Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Gezoogde koe werkt harder om bij haar kalf te komen
Wenker, M.L. - \ 2019
Measuring what matters? : Exploring the use of values-based indicators in assessing Education for Sustainability
Brockwell, Ashley Jay - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.E.J. Wals, co-promotor(en): P. Tamas; M.K. Harder. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439565 - 242
Global climate governance between hard and soft law : Can the Paris agreement's 'Crème Brûleé' approach enhance ecological reflexivity?
Pickering, Jonathan ; McGee, Jeffrey S. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I. ; Wenta, Joseph - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Law 31 (2019)1. - ISSN 0952-8873 - p. 1 - 28.
Climate change - ecological reflexivity - legalisation - Paris Agreement - soft law - UNFCCC

In the face of global environmental concerns, legal institutions must cultivate a reflexive capacity to monitor global ecological shifts and to reconfigure their practices accordingly. But, it remains unclear whether harder or softer legal norms are more capable of enhancing such ecological reflexivity. This article traces variations in harder and softer norms in two aspects of the evolution of the global climate change regime-national contributions to mitigation and review mechanisms- A nd their implications for ecological reflexivity. We find the regime's reflexivity has increased moderately and slowly over time but without a consistent shift towards harder or softer norms. The Paris Agreement's innovative approach, combining harder procedural commitments with softer substantive provisions (a 'crème brûleé'), has potential to encourage flexible responses to changing conditions within a stable, long-term architecture. However, the Agreement's softer, transparency-based compliance framework provides limited assurance that countries will make and fulfill ambitious commitments.

Arabinoxylans-enriched fractions : From dry fractionation of wheat bran to the investigation on bread baking performance
Zhang, Lu ; Boven, Anneloes van; Mulder, Jorinde ; Grandia, Jeroen ; Chen, Xiao Dong ; Boom, Remko M. ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. - \ 2019
Journal of Cereal Science 87 (2019). - ISSN 0733-5210 - p. 1 - 8.
Arabinoxylans - Bread baking - Dry fractionation - Valorization

Arabinoxylans- (AX-) enriched fractions were separated from wheat bran by dry fractionation and utilized for fiber fortification in bread. The obtained AX-enriched fractions (AXF) contained 39.2–55.8% arabinoxylans (dry basis). To produce bread with various AX-fortification levels, wheat flour was partially replaced with AXF in the recipe, i.e., 2%, 5% and 10% of flour weight. Results indicate 10% AX fortification led to decreased specific volume, harder and coarser crumb and darker color of bread, while 2% and 5% showed no significant influence. Next, the bread recipe was adjusted based on Farinograph water absorption and the AXF was pre-soaked in water (with or without xylanase) at 40 C for 16 h before dough mixing. The recipe and process adjustment reduced the detrimental effects of a high-level AX-fortification on bread quality. Bread with 10% AXF showed comparable quality properties as the control and its fiber content (11.75% dry basis) was found twice higher than the control (5.48% dry basis). However, usage of xylanase did not further improve the bread quality under tested conditions. In conclusion, this study shows that AX-enriched fractions from wheat bran have valorization potential for application in food.

