Records 1 - 20 / 26356
Adapting Yet Not Adopting? Conservation Agriculture in Central Malawi
Bouwman, T.I. ; Andersson, J.A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2021
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 307 (2021). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 1 - 1.
Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been widely promoted as a pathway to sustainably intensify agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Yet despite decades of promotion, CA uptake in SSA remains sparse with only few analyses of its impacts on farming and rural livelihoods. This study, which focuses on areas in Central Malawi considered to have a relatively high uptake of CA, uses analyses of satellite images, field observations, interviews with farmers, extension workers and other people involved in CA promotion, as well as a household survey, to
investigate how CA has been adapted. We find that the three CA principles – (1) continuous minimum tillage, e.g. no-ridging, (2) permanent ground cover, and (3) crop rotation/intercropping – were not practiced as intended.
First, one-third of non-ridged land was tilled during the growing season, and half was again ridged in the following season. Second, unless crop residues were added, the soil’s surface of non-ridged plots was usually bare at planting, causing weed control problems, and an increased risk of erosion. Most farmers added large volumes of crop residues to their non-ridged plots. They collected these from the surrounding fields, but this practice severely restricted the size of these plots. Third, crop rotation/intercropping was practiced less when farmers
stopped ridging. Thus overall, very few farmers practised all of the three CA principles simultaneously. CA promotion appeared to only increase yields on plots where mulch was added, but this practice is not scalable. CA promotiondoes not seem to have provided substantial benefits for overall farm productivity, labour-savings or soil conservation.
DNA barcoding of mosquitoes collected through a nationwide survey in 2011 and 2012 in Malawi, Southeast Africa
Maekawa, Yoshihide ; Pemba, Dylo ; Kumala, Justin ; Gowelo, Steve ; Higa, Yukiko ; Futami, Kyoko ; Sawabe, Kyoko ; Tsuda, Yoshio - \ 2021
Acta Tropica 213 (2021). - ISSN 0001-706X
COI - GenBank - mosquitoes - neighbor-joining - phylogenetics - taxonomy
We conducted a nationwide survey of mosquito distribution in Malawi from November 2011 to April 2012, and from July to September 2012. Using dried specimens of mosquito adults collected during the survey, we analyzed their cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, prepared specimens, and registered the genetic information (658 bp) of 144 individuals belonging to 51 species of 10 genera in GenBank. Using the obtained genetic information, we analyzed the degree of intraspecific variation and investigated the various species from morphological and genetic perspectives. Moreover, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of the medically important species distributed from Africa to Asia and explored their geographical differentiation. Results showed that individuals morphologically classified as Culex univittatus complex included a individual of Cx. perexiguus which, to date, have not been reported in southern Africa. Furthermore, Mansonia uniformis, distributed in Africa and Asia, was revealed to belong to genetically distinct populations, with observed morphological differences of the samples suggesting that they are separate species. The results of genetic analysis further suggested that Cx. ethiopicus is not a synonym of Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, but that it is an independent species; although, in this study, the only definite morphological difference observed was in the shape of the wing scales. Further morphological and genetic investigation of individuals of these species, including larvae, is highly recommended.
