharina D.C. - \ 2018
Nature Microbiology 3 (2018). - ISSN 2058-5276

In the version of this Article originally published, the surname of author Oksana Lukjancenko was spelt incorrectly as ‘Lukjacenko’. This has now been corrected.

Phenotypic trait variation measured on european genetic trials of fagus sylvatica L
Robson, Matthew T. ; Garzón, Marta Benito ; Miranda, Ricardo Alia ; Egido, Diana Barba ; Bogdan, Saša ; Borovics, Attila ; Božič, Gregor ; Brendel, Oliver ; Clark, Jo ; Vries, Sven M.G. de; Delehan, Ivan I. ; Ducousso, Alexis ; Fady, Bruno ; Fennessy, John ; Forstreuter, Manfred ; Frýdl, Josef ; Geburek, Thomas ; Gömöry, Dušan ; Hauke-Kowalska, Maria ; Huber, Gerhard ; Ibañez, Juan Ignacio ; Ioniţă, Lucia ; Ivankovič, Mladen ; Hansen, Jon Kehlet ; Kóczán-Horváth, Anikó ; Kraigher, Hojka ; Lee, Steve ; Liesebach, Mirko ; Mátyás, Csaba ; Mertens, Patrick ; Muhs, Hans Jakob ; Novotný, Petr ; Parnuţa, Gheorghe ; Paule, Ladislav ; Picardo, Alvaro ; Rasztovics, Ervin ; Rogge, Martin ; Stener, Lars Göran ; Sułkowska, Małgorzata ; Urban, Otmar ; Wuehlisch, Georg Von; Vendramin, Giovanni G. ; Vettori, Cristina ; Wesoły, Wojciech - \ 2018
Scientific Data 5 (2018). - ISSN 2052-4463
We present BeechCOSTe52; a database of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) phenotypic measurements for several traits related to fitness measured in genetic trials planted across Europe. The dataset was compiled and harmonized during the COST-Action E52 (2006-2010), and subsequently cross-validated to ensure consistency of measurement data among trials and provenances. Phenotypic traits (height, diameter at breast height, basal diameter, mortality, phenology of spring bud burst and autumn-leaf discoloration) were recorded in 38 trial sites where 217 provenances covering the entire distribution of European beech were established in two consecutive series (1993/95 and 1996/98). The recorded data refer to 862,095 measurements of the same trees aged from 2 to 15 years old over multiple years. This dataset captures the considerable genetic and phenotypic intra-specific variation present in European beech and should be of interest to researchers from several disciplines including quantitative genetics, ecology, biogeography, macroecology, adaptive management of forests and bioeconomy.
Forest Landscape Hydrology in a ‘New Normal’ Era of Climate and Land Use Change
Jones, Julia A. ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Noordwijk, M. van; Creed, Irena F. ; Gush, Mark ; Ellison, David ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Bishop, Kevin ; McNulty, Steven ; BarguésTobella, Aida ; Archer, E. ; Bruijnzeel, L.A. ; Duinker, P. ; Foster, David ; Gebrekirstos, Aster ; Giles-Hansen, Krysta ; Hacket-Pain, Andrew ; Harper, Richard J. ; Ilstedt, Ulrik ; Li, Qiang ; Liao, Yingchun ; Malmer, Anders ; Mwangi, Hosea ; Orland, Chloé ; Steenberg, James ; Wang, Yi ; Worthy, Fiona ; Xu, Jianchu ; Zhang, Mingfang - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 81 - 99.
Abundance and diversity of the faecal resistome in slaughter pigs and broilers in nine European countries
Munk, Patrick ; Knudsen, Berith Elkær ; Lukjacenko, Oksana ; Duarte, Ana Sofia Ribeiro ; Gompel, Liese Van; Luiken, Roosmarijn E.C. ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Schmitt, Heike ; Garcia, Alejandro Dorado ; Hansen, Rasmus Borup ; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl ; Bossers, Alex ; Ruppé, Etienne ; Graveland, Haitske ; Essen, Alieda van; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno ; Moyano, Gabriel ; Sanders, Pascal ; Chauvin, Claire ; David, Julie ; Battisti, Antonio ; Caprioli, Andrea ; Dewulf, Jeroen ; Blaha, Thomas ; Wadepohl, Katharina ; Brandt, Maximiliane ; Wasyl, Dariusz ; Skarzyńska, Magdalena ; Zajac, Magdalena ; Daskalov, Hristo ; Saatkamp, Helmut W. ; Stärk, Katharina D.C. ; Lund, Ole ; Hald, Tine ; Pamp, Sünje Johanna ; Vigre, Håkan ; Heederik, Dick ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik ; Aarestrup, Frank M. - \ 2018
Nature Microbiology 3 (2018)8. - ISSN 2058-5276 - p. 898 - 908.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and associated human morbidity and mortality is increasing. The use of antimicrobials in livestock selects for AMR that can subsequently be transferred to humans. This flow of AMR between reservoirs demands surveillance in livestock and in humans. We quantified and characterized the acquired resistance gene pools (resistomes) of 181 pig and 178 poultry farms from nine European countries, sequencing more than 5,000 Gb of DNA using shotgun metagenomics. We quantified acquired AMR using the ResFinder database and a second database constructed for this study, consisting of AMR genes identified through screening environmental DNA. The pig and poultry resistomes were very different in abundance and composition. There was a significant country effect on the resistomes, more so in pigs than in poultry. We found higher AMR loads in pigs, whereas poultry resistomes were more diverse. We detected several recently described, critical AMR genes, including mcr-1 and optrA, the abundance of which differed both between host species and between countries. We found that the total acquired AMR level was associated with the overall country-specific antimicrobial usage in livestock and that countries with comparable usage patterns had similar resistomes. However, functionally determined AMR genes were not associated with total drug use.