Hydroplasticization of latex films with varying methacrylic acid content
Voogt, Benjamin ; Huinink, Henk ; Kamp-Scheerder, Loes van der; Erich, Bart ; Scheerder, Jurgen ; Venema, P. ; Adana, Olaf - \ 2019
Polymer 166 (2019). - ISSN 0032-3861 - p. 206 - 214.
Hydroplasticization - Coating - Polymer mobility
The hydroplasticization of coatings of acrylic copolymers with different amounts of methacrylic acid (MAA) was investigated to clarify the role of carboxylic acid functionalities on the change in polymer mobility due to water uptake. The coating Tg as a function of water uptake was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis. The Tg’s decreased with increasing water content, confirming the plasticizing effect of water on the coatings. At relative humidities between 0 and 60% the coating Tg shows a sharper decrease than at higher , an effect that increases with increasing MAA content. This behavior is attributed to the presence of dimers of carboxylic acid in the coatings, which is also observed with FTIR-ATR analyses. Due to water uptake, the dimers are disrupted and form “open” dimers where carboxylic acid groups remain in close proximity and are connected through water molecules. With 1H NMR relaxometry, two T2 relaxation times are found, representing two hydrogen pools with different mobilities. Both mobilities increase with increasing water content, indicating the presence of polymer domains with different hardness. Correlating the T2 relaxation times with the coating Tg’s shows that at higher MAA content the proton mobility as a function of Tg of the soft domains increases with increasing MAA content. Since the polymer proton mobility, and hence the polymer mobility, is expected to scale with the polymer Tg, it is hypothesized that harder domains are present in the coatings, which are not visible in the Ostroff-Waugh decays due to the fast relaxation behavior of these protons.
Recycling nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture: Pathways, processes, and products
Harder, Robin ; Wielemaker, Rosanne ; Larsen, Tove A. ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Öberg, Gunilla - \ 2019
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2019)8. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 695 - 743.
blackwater - carbon - feces - fertilizer - nitrogen - organic matter - Phosphorus - potassium - recovery - resource-oriented sanitation - sewage - soil amendment - source-separation - urine - wastewater

The need for better nutrient management has spurred efforts towards more comprehensive recycling of nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture. Research in this direction has intensified throughout the past years, continuously unfolding new knowledge and technologies. The present review aspires to provide a systematic synthesis of the field by providing an accessible overview of terminology, recovery pathways and treatment options, and products rendered by treatment. Our synthesis suggests that, rather than focusing on a specific recovery pathway or product and on a limited set of nutrients, there is scope for exploring how to maximize nutrient recovery by combining individual pathways and products and including a broader range of nutrients. To this end, finding ways to more effectively share and consolidate knowledge and information on recovery pathways and products would be beneficial. The present review aims to provide a template that aims to facilitate designing human excreta management for maximum nutrient recovery, and that can serve as foundation for organizing and categorizing information for more effective sharing and consolidation.

Toward the design of insect-based meat analogue : The role of calcium and temperature in coagulation behavior of Alphitobius diaperinus proteins
Azzollini, D. ; Wibisaphira, T. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2019
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 100 (2019). - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 75 - 82.
Edible insects - Lesser mealworm - Meat analogue - Protein coagulation

This study focused on the coagulation behavior of protein from larvae of Alphitobius diaperinus. The effect of incremental CaCl2 concentration (10, 15, 20 and 20 mmol/L) and temperature (90, 100 °C) on physical-chemical properties of insect coagula was investigated. A yield between 76 and 83 g of coagulum was obtained from 100 g of fresh larvae, decreasing with higher temperature and CaCl2. Protein-protein interactions and microstructure of coagula were analyzed respectively by means of protein solubility, SDS-PAGE and SEM. When higher temperature was applied, hydrophobic interactions and disulphide bonds increased due to a larger degree of protein denaturation, thereby contributing to the formation of large protein aggregates. Thus, significant increase in hardness of the coagula was observed, with specimens at 20 mmol/L CaCl2 being more than twice harder at 100 °C than at 90 °C. Moreover, proteins homologous to actin and tropomyosin contributed to the coagulum structure by hydrophobic interactions, whereas hemolymph proteins formed disulphide bonds. Increasing concentration of CaCl2 from 10 to 20 mmol/L, at 100 °C, displayed a smoother network that increased coagula hardness from 1200 to 2900 g respectively. Results of this study provide important information for the product development in relation to insect protein-based meat analogues.