The impact of mussel seed fishery on the dynamics of wild subtidal mussel beds in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands
Smaal, A.C. ; Craeymeersch, J.A. ; Stralen, M.R. van - \ 2021
Journal of Sea Research 167 (2021). - ISSN 1385-1101
Beyond baci-design - Fishery - Mussel stocks - Time series
For the cultivation of mussels, wild stocks of juveniles are harvested to collect mussel seed as starting material for the culture. These wild stocks are found in the sublittoral western Wadden Sea (NL). After summer spat fall, fisheries in Autumn on newly formed beds is carried out in areas that have the risk of washing away due to storms, or are vulnerable for starfish predation. These wild beds are considered as relatively unstable. On remaining more stable wild beds, seed fishery is carried out in next Spring. As the Wadden Sea is a nature conservation area, mussel seed fisheries is only allowed if no negative impacts on the nature management objectives can be expected. Seed fishery impacts were addressed in an extensive study including effects on sediment composition, macrobenthos and epifauna. In this paper we describe the effects of mussel seed fisheries on the development of the mussel stocks with and without fisheries in 39 pairwise studied impact and control plots. Stocks on seed beds in areas of the sublittoral Western Wadden Sea that are known as unstable, show a large decline within one year after settlement, also when there is no seed fishery. Harvesting seed on more stable beds in Spring results in a statistical significant reduction in stock size, which lasts for a period of two years after the first fishery. For the longer term, there is a gradual decline of the mussel stocks on all studied plots. On three out of the 39 plots, mussel biomass showed a large increase, both on control and impact parts. Also these mussel beds declined and eventually disappeared. A difference in life expectancy of fished and unfished beds was not demonstrated. It is concluded that sublittoral beds gradually disappear, also without fisheries. As a consequence, new recruitment is of critical importance for the long-term survival of sublittoral mussel beds. As we found no significant difference between recruitment on fished and control parts, there are no indications for negative impacts of seed fishery on new recruitment.
Design of a reference architecture for developing smart warehouses in industry 4.0
Geest, Maarten van; Tekinerdogan, Bedir ; Catal, Cagatay - \ 2021
Computers in Industry 124 (2021). - ISSN 0166-3615
Case study research - Reference architecture - Smart warehouses - Software architecture
Smart warehousing aims at increasing the overall service quality, productivity, and efficiency while minimizing the costs and failures. For designing the reference architecture, we apply a domain-driven architecture design approach and use the architecture design knowledge as presented in the software architecture design literature. We first provide the results of a thorough domain analysis process to smart warehouses to identify the key concerns that shape the architecture of smart warehouses. The domain model is presented using feature diagrams that show the common and variant features of smart warehouses. The domain analysis process is followed by the architecture design process, whereby we have used architecture viewpoints for modeling the reference architecture. Different businesses require different kinds of smart warehouses. Therefore, we present the generic business process model for both traditional warehouses and smart warehouses. The business modeling process is followed by the architecture design process, whereby we have used architecture viewpoints for modeling the reference architecture. Once the reference architecture is designed, a case study has been used to evaluate the proposed reference architecture. The case study has been conducted at a large warehouse in the food industry and illustrates the overall design method and presents the lessons learned.
Fractionation platform for target identification using off-line directed two-dimensional chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance
Laan, Tom van der; Elfrink, Hyung ; Azadi-Chegeni, Fatemeh ; Dubbelman, Anne Charlotte ; Harms, Amy C. ; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Braumann, Ulrich ; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Duynhoven, John van; Hankemeier, Thomas - \ 2021
Analytica Chimica Acta 1142 (2021). - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 28 - 37.
Food - Identification - Mass spectrometry - Metabolomics - Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - Two-dimensional chromatography
The unambiguous identification of unknown compounds is of utmost importance in the field of metabolomics. However, current identification workflows often suffer from error-sensitive methodologies, which may lead to incorrect structure annotations of small molecules. Therefore, we have developed a comprehensive identification workflow including two highly complementary techniques, i.e. liquid chromatography (LC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and used it to identify five taste-related retention time and m/z features in soy sauce. An off-line directed two-dimensional separation was performed in order to purify the features prior to the identification. Fractions collected during the first dimension separation (reversed phase low pH) were evaluated for the presence of remaining impurities next to the features of interest. Based on the separation between the feature and impurities, the most orthogonal second dimension chromatography (hydrophilic interaction chromatography or reversed phase high pH) was selected for further purification. Unknown compounds down to tens of micromolar concentrations were tentatively annotated by MS and structurally confirmed by MS and NMR. The mass (0.4–4.2 μg) and purity of the isolated compounds were sufficient for the acquisition of one and two-dimensional NMR spectra. The use of a directed two-dimensional chromatography allowed for a fractionation that was tailored to each feature and remaining impurities. This makes the fractionation more widely applicable to different sample matrices than one-dimensional or fixed two-dimensional chromatography. Five proline-based 2,5-diketopiperazines were successfully identified in soy sauce. These cyclic dipeptides might contribute to taste by giving a bitter flavour or indirectly enhancing umami flavour.