Circadian misalignment induces fatty acid metabolism gene profiles and induces insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle
Wefers, Jakob ; Moorsel, Dirk van; Hansen, Jan ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Kersten, A.H. ; Schrauwen, Patrick - \ 2018
GSE106800 - Homo sapiens - PRJNA418092
Circadian misalignment, such as in shift work, has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, however, direct effects of circadian misalignment on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and muscle molecular circadian clock have never been investigated in humans. Here we investigated insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism in fourteen healthy young lean men (age 22.4 ± 2.8 years; BMI 22.3 ± 2.1 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) after a 3-day control protocol and a 3.5-day misalignment protocol induced by a 12-h rapid shift of the behavioral cycle. We show that circadian misalignment results in a significant decrease in peripheral insulin sensitivity due to a reduced skeletal muscle non-oxidative glucose disposal (Rate of disappearance: 23.7 ± 2.4 vs. 18.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg/min; control vs. misalignment; p=0.024). Fasting glucose and FFA levels as well as sleeping metabolic rate were higher during circadian misalignment. Molecular analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies revealed that the molecular circadian clock was not aligned to the new behavourial rhythm, and microarray analysis revealed the human PPAR pathway as a key player in the disturbed energy metabolism upon circadian misallignement. Our findings may provide a mechanism underlying the increased risk of type 2 diabetes among shift workers.
Circadian misalignment induces fatty acid metabolism gene profiles and compromises insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle
Wefers, Jakob ; Moorsel, Dirk van; Hansen, Jan ; Connell, Niels J. ; Havekes, Bas ; Hoeks, Joris ; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D. van; Duez, Hélène ; Phielix, Esther ; Kalsbeek, Andries ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Hooiveld, Guido J. ; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C. ; Kersten, Sander ; Staels, Bart ; Scheer, Frank A.J.L. ; Schrauwen, Patrick - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)30. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 7789 - 7794.
Circadian misalignment, such as in shift work, has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, direct effects of circadian misalignment on skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and the muscle molecular circadian clock have never been studied in humans. Here, we investigated insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism in 14 healthy young lean men [age 22.4 ± 2.8 years; body mass index (BMI) 22.3 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] after a 3-d control protocol and a 3.5-d misalignment protocol induced by a 12-h rapid shift of the behavioral cycle. We show that short-term circadian misalignment results in a significant decrease in muscle insulin sensitivity due to a reduced skeletal muscle nonoxidative glucose disposal (rate of disappearance: 23.7 ± 2.4 vs. 18.4 ± 1.4 mg/kg per minute; control vs. misalignment; P = 0.024). Fasting glucose and free fatty acid levels as well as sleeping metabolic rate were higher during circadian misalignment. Molecular analysis of skeletal muscle biopsies revealed that the molecular circadian clock was not aligned to the inverted behavioral cycle, and transcriptome analysis revealed the human PPAR pathway as a key player in the disturbed energy metabolism upon circadian misalignment. Our findings may provide a mechanism underlying the increased risk of type 2 diabetes among shift workers.
The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure : Description and illustrative analysis
Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Burchill, William ; Bussink, Wim ; Chantigny, Martin ; Carozzi, Marco ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Hunt, Derek ; Kupper, Thomas ; Lanigan, Gary ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Meisinger, John J. ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Pedersen, Simon V. ; Sintermann, Jörg ; Thompson, Rodney B. ; Vermeulen, Bert ; Voylokov, Polina ; Williams, John R. ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2018
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 66 - 79.