Adding condiments to foods : How does static and dynamic sensory perception change when bread and carrots are consumed with mayonnaise?
Eck, Arianne van; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Galindo-Cuspinera, Verónica ; Scholten, Elke ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 154 - 170.
Bread - Carrot - Condiments - Mayonnaise - RATA - TDS

Foods with condiments such as bread with spreads or vegetables with dips are frequently consumed. The aim of this study was to understand how dynamic and static sensory perception changes when foods are consumed together with condiments. Two carriers (bread, carrot) varying in hardness were combined with condiments (mayonnaises) varying in fat content and viscosity to obtain model composite foods. Dynamic sensory perception was assessed using Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) with attribute lists describing both carrier- and condiment-related attributes. Static sensory perception was evaluated using Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) with attribute lists descriptive for either bread, carrot or mayonnaise. Carrier foods (bread, carrot) had a larger influence on dynamic and static sensory perception of carrier-condiment combinations than condiments (mayonnaises). Sensations related to mayonnaises (sour, creamy) were dominant at later stages of consumption when these were combined with harder bread or carrots. Hard bread or carrots reduced intensities of several mayonnaise-related attributes (sour, dairy when combined with bread; creamy, after taste when combined with carrots) to a larger extent than soft bread or carrots. Consumer sensitivity to discriminate between foods was not affected by the presence of other food items when differences in bread, carrots or mayonnaise properties were large. In case of smaller differences between food properties, consumer sensitivity to discriminate between foods declined and depended on the food type it was combined with. We conclude that the product properties of both solid carrier foods and condiments and their interaction during consumption impact dynamic and static sensory perception of carrier-condiment combinations.

In de stad waait het wat harder
Droste, Arjan - \ 2018
towns - wind - air quality
The Quantified Animal: Precision Livestock Farming and the Ethical Implications of Objectification
Bos, Jacqueline M. ; Bovenkerk, Bernice ; Feindt, Peter H. ; Dam, Ynte K. Van - \ 2018
Food Ethics 2 (2018)1. - ISSN 2364-6853 - p. 77 - 92.
Precision livestock farming (PLF) is the management of livestock using the principles and technology of process engineering. Key to PLF is the dense monitoring of variegated parameters, including animal growth, output of produce (e.g. milk, eggs), diseases, animal behaviour, and the physical environment (e.g. thermal micro-environment, ammonia emissions). While its proponents consider PLF a win-win strategy that combines production
efficiency with sustainability goals and animal welfare, critics emphasise, inter alia, the potential interruption of human-animal relationships. This paper discusses the notion that the objectification of animals by PLF influences the developmental pathways of conventional industrial farming. We conduct a conceptual analysis of objectification by comparing discussions in feminist ethics and animal ethics. We find that in animal ethics, objectification includes deontological arguments regarding instrumentalisation, de-animalisation, alienation, commodification and quantification of animals. The focus on socio-political context and relationality connects these debates to central ideas in care ethics. We adopt a care ethics perspective to assess the implications of the objectification of animals in livestock farming. The basic claim is that sensory knowledge symbolised by the farmers’ unity of hand, head and heart would make it harder to objectify animals than abstract and instrumental reasoning where the pursuit of knowledge is intertwined with the pursuit of control, as in mainstream PLF. Despite of what can be considered as a good caring relationship between farmers and animals that is mediated by PLF, people involved in conventional industrial farming still seem to become further detached from farmers and animals, because the PLF system itself is objectifying.
PLF redefines the notion of care, in terms of data transparency, standardisation of methods for analysis, real-time collection and processing of data, remote control, and the use of digital platforms. This creates new expectations and requires a redistribution of responsibilities within a wider scope of relations in the value chain.
Apparent strength versus universality in glasses of soft compressible colloids
Higler, Ruben ; Sprakel, Joris - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Microgel colloids, solvent swollen hydrogel particles of microscopic size, are in osmotic equilibrium with their surroundings. This has a profound effect on the behaviour of dense solutions of these polymeric colloids, most notably their ability to swell and deswell depending on the osmotic pressure of the system as a whole. Here we develop a minimal simulation model to treat this intrinsic volume regulation in order to explore the effects this has on the properties of dense solutions close to a liquid-solid transition. We demonstrate how the softness dependent volume regulation of particles gives rise to an apparent change in the fragility of the colloidal glass transition, which can be scaled out through the use of an adjusted volume fraction that accounts for changes in particle size. Moreover, we show how the same model can be used to explain the selective deswelling of soft microgels in a crystalline matrix of harder particles leading to robust crystals free of defects. Our results not only highlight the non-trivial effects of osmotic regulation in governing the apparent physics of microgel suspensions, but also provides a platform to efficiently account for particle deswelling in simulations.