Variability in lag duration of Listeria monocytogenes strains in half Fraser enrichment broth after stress affects the detection efficacy using the ISO 11290-1 method
Bannenberg, Jasper W. ; Abee, Tjakko ; Zwietering, Marcel H. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den - \ 2021
International Journal of Food Microbiology 337 (2021). - ISSN 0168-1605
Detection - Enrichment - Half Fraser broth - ISO 11290-1:2017 - Listeria monocytogenes
A collection of 23 Listeria monocytogenes strains of clinical and food origin was tested for their ability to recover and grow out in half Fraser enrichment broth following the ISO 11290-1:2017 protocol. Recovery of sub-lethally heat-injured cells in half Fraser broth was compared to reference cells with no stress pre-treatment. The enrichments were followed over time by plate counts and the growth parameters were estimated with the 3-phase model which described the data best. The reference cells without stress pre-treatment showed a short lag duration, which ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 h. However, significant variation in the ability to recover after 60 °C heat stress was observed among the tested strains and resulted in a lag duration from 4.7 to 15.8 h. A subset of strains was also exposed to low-temperature acid stress, and the lag duration showed to be also stress dependent. Scenario analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using the growth parameters obtained in the enrichments. This demonstrated that when starting with one cell, the detection threshold for efficient transfer of at least one cell to the secondary enrichment step, i.e. 2 log10 CFU/ml, was not reached by 11 of 23 strains tested (48%) after exposure to 60 °C heat stress. Increasing the incubation time from 24 to 26 h and the transfer volume from 0.1 to 1.0 ml can increase the average probability to transfer at least one cell to the secondary enrichment step from 79.9% to 99.0%. When optimizing enrichment procedures, it is crucial to take strain variability into account as this can have a significant impact on the detection efficacy.
Critical success and risk factors for circular business models valorising agricultural waste and by-products
Donner, Mechthild ; Verniquet, Anne ; Broeze, Jan ; Kayser, Katrin ; Vries, Hugo De - \ 2021
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 165 (2021). - ISSN 0921-3449
Agricultural waste valorisation - Bioeconomy - Business models - Circular economy - Success factors
For a transition from a linear, ‘take-make-dispose’ economy to a sustainable usage of all constituents of renewable resources in cascading and circular pathways, new business models valorising streams that are currently considered as waste are needed. The aim of this article is to understand critical success and risk factors of eco-innovative business models that contribute to a circular economy via agricultural unavoidable waste or by-products valorisation. 39 cases were studied focusing on agricultural side stream conversion into valuable products. Semi-structured interviews were performed and secondary data collected. Cases were analysed according to types of initiatives, main objectives, resources and valorisation pathways, as well as external and internal factors that have influenced the businesses over time. Following success and risk factor categories are identified: (1) technical and logistic, (2) economic, financial and marketing, (3) organisational and spatial, (4) institutional and legal, (5) environmental, social and cultural. Herein, specific factors for the agricultural sector are innovative conversion technologies, flexible in and out logistics, joint investments in R&D, price competitiveness for bio-based products, partnerships with research organisations, space availability, subsidies, agricultural waste management regulations, local stakeholder involvement and acceptance of bio-based production processes. Insights from this study can help farmers and agribusiness managers by defining and adapting their strategies within their local contexts. They also show that for shifting from linear agro-food chains to a circular system, individual businesses need to evolve towards more dynamic and integrated business models, in which the macro-environment sets the boundary conditions for successful operations.