Ammonia - Cattle - Emission - Manure - Pig - Slurry
Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has been measured in many studies over the past few decades. In this work, we facilitate the use of these data by collecting and organizing them in the ALFAM2 database. In this paper we describe the development of the database and summarise its contents, quantify effects of application methods and other variables on emission using a data subset, and discuss challenges for data analysis and model development. The database contains measurements of emission, manure and soil properties, weather, application technique, and other variables for 1895 plots from 22 research institutes in 12 countries. Data on five manure types (cattle, pig, mink, poultry, mixed, as well as sludge and "other") applied to three types of crops (grass, small grains, maize, as well as stubble and bare soil) are included. Application methods represented in the database include broadcast, trailing hose, trailing shoe (narrow band application), and open slot injection. Cattle manure application to grassland was the most common combination, and analysis of this subset (with dry matter (DM) limited to <15%) was carried out using mixed- and fixed-effects models in order to quantify effects of management and environment on ammonia emission, and to highlight challenges for use of the database. Measured emission in this subset ranged from <1% to 130% of applied ammonia after 48 h. Results showed clear, albeit variable, reductions in NH3 emission due to trailing hose, trailing shoe, and open slot injection of slurry compared to broadcast application. There was evidence of positive effects of air temperature and wind speed on NH3 emission, and limited evidence of effects of slurry DM. However, random-effects coefficients for differences among research institutes were among the largest model coefficients, and showed a deviation from the mean response by more than 100% in some cases. The source of these institute differences could not be determined with certainty, but there is some evidence that they are related to differences in soils, or differences in application or measurement methods. The ALFAM2 database should be useful for development and evaluation of both emission factors and emission models, but users need to recognize the limitations caused by confounding variables, imbalance in the dataset, and dependence among observations from the same institute. Variation among measurements and in reported variables highlights the importance of international agreement on how NH3 emission should be measured, along with necessary types of supporting data and standard protocols for their measurement. Both are needed in order to produce more accurate and useful ammonia emission measurements. Expansion of the ALFAM2 database will continue, and readers are invited to contact the corresponding author for information on data submission. The latest version of the database is available at http://www.alfam.dk.
Sustainability transitions in developing countries : Stocktaking, new contributions and a research agenda
Hansen, Ulrich Elmer ; Nygaard, Ivan ; Romijn, Henny ; Wieczorek, Anna ; Kamp, Linda M. ; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 84 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 198 - 203.
Developing countries - Geography of transitions - Inclusive development - Inclusive innovation - Niche development - Socio-technical regimes - Sustainability transitions
An increasing number of studies have analysed the scope for, and the barriers to, transitions toward sustainability in the context of developing countries building on analytical perspectives from the sustainability transitions literature. This paper introduces a special issue on sustainability transitions in developing countries, which takes stock of this emerging field of research and presents new empirical research that contributes to further advancement of our understanding of the conditions in which sustainability transitions are likely to take place in developing countries and what is involved in these transformative processes. This introductory paper presents the five papers contained in the special issue. The first paper comprises a review of the existing literature on the subject, and the other four papers present new empirical research. The key findings of the papers are discussed in relation to previous research in the field specifically related to four crosscutting themes: (i) global-local linkages and external dependencies; (ii) stability and non-stability of regimes; (iii) undemocratic and non-egalitarian nature of regimes; and (iv) nurturing the development of niches versus the execution of individual projects. The introductory paper concludes by presenting a research agenda, which aims to provide promising avenues for future research on sustainability transitions in developing countries.
Accounting for access costs in validation of soil maps : A comparison of design-based sampling strategies
Yang, Lin ; Brus, Dick J. ; Zhu, A.X. ; Li, Xinming ; Shi, Jingjing - \ 2018
Geoderma 315 (2018). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 160 - 169.
Digital soil mapping - Mean squared error - Optimal stratification - Probability sampling - Sampling with probabilities-proportional-to-size - Stratified random sampling
The quality of soil maps can best be estimated by collecting additional data at locations selected by probability sampling. These data can be used in design-based estimation of map quality measures such as the population mean of the squared prediction errors (MSE) for continuous soil maps and overall accuracy for categorical soil maps. In areas with large differences in access costs it can be attractive to account for these differences in selecting validation locations. In this paper two types of sampling design are compared that take access costs into account: sampling with probabilities proportional to size (pps) and stratified simple random sampling (STSI). In pps the inverse of the square root of the access costs is used as a size variable. Two estimators of MSE are applied, the Hansen-Hurwitz and Hajek estimator. In STSI optimal strata are constructed based on access costs. Simple random sampling (SI) is taken as a reference design. The sampling strategies were compared on the basis of: 1) the variance of the estimated MSE; 2) the variance of the total pointwise access costs; 3) the 95-percentile of the sampling distribution of the total access costs. The comparison was done at equal expected total pointwise access costs. The sampling strategies were compared in a simulation study and a real-world case study in Anhui, China. In the case study car travel and hiking costs were considered in computing access costs per point. The results showed that the variance of estimated MSE with pps(Hansen-Hurwitz) was larger than with pps(Hajek) and STSI. The variances of estimated MSE of pps(Hajek) and STSI were about equal and smaller than that of SI. The gain in precision compared to SI depends on the cost distribution. The larger the coefficient of variation of the costs, the larger the gain. The 95 percentile of the sampling distribution of the total pointwise access costs with STSI was smaller than with pps and SI. The gain in precision of pps(Hajek) and STSI was about 30% accounting for hiking costs only, and about 10% accounting for the sum of car travel and hiking costs in the case study. The proposed sampling strategies are of interest for surveying any soil property in areas with marked differences in access costs, not just for validation of soil maps.