Soms waait het in de stad harder dan op het platteland
Droste, Arjan - \ 2018
Leadership styles in two Ghanaian hospitals in a challenging environment
Aberese-Ako, Matilda ; Agyepong, Irene Akua ; DIjk, Han van - \ 2018
Health Policy and Planning 33 (2018). - ISSN 0268-1080 - p. ii16 - ii26.
capacity - Context - frontline health worker - Ghana - hospital managers - leadership - low- and middle-income country - management - motivation

Hospital managers' power to exercise effective leadership in daily management can affect quality of care directly as well as through effects on frontline workers' motivation. This paper explores the influence of contextual factors on hospital managers' leadership styles and the motivation of frontline workers providing maternal and new born care in two public district hospitals in Ghana. It draws on data from an ethnographic study that involved participant observation, conversations and in-depth interviews conducted over 20 months, with frontline health workers and managers. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 11 was used to facilitate coding, and common patterns emerging from the codes were grouped into themes. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethical Review Committee. Contextual factors such as institutional rules and regulations and funding constrained managers' power, and influenced leadership styles and responses to expressed and observed needs of frontline workers and clients. The contextual constraints on mangers' responses were a source of demotivation to both managers and frontline workers, as it hampered quality health service provision. Knowing what to do, but sometimes constrained by context, managers described 'feeling sick' and frustrated. On the other hand in the instances where managers' were able to get round the constraints and respond effectively to frontline health workers and clients' needs, they felt encouraged and motivated to work harder. Effective district hospital management and leadership is influenced by contextual factors; and not just individual manager's knowledge and skills. Interventions to strengthen management and leadership of public sector hospitals in low- and middle-income countries like Ghana need to consider context and not just individual managers' skills and knowledge strengthening.

Ant-like Traits in Wingless Parasitoids Repel Attack from Wolf Spiders
Harvey, Jeffrey A. ; Visser, Bertanne ; Lammers, Marl ; Marien, Janine ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Ode, Paul J. ; Heinen, Robin ; Gols, Rieta ; Ellers, Jacintha - \ 2018
Journal of Chemical Ecology 44 (2018)10. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 894 - 904.
Batesian mimicry; Müllerian mimicry - Chemical defense - Formica - Gelis - Hymenoptera - Lasius - Predation

A recent study showed that a wingless parasitoid, Gelis agilis, exhibits a suite of ant-like traits that repels attack from wolf spiders. When agitated, G. agilis secreted 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone), which a small number of ant species produce as an alarm/panic pheromone. Here, we tested four Gelis parasitoid species, occurring in the same food chain and microhabitats, for the presence of sulcatone and conducted two-species choice bioassays with wolf spiders to determine their degree of susceptibility to attack. All four Gelis species, including both winged and wingless species, produced sulcatone, whereas a closely related species, Acrolyta nens, and the more distantly related Cotesia glomerata, did not. In two-choice bioassays, spiders overwhelmingly rejected the wingless Gelis species, preferring A. nens and C. glomerata. However, spiders exhibited no preference for either A. nens or G. areator, both of which are winged. Wingless gelines exhibited several ant-like traits, perhaps accounting for the reluctance of spiders to attack them. On the other hand, despite producing sulcatone, the winged G. areator more closely resembles other winged cryptines like A. nens, making it harder for spiders to distinguish between these two species. C. glomerata was also preferred by spiders over A. nens, suggesting that other non-sulcatone producing cryptines nevertheless possess traits that make them less attractive as prey. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Cryptinae reveals that G. hortensis and G. proximus are ‘sister’species, with G. agilis, and G.areator in particular evolving along more distant trajectories. We discuss the possibility that wingless Gelis species have evolved a suite of ant-like traits as a form, of mimicry to repel predators on the ground.