Energy savings in greenhouses by transition from high-pressure sodium to LED lighting
Katzin, David ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. ; Mourik, Simon van - \ 2021
Applied Energy 281 (2021). - ISSN 0306-2619
Greenhouses in high latitudes consume vast amounts of energy for heating and supplemental lighting. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been suggested as having great potential for reducing greenhouse energy use, as they are extremely efficient at converting electricity to light. However, LEDs emit very little heat, which must be compensated by the greenhouse heating system. Thus, it is unclear how much energy can be saved by LEDs when the need for extra heating is taken into account. This study presents a first analysis of the energy demands for greenhouses transitioning from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to LED lighting, providing a quantification of the total energy savings achieved by LEDs. Model simulations using GreenLight, an open source greenhouse model, were used to examine a wide range of climates, from subtropical China to arctic Sweden, and multiple settings for indoor temperature, lamp intensity, lighting duration, and insulation. In most cases, the total energy saving by transition to LEDs was 10–25%. This value was linearly correlated with the fraction of energy used for lighting before the transition, which was 40–80%. In all scenarios, LEDs reduced the energy demand for lighting but increased the demand for heating. Since energy for lighting and heating is often derived from different origins, the benefits of a transition to LEDs depend on the environmental and financial costs of the available energy sources. The framework provided here can be used to select lighting installations that make optimal use of available energy resources in the most efficient and sustainable manner.
Renewable polymers and plastics: Performance beyond the green
Pellis, Alessandro ; Malinconico, Mario ; Guarneri, Alice ; Gardossi, Lucia - \ 2021
New Biotechnology 60 (2021). - ISSN 1871-6784 - p. 146 - 158.
Bio-based industry - Bio-based plastics - Bioeconomy - Industrial biotechnology - Renewable feedstock - Sustainable chemistry
Renewable bio-based polymers are one of the effective answers that the bioeconomy offers to solve the environmental emergency connected to plastics and more specifically fossil-based plastics. Previous studies have shown that more than 70 % of the natural capital cost associated with plastic derives from the extraction and processing of fossil raw materials and that the price of fossil plastic would be on average 44 % higher if such impact was fully paid by businesses. The disclosure of the hidden costs of plastics will contribute to dispelling the myth of the expensiveness of renewable polymers. Nevertheless, the adoption of bio-based plastics in the market must be motivated by their functional properties and not merely by their green credentials. This article highlights some successful examples of synergies between chemistry and biotechnology in achieving a new generation of bio-based monomers and polymers. Their success is justified by the combination of scientific advances with positive environmental and social fallouts.
In which natural environments are people happiest? Large-scale experience sampling in the Netherlands
Vries, Sjerp De; Nieuwenhuizen, Wim ; Farjon, Hans ; Hinsberg, Arjen Van; Dirkx, Joep - \ 2021
Landscape and Urban Planning 205 (2021). - ISSN 0169-2046
Previous studies have shown that people feel happier in more natural environments than in predominantly built-up environments; however, it is less clear whether the type of natural environment matters. In a large-scale experience sampling study in the Netherlands, we explored whether happiness differs by the type of natural environment experienced. We also investigated to what extent scenic beauty, peacefulness or fascinatingness are associated with momentary happiness. Smartphone apps were developed for both iOS and Android smartphones, and made freely available in both app stores. The app, named HappyHier, sent requests to fill in a short questionnaire, starting with how happy the participant feels. The requests were programmed to oversample experiences in natural environments. Location data were provided by the GPS of the smartphone, and the type of environment was determined based on a land-use map incorporated in the app. HappyHier was launched with a media campaign starting on 1st May 2016. In the following few months, over 4000 people participated, generating over 100,000 experience samples. Multi-level analyses were conducted, controlling for, among other things, being inside or outside, type of activity, type of company and weather conditions. The participants generally felt happier in natural environments, especially at the coast and in areas with low-lying natural vegetation, such as heathlands. Whether the environment is thought to be peaceful and fascinating appears to be more important for happiness than its scenic beauty. The representativeness of the data gathered by this relatively new method was explored from several angles: people, time and location