The ATLAS school-based health promotion programme : Does a need-supportive learning context help to motivate adolescent boys?
Dongen, Bonnie van; Finn, Tara ; Hansen, Vibeke ; Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Lubans, David ; Dally, Kerry - \ 2018
European Physical Education Review 24 (2018)3. - ISSN 1356-336X - p. 330 - 348.
Adolescent boys living in disadvantaged communities are considered a vulnerable group at risk for developing obesity and associated health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type-2 diabetes. While short-term health promotion programmes often produce effective results during the implementation of the intervention, according to self-determination theory (SDT), changes in autonomous motivation are required if programmes are to have sustained effects on health behaviours. This article describes the ATLAS (Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time) programme, based on SDT, which was developed to engage adolescent boys from low socio-economic backgrounds in physical activity, reduce their consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and limit recreational screen-time. The article reports a post-hoc analysis of the perceptions and experiences of a representative group of ATLAS participants to investigate whether the boys’ general impressions of the programme reflected the need-supportive teaching strategies on which the programme was based. The results of this analysis suggested that students’ comments about increased feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness were often linked to corresponding need-supportive teacher behaviours. The findings suggest that embedding health promotion programmes in a need-supportive context can help to foster the motivation and self-regulation that is required to maintain newly adopted healthier behaviours.
Terrestrial invertebrate biomonitoring through environmental DNA metabarcoding
Qin, J. ; Groot, G.A. de; Frøslev, T.G. ; Schmelz, R. ; Petráková, L. ; Gravesen, E. ; Dall’Olio, L.R. ; Hansen, L.H. ; Hansen, A.J. ; Krogh, P.H. - \ 2017
Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Denmark
Dalgaard, Tommy ; Brock, S. ; Graversgaard, Morten ; Hansen, Brigitte ; Hashemi, F. ; Häsler, B. ; Hertel, O. ; Hutchings, N.J. ; Jacobsen, B.H. ; Stoumann Jensen, L. ; Kjeldsen, Chris ; Olesen, J.E. ; Schjorring, J.K. ; Sigsgaard, T. ; Stubkjaer Andersen, P. ; Termansen, Mette ; Vejre, H. ; Vestergaard Odgaard, M. ; Vries, W. de; Wiborg, I.A. - \ 2017
In: Innovative solutions for sustainable management of nitrogen. - Aarhus University and the dNmark.org Research Alliance - ISBN 9788793398825 - p. 13 - 16.
Innovative solutions for sustainable management of nitrogen : Conference proceedings
Dalgaard, Tommy ; Olesen, J.E. ; Schjorring, J.K. ; Jensen, J.S. ; Vejre, H. ; Andersen, P.S. ; Gundersen, P. ; Jacobsen, B.H. ; Jensen, J. ; Häsler, B. ; Termansen, Mette ; Hertel, O. ; Brock, S. ; Kronvang, B. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Sigsgaard, T. ; Hansen, B. ; Thorling, L. ; Højberg, A.L. ; Wiborg, I.A. ; Piil, K. ; Kjeldsen, Chris ; Graversgaard, Morten ; Hutchings, N. ; Vries, W. de; Christensen, J. ; Mukendi, T. - \ 2017
- 142 p.
The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda
Supanantaroek, Suthinee ; Lensink, Robert ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2017
Evaluation Review 41 (2017)6. - ISSN 0193-841X - p. 511 - 541.
attitudes - children - financial literacy - intervention - saving and spending - social and financial education - training
Background: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and behavior early in life. Objectives: This study is one of the first that examines the effects of social and financial education training and a children’s club developed by Aflatoun on savings attitudes and behavior among primary school children in Uganda, besides Berry, Karlan, and Pradhan. Research design: A randomized phase in approach was used by randomizing the order in which schools implemented the program (school-level randomization). The treatment group consisted of students in schools where the program was implemented, while in the control group the program was not yet implemented. The program lasted 3 months including 16 hours. We compared posttreatment variables for the treatment and control group. Subjects: Study participants included 1,746 students, of which 936 students were from 22 schools that were randomly assigned to receive the program between May and July 2011; the remaining 810 students attended 22 schools that did not implement the program during the study period. Measures: Indicators for children’s savings attitudes and behavior were key outcomes. Results: The intervention increased awareness of money, money recording, and savings attitudes. It also provides some evidence—although less robust—that the intervention increased actual savings. Conclusions: A short financial literacy and social training can improve savings attitudes and behavior of children considerably.
