Earth System Governance : Science and Implementation Plan of the Earth System Governance Project 2018
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Yumie Aoki Inoue, Christina ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, Joost ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael John ; Djalante, Riyanti ; Dryzek, John S. ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renee ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, Ruben - \ 2019
Utrecht : Earth System Governance - 128 p.
New directions in earth system governance research
Burch, Sarah ; Gupta, A. ; Inoue, C. ; Kalfagianni, Agni ; Persson, Asa ; Gerlak, Andrea K. ; Ishii, Atsushi ; Patterson, James ; Pickering, Jonathan ; Scobie, M. ; Heijden, Jeroen van der; Vervoort, J. ; Adler, Carolina ; Bloomfield, Michael ; Djalante, Riyante ; Dryzek, John ; Galaz, Victor ; Gordon, Christopher ; Harmon, Renée ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kim, Rakhyun E. ; Olsson, Lennart ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ramasar, Vasna ; Wapner, Paul ; Zondervan, R. - \ 2019
Earth System Governance 1 (2019). - ISSN 2589-8116 - 18 p.
Governance - Research networks - Earth system - Transformation
The Earth System Governance project is a global research alliance that explores novel, effective governance mechanisms to cope with the current transitions in the biogeochemical systems of the planet. A decade after its inception, this article offers an overview of the project's new research framework (which is built upon a review of existing earth system governance research), the goal of which is to continue to stimulate a pluralistic, vibrant and relevant research community. This framework is composed of contextual conditions (transformations, inequality, Anthropocene and diversity), which capture what is being observed empirically, and five sets of research lenses (architecture and agency, democracy and power, justice and allocation, anticipation and imagination, and adaptiveness and reflexivity). Ultimately the goal is to guide and inspire the systematic study of how societies prepare for accelerated climate change and wider earth system change, as well as policy responses.
Input data needed for a risk model for the entry, establishment and spread of a pathogen (Phomopsis vaccinii) of blueberries and cranberries in the EU
Bruggen, A.H.C. van; West, J.S. ; Werf, W. van der; Potting, R.P.J. ; Gardi, C. ; Koufakis, I. ; Zelenev, V.V. ; Narouei-Khandan, H. ; Schilder, A. ; Harmon, P. - \ 2018
Annals of Applied Biology 172 (2018)2. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 126 - 147.
Diaporthe vaccinii - emerging pathogens - pathway analysis - plant trade - quantitative pest risk assessment - quarantine organism
International trade in live plant materials has increased worldwide over the last four decades. This has led to a dramatic increase in the introduction, establishment and spread of non-native plant pathogens. Regulatory authorities need advice on measures that may mitigate these adverse consequences of trade. Risk models may be used to underpin such advice. In this review, we give a systematic overview of the data needed for a quantitative risk model for Phomopsis vaccinii, which causes stem and fruit infections on Vaccinium species, and sometimes death, potentially also on native wild Vaccinium species in the EU. P. vaccinii is a quarantine organism worldwide, except for North America, where it is endemic. Despite extensive knowledge of the aetiology of the diseases caused by this pathogen and its taxonomy, quantitative data on transportation and detection of infected plants for planting and berries are scarce, and quantitative assessment of the future introduction, establishment and spread of P. vaccinii is difficult. Estimation of the potential impact of this pathogen in production fields and wild Vaccinium stands is even more difficult. P. vaccinii is not unique in this respect, and this review indicates the need for more and better quantitative data for assessment of the risks posed by newly introduced plant pathogens in areas where they are not endemic.
Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea
Bowers, Robert M. ; Kyrpides, Nikos C. ; Stepanauskas, Ramunas ; Harmon-Smith, Miranda ; Doud, Devin ; Reddy, T.B.K. ; Schulz, Frederik ; Jarett, Jessica ; Rivers, Adam R. ; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A. ; Tringe, Susannah G. ; Ivanova, Natalia N. ; Copeland, Alex ; Clum, Alicia ; Becraft, Eric D. ; Malmstrom, Rex R. ; Birren, Bruce ; Podar, Mircea ; Bork, Peer ; Weinstock, George M. ; Garrity, George M. ; Dodsworth, Jeremy A. ; Yooseph, Shibu ; Sutton, Granger ; Glöckner, Frank O. ; Gilbert, Jack A. ; Nelson, William C. ; Hallam, Steven J. ; Jungbluth, Sean P. ; Ettema, Thijs J.G. ; Tighe, Scott ; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. ; Liu, Wen Tso ; Baker, Brett J. ; Rattei, Thomas ; Eisen, Jonathan A. ; Hedlund, Brian ; McMahon, Katherine D. ; Fierer, Noah ; Knight, Rob ; Finn, Rob ; Cochrane, Guy ; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene ; Tyson, Gene W. ; Rinke, Christian ; Lapidus, Alla ; Meyer, Folker ; Yilmaz, Pelin ; Parks, Donovan H. ; Eren, A.M. - \ 2017
Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)8. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 725 - 731.
We present two standards developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting bacterial and archaeal genome sequences. Both are extensions of the Minimum Information about Any (x) Sequence (MIxS). The standards are the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG), including, but not limited to, assembly quality, and estimates of genome completeness and contamination. These standards can be used in combination with other GSC checklists, including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum Information about a Metagenomic Sequence (MIMS), and Minimum Information about a Marker Gene Sequence (MIMARKS). Community-wide adoption of MISAG and MIMAG will facilitate more robust comparative genomic analyses of bacterial and archaeal diversity.
Potential global and regional geographic distribution of Phomopsis vaccinii on Vaccinium species projected by two species distribution models
Narouei-Khandan, H.A. ; Harmon, C.L. ; Harmon, P. ; Olmstead, J. ; Zelenev, V.V. ; Werf, W. van der; Worner, S.P. ; Senay, S.D. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2017
European Journal of Plant Pathology 148 (2017)4. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 919 - 930.
Blueberries - Blueberry and cranberry twig blight - Cranberries - Cranberry viscid rot - Diaporthe vaccinii - MaxEnt - Multi-model framework - Niche models - NPDN data base - Phomopsis canker
Vaccinium twig blight (caused by Phomopsis vaccinii, teleomorph Diaporthe vaccinii) is a major endemic disease on blueberries and cranberries in the Eastern and Northwestern USA and Canada. It has also been found in Europe, Chile and China. Publications on its occurrence in the USA and Canada indicate that the pathogen is limited to cool climates. Published data on worldwide occurrence were inventoried and supplemented with National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) data in the USA. These occurrence and long-term climate data were entered in the niche models MaxEnt and Multi-Model Framework to predict the potential global distribution of the disease. Precipitation in the driest quarter and mean annual temperature contributed most to the prediction. The results indicate that P. vaccinii is not limited to cool climates, although the optimal annual average temperature is 10 °C according to the MaxEnt model. The models correctly predicted that the climate in the central and eastern USA and the west coast of the USA and Canada would be conducive to blueberry twig blight. Large areas in Europe, eastern Australia and New Zealand, and smaller areas in South America and East Asia would be conducive too. For the first time, the NPDN database was shown to be an important source of information for the prediction of the potential global distribution of a plant pathogen.
Love food, hate the brand that I waste: The effects of product waste on brand evaluations
Herpen, E. van; Hooge, I.E. de - \ 2016
- p. 59 - 60.
In 2010, the total generation of waste in the European Union amounted to 2 506 million tons (Eurostat). This represents a huge loss of resources and of ‘unused utility’: throwing away of functioning appliances, unused products, and edible foods. Yet, wasting is not a carefree activity for consumers. Consumers follow complex procedures in managing the residual value of discarded food items to lessen anxieties about wastage (Evans, 2012; Graham-Rowe et al., 2014; Parizeau et al., 2015). Moreover, a distaste for waste affects consumers’ choices, such as favoring options with less unused utility (Bolton and Alba, 2012) or persevering in a failing project when stopping would involve waste (Arkes, 1996). The current research provides insights into this contradiction between wasting a lot and not wanting to waste, and reveals the consequences of waste for brand evaluations.