Examining the effects of green revolution led agricultural expansion on net ecosystem service values in India using multiple valuation approaches
Sannigrahi, Srikanta ; Pilla, Francesco ; Zhang, Qi ; Chakraborti, Suman ; Wang, Ying ; Basu, Bidroha ; Basu, Arunima Sarkar ; Joshi, P.K. ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Roy, P.S. ; Sutton, Paul C. ; Bhatt, Sandeep ; Rahmat, Shahid ; Jha, Shouvik ; Singh, Laishram Kanta - \ 2021
Journal of Environmental Management 277 (2021). - ISSN 0301-4797
Ecology - Ecosystem service value - Green revolution - India - Land use change - Value transfer
Ecosystem Services (ESs) are bundles of natural processes and functions that are essential for human well-being, subsistence, and livelihoods. The ‘Green Revolution’ (GR) has substantial impact on the agricultural landscape and ESs in India. However, the effects of GR on ESs have not been adequately documented and analyzed. This leads to the main hypothesis of this work – ‘the incremental trend of ESs in India is mainly prompted by GR led agricultural innovations that took place during 1960 - 1970’. The analysis was carried out through five successive steps. First, the spatiotemporal Ecosystem Service Values (ESVs) in Billion US$ for 1985, 1995, and 2005 were estimated using several value transfer approaches. Second, the sensitivity and elasticity of different ESs to land conversion were carried out using coefficient of sensitivity and coefficient of elasticity. Third, the Geographically Weighted Regression model was performed using five explanatory factors, i.e., total crop area, crop production, crop yield, net irrigated area, and cropping intensity, to explore the cumulative and individual effects of these driving factors on ESVs. Fourth, Multi-Layer Perceptron based Artificial Neural Network was employed to estimate the normalized importance of these explanatory factors. Fifth, simple and multiple linear regression modeling was done to assess the linear associations between the driving factors and the ESs. During the observation periods, cropland, forestland and water bodies contributed to 80%–90% of ESVs, followed by grassland, mangrove, wetland and urban built-up. In all three evaluation years, the highest estimated ESVs among the nine ES categories was provided by water regulation, followed by soil formation and soil-water retention, biodiversity maintenance, waste treatment, climate regulation, and greenhouse gas regulation. Among the five explanatory factors, total crop area, crop production, and net irrigated area showed strong positive associations with ESVs, while cropping intensity exhibited a negative association. Therefore, the study reveals a strong association between GR led agricultural expansion and ESVs in India. This study suggests that there should be an urgent need for formulation of rigorous ecosystem management strategies and policies to preserve ecological integrity and flow of uninterrupted ESs and to sustain human well-being.
Are the planning targets of liquid biofuel development achievable in China under climate change?
Yan, Dan ; Liu, Litao ; Li, Jinkai ; Wu, Jiaqian ; Qin, Wei ; Werners, Saskia E. - \ 2021
Agricultural Systems 186 (2021). - ISSN 0308-521X
Climate change - Liquid biofuels - Marginal land - Non-grain energy crops
Liquid biofuels from non-grain energy crops on marginal land could become an important substitute of gasoline in the transport sector, and offer the possibility to reduce competition with food crops for land resources. However, the cultivation of energy crops is facing profound challenges due to changing temperature and precipitation in the future. To assess the impact of climate change on the potential of liquid biofuels on marginal land in China, this study used a geographic information system-based approach combined with multiple factor analysis to identify the spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for nine major energy crops in China. Climate scenarios were generated based on bias-corrected results of five different climate models under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and 8.5). Results show that climate change is projected to have a substantial impact on the land availability for biofuel production in the 2050s under both RCPs. The total amount of marginal land suitable for energy crops was 170.2 million hectares for the period of 2010–2019, and would increase in the 2050s under both RCPs. The changing pattern of area are similar under both RCP 2.6 and 8.5, only the magnitude is different. All the species are projected to have a northward spread in China. The amount of marginal land suitable for all the energy crops is projected to increase in the 2050s, except for Miscanthus floridulus, and Miscanthus lutarioriparius under RCP 8.5. However, the potential productivity of the energy crops is projected to have a substantial decrease in the 2050s. The average yields of the energy crops are only about one fourth of their yields in the 2010s due to climate change. Combined with high costs of producing biofuels and numerous ecological tradeoffs, it is likely that liquid biofuels development using 1.5 and 2-generation energy crops does not have an optimistic perspective in China.