First record of Harmothoe aspera (Hansen, 1879) (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) in the Dutch North Sea
Spierings, Martijn ; Dias, Inês Maia ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Weide, Babeth Van Der; Cuperus, Joël - \ 2017
Marine Biodiversity Records 10 (2017)1. - ISSN 1755-2672 - 4 p.
Harmothoe - Harmothoe aspera - Polynoidae - North Sea - Gas platform - Distribution
Harmothoe aspera has been recorded in surveys off the Strait of Georgia, the Skagerrak, and the Barents, Mediterranean and Japanese sea. The recorded depth ranged from circa 48 m to circa 1500 m. This is the first report of H. aspera in the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and the first report in a depth range between
15 and 20 m.
A three-dimensional model of women's empowerment : Implications in the field of microfinance and future directions
Huis, Marloes A. ; Hansen, Nina ; Otten, Sabine ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2017
Frontiers in Psychology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-1078
Agency - Culture - Efficacy - Empowerment - Gender relations - Microfinance - Women

Women's empowerment is an important goal in achieving sustainable development worldwide. Offering access to microfinance services to women is one way to increase women's empowerment. However, empirical evidence provides mixed results with respect to its effectiveness. We reviewed previous research on the impact of microfinance services on different aspects of women's empowerment. We propose a Three-Dimensional Model of Women's Empowerment to integrate previous findings and to gain a deeper understanding of women's empowerment in the field of microfinance services. This model proposes that women's empowerment can take place on three distinct dimensions: (1) the micro-level, referring to an individuals' personal beliefs as well as actions, where personal empowerment can be observed (2) the meso-level, referring to beliefs as well as actions in relation to relevant others, where relational empowerment can be observed and (3) the macro-level, referring to outcomes in the broader, societal context where societal empowerment can be observed. Importantly, we propose that time and culture are important factors that influence women's empowerment. We suggest that the time lag between an intervention and its evaluation may influence when empowerment effects on the different dimensions occur and that the type of intervention influences the sequence in which the three dimensions can be observed. We suggest that cultures may differ with respect to which components of empowerment are considered indicators of empowerment and how women's position in society may influence the development of women's empowerment. We propose that a Three-Dimensional Model of Women's Empowerment should guide future programs in designing, implementing, and evaluating their interventions. As such our analysis offers two main practical implications. First, based on the model we suggest that future research should differentiate between the three dimensions of women's empowerment to increase our understanding of women's empowerment and to facilitate comparisons of results across studies and cultures. Second, we suggest that program designers should specify how an intervention should stimulate which dimension(s) of women's empowerment. We hope that this model inspires longitudinal and cross-cultural research to examine the development of women's empowerment on the personal, relational, and societal dimension.

Can minor, easily applied alterations of routines during the rearing period reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens?
Brantsæter, Margrethe ; Tahamtani, Fernanda M. ; Nordgreen, J. ; Sandberg, Ellen ; Hansen, Tone Beate ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Oppermann Moe, Randi ; Janczak, A.M. - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 51st Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 7-10 August 2017, Aarhus, Denmark. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863112 - p. 198 - 198.
animal welfare - animal behaviour
Exaggerated fear-reactions are associated with injuries, smothering, feather pecking and other events that compromise laying hen welfare. Provision of litter during the rearing period may reduce fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chicks with access to litter during the first five weeks of life would be less fearful as adults compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in 23 commercial aviary layer flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. During the first five weeks of life, paper substrate, on which food and other particles could accumulate, covered the wire mesh floor in the treatment group, whereas the control group was reared on bare wire mesh. The egg producers were instructed to follow their normal management procedures. At 30 weeks of age, 23 layer flocks (11 control flocks and 12 paper reared flocks) were visited. A stationary person test and a novel object test were conducted to test fearfulness of the adult hens. In addition, data on provision of environmental enrichment was collected as a binary yes/no variable. Provision of environmental enrichment to adult birds tended to reduce the latency to approach within 2 m of the stationary person (P=0.08). For birds without environmental enrichment as adults, access to litter during rearing increased the number of birds that approached the novel object compared with birds reared without paper (P=0.04). For birds with access to environmental enrichment during production, the access to litter during rearing had no effect on the number of birds that approached the novel object as adult (P=0.99). These results indicate that both providing chicks with paper substrate from the first day of life and providing them with environmental enrichment as adults, are practical and simple alterations of management that reduce fearfulness in laying hens.