Re-using bauxite residues : benefits beyond (critical raw) material recovery
Ujaczki, Éva ; Feigl, Viktória ; Molnár, Mónika ; Cusack, Patricia ; Curtin, Teresa ; Courtney, Ronan ; O'Donoghue, Lisa ; Davris, Panagiotis ; Hugi, Christoph ; Evangelou, Michael W.H. ; Balomenos, Efthymios ; Lenz, Markus - \ 2018
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 93 (2018)9. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2498 - 2510.
hydrometallurgy - life-cycle assessment (LCA) - metals - recovery - sustainable processing - waste treatment and waste minimization

Since the world economy has been confronted with an increasing risk of supply shortages of critical raw materials (CRMs), there has been a major interest in identifying alternative secondary sources of CRMs. Bauxite residues from alumina production are available at a multi-million tonnes scale worldwide. So far, attempts have been made to find alternative re-use applications for bauxite residues, for instance in cement / pig iron production. However, bauxite residues also constitute an untapped secondary source of CRMs. Depending on their geological origin and processing protocol, bauxite residues can contain considerable amounts of valuable elements. The obvious primary consideration for CRM recovery from such residues is the economic value of the materials contained. However, there are further benefits from re-use of bauxite residues in general, and from CRM recovery in particular. These go beyond monetary values (e.g. reduced investment / operational costs resulting from savings in disposal). For instance, benefits for the environment and health can be achieved by abatement of tailing storage as well as by reduction of emissions from conventional primary mining. Whereas certain tools (e.g. life-cycle analysis) can be used to quantify the latter, other benefits (in particular sustained social and technological development) are harder to quantify. This review evaluates strategies of bauxite residue re-use / recycling and identifies associated benefits beyond elemental recovery. Furthermore, methodologies to translate risks and benefits into quantifiable data are discussed. Ultimately, such quantitative data are a prerequisite for facilitating decision-making regarding bauxite residue re-use / recycling and a stepping stone towards developing a zero-waste alumina production process.

De wereld is geen kastomaat
Yin, Xinyou ; Harbinson, Jeremy - \ 2018

De CO2 die de mens in de natuur brengt, is voer voor planten. Die gaan dus harder groeien. Of toch niet?