Waste and brand evaluations
Waste can be understood as the result of not using a product to its full capacity. Whereas both throwing away a food container that still holds leftovers and throwing away an emptied food container would lead to the generation of waste, there is an important difference in the unused utility that is wasted, in this example in the form of uneaten food. This salient unused utility is aversive for consumers (Bolton and Alba, 2012). According to cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), the occurrence of “nonfitting” relations among cognitive elements (which could entail attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors) is unpleasant and leads to psychological discomfort (also termed dissonance). Thus, consumers would like to solve this dissonance in the current waste situation. Because attitudes can be altered more easily than previously displayed behaviors, attitude change is a common way in which people reduce dissonance (Galinsky et al., 2008; Simon et al., 1995; Starzyk et al., 2009). Therefore, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility would generate cognitive dissonance, and that this dissonance would be solved by decreasing evaluations of the wasted brand.
Importantly, when a product with left-over utility is discarded, the left-over utility is not necessarily wasted. Different disposition behaviors are possible: throwing it away, giving it away, trading it, and selling it (Jacoby et al., 1977). If unused utility can be transferred to another person, the level of psychological discomfort should be lower than if unused utility is lost. Thus, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility leads to more cognitive dissonance and more decreased brand evaluations than other ways of disposing a product.
Finally, the predicted effect should depend on brand salience. Dissonance reduction through brand evaluations should be less likely when the brand itself is not salient when wasting the product (i.e., when the brand is not visible, and there is thus no reminder of the brand name).
We tested our hypotheses in four studies. The first three studies were scenario studies. Study 1 examined the effect of different ways of disposing products on dissonance feelings. Results showed that wasting a product (irrespective of whether it was thrown away or recycled) lead to more dissonance than transferring utility to another person (irrespective of whether the product was used in its original intended purpose). Study 2 tested the effects of wasting on brand evaluations. Respondents imagined that they had purchased a drink they could not consume entirely, and that they either threw the remaining product in the bin (waste condition) or gave it to a friend (no-waste condition). Brand evaluations were lower in the waste condition than in the no-waste condition. Study 3 ruled out alternative explanations (transfer of disgust, cf. Morales and Fitzsimons, 2007, and attribution of waste to the brand).
Study 4 investigated waste in a situation with real product consumption, to generalize our results beyond imagined situations. It also tested the moderating effect of brand salience. Respondents prepared and ate a salad in the lab. In the brand-salient condition, product containers with the same brand name were placed next to bowls with ingredients, whereas in the brand-not-salient condition only unlabeled bowls were provided. In both conditions, respondents were aware of the brand through the instructions. The amount of ingredients provided ensured that there were leftover ingredients. As dissonance is more likely when people believe that they freely choose their behavior (Harmon-Jones, 2000), in the waste condition respondents could ask for sandwich bags to take leftover ingredients home or put leftover ingredients in a bin (only six respondents asked for bags). In the no-waste condition, respondents could take leftover ingredients home or leave these on the table for future respondents (none took ingredients home). All participants then evaluated the brand.
Our results showed the expected waste x salience interaction effect (F(1, 120) = 5.32, p = .023). When the brand was not salient, wasting did not affect brand evaluations (p = .156). In contrast, when brand was salient, brand evaluations were marginally higher when ingredients were left on the table (M = 5.19) than when these were wasted (M = 4.75, p = .069). Mediation analyses showed that dissonance was a mediator when salience was high (b = 0.27, CI [0.05, 0.58]) but not when salience was low (b = 0.13, CI [-0.15, 0.48]).
Our research shows that consumers can reduce dissonance from wasting a product with unused utility by decreasing their brand evaluations. This was found both in scenario studies and in a food consumption context. Results furthermore reveal that brand devaluation does not occur when the brand is not salient at the moment of wasting. This provides new insights to literature on consumer disposition behavior that help clarify the paradox in which consumers both waste products and do not want to waste. It also has important managerial implications. The realization that brand evaluations suffer when consumers waste products with unused utility could inspire companies to spend additional efforts on preventing this. It also provides brand managers with compelling arguments to tackle the waste issue.