MODIS VCF should not be used to detect discontinuities in tree cover due to binning bias. A comment on Hanan et al. (2014) and Staver and Hansen (2015)
Gerard, France ; Hooftman, Danny ; Langevelde, Frank van; Veenendaal, Elmar ; White, Steven M. ; Lloyd, Jon - \ 2017
Global Ecology and Biogeography 26 (2017)7. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 854 - 859.
alternative stable states - forest - frequency distribution - MODIS VCF - remote sensing - savanna - tree cover

In their recent paper, Staver and Hansen (Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2015, 24, 985–987) refute the case made by Hanan et al. (Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2014, 23, 259–263) that the use of classification and regression trees (CARTs) to predict tree cover from remotely sensed imagery (MODIS VCF) inherently introduces biases, thus making the resulting tree cover unsuitable for showing alternative stable states through tree cover frequency distribution analyses. Here we provide a new and equally fundamental argument for why the published frequency distributions should not be used for such purposes. We show that the practice of pre-average binning of tree cover values used to derive cover values to train the CART model will also introduce errors in the frequency distributions of the final product. We demonstrate that the frequency minima found at tree covers of 8–18%, 33–45% and 55–75% can be attributed to numerical biases introduced when training samples are derived from landscapes containing asymmetric tree cover distributions and/or a tree cover gradient. So it is highly likely that the CART, used to produce MODIS VCF, delivers tree cover frequency distributions that do not reflect the real world situation.

Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats
Bolam, S.G. ; Garcia, C. ; Eggleton, J. ; Kenny, A.J. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, G. ; Kooten, T. van; Dinesen, G. ; Hansen, J. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Sciberras, M. ; Smith, C. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Gumus, A. ; Hoey, G. Van; Eigaard, O.R. ; Bastardie, F. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
Marine Environmental Research 126 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 1 - 13.
Biological traits - European shelf - Infauna - Unimpacted assemblages
There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient.
Flexibility in otherwise consistent non-breeding movements of a long-distance migratory seabird, the long-tailed skua
Bemmelen, R. van; Moe, B. ; Hanssen, S.A. ; Schmidt, N.M. ; Hansen, J. ; Lang, J. ; Sittler, B. ; Bollache, L. ; Tulp, I. ; Klaassen, R. ; Gilg, O. - \ 2017
Marine Ecology Progress Series 578 (2017). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 197 - 211.
individual consistency - Repeatability - Stercorarius longicaudus - Seabirds - tracking - non-breeding movements - Flexibility
Quantifying within- and between-individual variation in animal migration strategies is a first step towards our understanding of the ability of migrants to adjust to changes in the environment. We studied consistency (or, conversely, flexibility) in movement patterns at large (>1000 km) to meso-scales (100−1000 km) during the non-breeding season of the long-tailed skua Stercorarius longicaudus, a long-distance migratory Arctic seabird, using light-based geolocation. We obtained 97 annual tracks of 38 individuals and quantified similarity between routes. Overall, tracks of the same individual were generally within about 200 to 300 km of their previous year’s route, and more similar than tracks of different individuals. Some flexibility was observed during migration, but individuals were faithful to their staging areas in the North Atlantic and in the Benguela Current off Namibia and South Africa. Over the course of the winter, an increasing number of individuals started to deviate—up to 5200 km—from the previous year’s route. Intriguingly, individuals could be highly consistent between 2 consecutive years and flexible between other years. Site-shifts in late winter seem to reflect responses to local conditions, but what promotes this larger flexibility remains unclear and requires further study. Our results show that individual long-tailed skuas are generally consistent in their itineraries, but can show considerable flexibility in some years. The flexibility in itineraries suggests that long-tailed skuas are able to adjust to environmental change, but the mechanisms leading to the observed within- and between-individual variation in movement patterns are still poorly understood.
Access to litter during rearing and environmental enrichment during production reduce fearfulness in adult laying hens
Brantsæter, Margrethe ; Tahamtani, Fernanda M. ; Nordgreen, Janicke ; Sandberg, Ellen ; Hansen, Tone Beate ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Oppermann Moe, Randi ; Janczak, Andrew Michael - \ 2017
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 189 (2017). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 49 - 56.