Information with a smile – Does it increase recycling?
Huang, Y.Y. ; Tamas, P.A. ; Harder, M.K. - \ 2018
Journal of Cleaner Production 178 (2018). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 947 - 953.
This work investigates the impact of human-human interaction on a target behaviour change by comparing the effect of programme delivery of a fixed set of tailored information via proximate but trivial interaction between subjects and volunteers, a set of well-produced single-topic colour leaflets, and a control on behaviour in a real world setting. The behaviour targeted was householder sorting of food waste into specialised bins in high-rise apartment buildings in Shanghai, China, measured by discreet direct daily weighing of waste fractions. The unit of analysis was the set of households in each building. Two versions of the volunteer delivery were trialled: one neutral in tone and action, and the second slightly positive in tone and action. Despite the existence of tens of theories about behaviour change and hundreds of empirical case studies of pro-environmental behaviour change programs, human-human interaction is not mentioned as a predictor and is only rarely as possibly moderating subsequent conduct. Results suggest that human-human interaction is not likely to be a key explanatory factor but that a positive human-human interaction may be an important factor. Furthermore, these effects were observed when the six social influence mechanisms suggested in current behaviour theory were eliminated, suggesting new mechanisms need to be proposed. For practitioner waste managers the results indicate that funding programmes with human interaction may not be sufficient for greater results: the humans may need training for positive interaction. In addition, the results indicate that currently held opinions by theorists and practitioners on the relative usefulness of tailored information may need revising, since most compound it with human interaction. Explanatory studies are thus called for at programme and individual levels.
Entry into force and then? The Paris agreement and state accountability
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I. ; Groff, Maja ; Tamás, Peter A. ; Dahl, Arthur L. ; Harder, Marie K. ; Hassall, Graham - \ 2018
Climate Policy 18 (2018)5. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 593 - 599.
Accountability - climate change policy - global governance - states - transparency
The entry into force of the Paris Agreement on climate change brings expectations that states will be held to account for their commitments. The article elaborates on why this is not a realistic assumption unless a broader multilevel perspective is taken on the nature of accountability regimes for international (legal) agreements. The formal accountability mechanisms of such agreements tend to be weak, and there are no indications that they will be stronger for the recent global goals adopted in the Paris Agreement. Looking beyond only peer review among states, national institutions, direct civil society engagement and internal government processes – while each coming with their own strengths and weaknesses – provide additional accountability pathways that together may do a better job. Scientific enquiry is, however, required to better understand, support and find improved mixtures of, and perhaps to move beyond, these accountability pathways. Policy relevance This perspective provides something of a clarion call for a variety of different types of actors at both global and national levels to engage in ensuring that states keep the promises they made in the Paris Agreement. It particularly highlights the importance of national institutions and civil society to step up to the task in the present world order, where states are reluctant to build strong accountability regimes at the global level.
Mapping the RRI landscape : An overview of organisations, projects, persons, areas and topics
Timmermans, Job - \ 2017
In: Responsible Innovation 3 Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319648330 - p. 21 - 47.
Increased attention in politics and academia coincided with a rapid expansion of the RRI discourse. As a consequence, the proliferation of RRI approaches and projects has made it harder to maintain an overview of the discourse. Accessing and keeping track therefore is difficult, especially for newbies, of which there are many now that RRI is being engrained in R&I policies. To untangle the RRI discourse a landscape study was undertaken providing a comprehensive overview of the main contributors, the terms RRI is perceived and the areas it is being applied to. Deploying a qualitative research methodology 536 persons emerged from the sources, affiliated to 246 organisations that reside in 89 different countries. Of these, 312 are authors and 168 involved in 18 RRI projects. Also, the study revealed 14 areas of application, 17 features and 4 methods in relation to which RRI is currently being addressed. Furthermore, the analysis shows which actors act as hubs in the different thematic or regional segments that together make up the discourse. Lastly, the study hints towards future directions of the discourse that are relevant to both policy-makers and RRI researchers. Well-represented areas and terms of addressing may be interpreted as important and therefore in need of further attention, while underrepresented areas represent opportunities for further research or justify further policy attention.
Global Climate Governance between Hard and Soft Law: Can the Paris Agreement’s “Crème Brûlée” Approach Enhance Ecosystemic Reflexivity?
Pickering, J. ; McGee, Jeffrey S. ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Wenta, J. - \ 2017
Ecosystemic reflexivity—the capacity to monitor shifts in social-ecological systems and to rethink and reconfigure core values and practices in response—is a crucial quality for institutions in the Anthropocene. Accounts of reflexive governance have often privileged institutional features of flexibility and openness that may conflict with the stability and predictability typically associated with legal norms. However, the spectrum of “legalization” in global governance allows more nuanced differentiation between “harder” and “softer” legal norms. Accordingly, this article addresses the question: how might the hardness or softness of legal norms enhance the ecosystemic reflexivity of the global climate regime? We assess the evolving legal form of collective goals and national contributions on mitigation, as well as mechanisms for review and compliance. We find that the regime’s reflexive capacity has increased (albeit only moderately and slowly) over the past two decades, but that this trend does not correspond with a consistent hardening or softening of legal form. This suggests that the capacity of harder or softer norms to enhance reflexivity may vary over time depending on contextual factors that affect prospects for cooperation, such as levels of uncertainty and divergence of interests. The Paris Agreement adopts an innovative approach to mitigation combining overarching harder norms for periodic goal-setting, transparency and review with a substantial layer of softer norms on national emission reductions. This mix of harder and softer norms (which we term a “crème brûlée”) has potential to enhance ecosystemic reflexivity by encouraging flexibility to respond to changing circumstances within a predictable long-term framework. But the framework’s reliance on soft, transparency-based means of encouraging compliance provides limited assurance that countries will ramp up their efforts quickly enough to avoid dangerous climate change. It will be important for civil society actors to find other ways beyond the international regime of holding governments to account for making and fulfilling ambitious commitments.
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