Environmental enrichment - Fearfulness - Laying hen - Litter - Rearing - Welfare
Exaggerated fear-reactions are associated with injurious flying, smothering, feather pecking and other events that compromise animal welfare in laying hens. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chicks with access to litter during the first five weeks of life would be less fearful as adult hens compared to birds reared without access to litter. The hypothesis was tested in a national on-farm study in commercial aviary flocks in Norway. Five rearing farmers divided the pullets into two groups within their rearing houses. While the chicks were enclosed inside the aviary rows during the first five weeks of life, paper substrate where food and other particles could accumulate, covered the wire mesh floor in the treatment group, whereas the control group was reared on bare wire mesh. At 30 weeks of age, 23 aviary flocks (11 control flocks reared without paper and 12 treatment flocks reared with paper) were visited. During the visit, the fearfulness of the adult birds was tested in a stationary person test and a novel object test. The data was analysed by ANOVA or logistic regression as appropriate. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the number of birds that approached within 25. cm of the stationary person (p = 0.51). All flocks, regardless of rearing treatment, had birds which came within 2. m of the stationary person. The latency to approach within 2. m of the stationary person tended to be influenced by provision of environmental enrichment as adults (p = 0.08) and by the interaction between treatment. ×. rearing farm (p = 0.08). The number of birds that approached within 2. m of the stationary person was influenced by the interaction between treatment during rearing and provision of enrichment as adults (p = 0.03), however, the post hoc test showed no pairwise differences. All flocks, regardless of rearing treatment, had birds that approached the novel object. The access to litter during rearing did not influence the birds' latency to approach the novel object. The number of birds approaching the novel object was affected by the interaction between access to substrate during rearing and provision of environmental enrichment as adults (p = 0.05). The results indicate that both adding paper substrate to chicks from the first day of life and environmental enrichment as adults, reduce fearfulness in laying hens.
Chilling and forcing requirements for foliage bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) differ between provenances and are phenotypically plastic
Kramer, K. ; Ducousso, Alexis ; Gömöry, D. ; Kehlet Hansen, Jon ; Ionita, Lucia ; Liesebach, Mirko ; Lorent, Adrian ; Schüler, Silvio ; Sulkowska, Malgorzata ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Wühlisch, Georg von - \ 2017
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 234-235 (2017). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 172 - 181.
The timing of foliar budburst is an important component of the fitness of trees. Adaptation of budburst to local temperatures and phenotypic plasticity in the date of budburst to changes in temperature can therefore be expected. In this study, we analysed provenance trials of European beech (Fagus sylvatica
L.) established over a wide geographic and climatic range in Europe. The analysis was based on a phenological model that represents the key processes at budburst phenology of temperate- and boreal zone deciduous trees.Weconclude that adaptive differences exist between provenances in the critical chillingand
forcing requirements triggering budburst. Moreover, it is likely that these provenances show a plastic response to local environmental conditions for these two factors. Chilling- and forcing temperature requirements are key traits determining a tree’s response of the date of foliar budburst to temperature.
We infer from our results that trees would be able to adjust this response when climatic conditions change. Implications for climate change assessment studies and suggestions to incorporate this second order phenotypic plasticity in phenological models are discussed.
Effects of litter provision during early rearing and environmental enrichment during the production phase on feather pecking and feather damage in laying hens
Tahamtani, F.M. ; Brantsæter, M. ; Nordgreen, J. ; Sandberg, E. ; Hansen, T.B. ; Nødtvedt, A. ; Rodenburg, Bas ; Moe, R.O. ; Janczak, A.M. - \ 2016
Poultry Science 95 (2016)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2747 - 2756.
feather damage - feather pecking - laying hen - litter - welfare

Feather pecking is a multi-factorial behavioral disorder and a serious welfare issue in the poultry industry. Several studies report early life experience with litter to be a major determinant in the development of feather pecking. The current study aimed to test the large-scale on-farm efficiency of a simple and cheap husbandry procedure applied during the rearing period with the ultimate goal of reducing the incidence of feather pecking and plumage damage during the production stage in laying hens. Five laying hen-rearing farmers from across Norway participated in the study. These farmers were asked to create divisions within their hen rearing houses and to separate their chicks into 2 groups: one reared with access to a paper substrate from the first d of age, the other a control group without access to paper substrate during rearing. All flocks were visited at the production farms at 30 wk of age and observed for pecking behavior and feather damage. Birds in the control group had higher odds of having more feather damage compared to the birds from the treatment group. In addition, flocks provided with environmental enrichment at the production farms had a reduced incidence of feather pecking, irrespective of the treatment. These results indicate that husbandry procedures during both rearing and production stages have the potential to alleviate feather pecking and increase laying hen welfare.

Late blight situation in Europe and ongoing projects
Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Lees, A. ; Gronbech Hansen, J. - \ 2016
Best Agricultural practices and chemical control of potato late blight in Europe
Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Lees, A. ; Gronbech Hansen, J. - \ 2016
Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of organohalide-respiring bacteria and regulation of rdh gene transcription
Hansen, Thomas ; Smidt, Hauke ; Lechner, Ute - \ 2016
In: Organohalide-Respiring Bacteria / Adrian, Lorenz, Löffler, Frank E., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9783662498736 - p. 345 - 376.

Comparison of the genomes of organohalide-respiring bacteria has improved our understanding of the genetic background of the organohalide respiration process. In this chapter the remarkable differences between obligate and facultative organohalide-respiring bacteria in the number of reductive dehalogenaseencoding genes and the numbers and types of accessory genes are discussed in relation to different lifestyles and evolutionary aspects. Furthermore, the putative function of accessory genes is discussed and a unifying nomenclature is proposed. The genomes also reflect distinct mechanisms for the synthesis or acquisition of the corrinoid cofactors of reductive dehalogenases, which are well in accord with the observed growth requirements of the respective organohalide-respiring bacteria. The value of microarray-based comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and quantitative transcription analyses for understanding the physiology and environmental significance of organohalide respiration is discussed. The reductive dehalogenase genes are in general associated with genes encoding transcriptional regulators, which are likely involved in sensing the halogenated electron acceptors. The role of two types of regulators in transcriptional regulation of organohalide respiration has been investigated. A multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR)-type regulator was shown to regulate negatively the transcription of reductive dehalogenase genes in Dehalococcoides mccartyi. In Desulfitobacterium hafniense, the cAMP receptor protein/fumarate and nitrate reduction (CRP/FNR) regulator, CprK, activates transcription of reductive dehalogenase genes. The molecular mechanism of how ortho- chlorophenols act as effectors has been elucidated and how, through the induction of structural changes, they lead to DNA binding of the regulator.

Advances urban green infrastructure planning and implementation : innovative approaches and strategies from European cities
Hansen, R. ; Rolf, W. ; Rall, E. ; Pauleit, S. ; Erlwein, S. ; Fohlmeister, S. ; Santos, A. ; Luz, A.C. ; Branquinho, C. ; Santos-Reis, M. ; Gerőházi, E. ; Száraz, L. ; Tosics, I. ; Davies, C. ; DeBellis, Y. ; Lafortezza, R. ; Vierikko, K. ; Jagt, A. van der; Cvejić, R. ; Zeleznikar, S. ; Nastran, M. ; Pintar, M. ; Hjorth Caspersen, O. ; Olafsson, A.S. ; Gentin, S. ; Kronenberg, J. ; Delshammar, T. ; Mattijssen, T.J.M. ; Otten, R. - \ 2016
University of Copenhagen (Greensurge ) - 204 p.
Fulbright Arctic Initiative: An Innovative Model for Policy Relevant Research & Public Outreach
Virgina, Ross A. ; Sfraga, Michael ; Arnbom, Tom ; Chamberlain, Linda ; Chatwood, Susan ; Tepecik Dis, Asli ; Hoogensen Gjorv, Gunhild ; Harms, Tamara K. ; Hansen, Anne ; Holdmann, Gwen ; Johnson, Noor ; Lantz, Trevor ; Magnússon, Bjarni ; Neuhaus, Itty S. ; Poelzer, Gregory ; Sokka, Laura ; Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Varpe, Oystein ; Vestergaard, Niels - \ 2016
Arctic Yearbook 2016 (2016). - ISSN 2298-2418 - p. 212 - 224.
Networking of integrated pest management : A powerful approach to address common challenges in agriculture
Lamichhane, Jay Ram ; Aubertot, Jean Noël ; Begg, Graham ; Birch, Andrew Nicholas E. ; Boonekamp, Piet ; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke ; Hansen, Jens Grønbech ; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring ; Jensen, Jens Erik ; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup ; Kiss, Jozsef ; Kudsk, Per ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Rasplus, Jean Yves ; Sattin, Maurizio ; Streito, Jean Claude ; Messéan, Antoine - \ 2016
Crop Protection 89 (2016). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 139 - 151.
Common challenges - European networking - Knowledge transfer - Long-term experiments - Research priorities

Integrated pest management (IPM) is facing both external and internal challenges. External challenges include increasing needs to manage pests (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) due to climate change, evolution of pesticide resistance as well as virulence matching host resistance. The complexity of designing effective pest management strategies, which rely less heavily on the use of conventional pesticides, is another external challenge. Internal challenges include organizational aspects such as decreasing trend in budget allocated to IPM research, increasing scarcity of human expertise, lack of knowledge transfer into practice and the communication gap both at country level and between countries, and lack of multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary IPM research. There is an increasing awareness that trans-national networking is one means to overcome such challenges and to address common priorities in agriculture. A large number of stakeholders (researchers, policy makers, growers and industries) are involved in the sector of crop protection, which needs to be coordinated through effective communications and dynamic collaboration to make any IPM strategy successful. Here we discuss a decade-long IPM networking experiences in Europe emphasizing how IPM research, implementation and adoption in Europe may benefit from a broader level networking.

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