Using word of mouth data from social media to identify asymmetric competition in food retailing
Jaeger, Lena-Christin ; Höhler, Julia - \ 2021
Journal of retailing and consumer services 58 (2021). - ISSN 0969-6989
Competition between food retailers is often assumed to be asymmetrical, whereby one retailer may compete with another retailer but not vice versa. Little is known about how (a)symmetric competition among retailers currently is. One way to investigate this is to use word of mouth data. A mixed methods analysis of customer comments on social media confirms the existence of asymmetric competition among German food retailers, mainly between supermarkets and discounters. Overall, consumers compare competitors frequently on the basis of their assortments, the price-performance ratio as well as quality and freshness. The results have implications for competition policy and strategic management.
Foams and air-water interfaces stabilised by mildly purified rapeseed proteins after defatting
Yang, Jack ; Faber, Iris ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. ; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V. ; Linden, Erik van der; Sagis, Leonard M.C. - \ 2021
Food Hydrocolloids 112 (2021). - ISSN 0268-005X
Atomic force microscopy - Foam - Lissajous plots - Oleosomes - Rapeseed proteins - Surface rheology
Rapeseed protein isolate has promising functional properties (e.g. emulsifying and foaming), but is often extracted with intensive purification steps. This requires a considerable use of resources and damages protein functionality regarding, for instance, foam stabilization. We studied the interfacial and foaming properties of a mildly obtained rapeseed protein concentrate that contained oleosomes, and of its derived defatted rapeseed protein concentrate after solvent-based defatting. The air-water interfaces were deformed with large amplitude dilatational and shear deformations, which were analysed with Lissajous plots. At low bulk concentrations (0.01% w/w), the rapeseed protein-stabilised interfaces behaved as viscoelastic solids. The interfacial films became weaker and more stretchable at higher concentrations, suggesting that more non-protein components interfere with the intermolecular interactions between the adsorbed proteins at higher bulk concentrations. We confirmed the presence of such non-protein components at the interface by analysing Langmuir-Blodgett films with atomic force microscopy. The stability and air bubble size of foams prepared with either rapeseed protein concentrate or defatted rapeseed protein concentrate were similar. Mild purification of rapeseed resulted in a protein concentrate containing lipids in their native oleosome form, which have a minor destabilizing effect on foams. We conclude that mild purification is a suitable method to obtain sustainably produced protein concentrates with promising foaming properties.
Shifting the imbalance: Intentional reuse of Dutch sewage effluent in sub-surface irrigation
Narain-Ford, Dominique M. ; Bartholomeus, Ruud P. ; Raterman, Bernard ; Zaanen, Ian van; Laak, Thomas T. ter; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Dekker, Stefan C. - \ 2021
Science of the Total Environment 752 (2021). - ISSN 0048-9697
Worldwide, agricultural irrigation currently accounts for 69% of freshwater withdrawal. Countries with a temperate climate, such as the Netherlands, experience periodic freshwater shortages in agriculture. The pressure on available freshwater will increase due to climate change and a growing demand for freshwater by e.g. industrial activities. Possible alternative water resources are considered in order to meet the current and future water demand. In this study we explore where, and how much, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent can directly be reused in agricultural sub-surface irrigation (SSI) during an average and a dry season scenario, for all active (335) Dutch STPs. SSI systems may have a higher water demand as part of the STP effluent is transported with groundwater flow, although aboveground irrigation has a loss of water due to interception. Furthermore, such aboveground irrigation systems provide direct contact of crops with irrigation water. SSI systems provide a soil barrier which may function as a filter and buffer zone. In the Dutch situation, direct intentional reuse of STP effluent can fulfill up to 25% of croplands SSI water demand present within a five-kilometer transport buffer from the STPs during an average season and 17% during a dry season. Hereto, respectively, 78% and 84% of the total available Dutch STP effluent would be used. Thus, the intentional direct STP effluent reuse in agricultural SSI has the potential to satisfy a significant amount of the agricultural water demand at a national scale, presuming responsible reuse: safe applications for humans and environment and no limiting effects on water availability for other actors.
Genome-guided analysis allows the identification of novel physiological traits in Trichococcus species
Strepis, Nikolaos ; Naranjo, Henry D. ; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P. ; Göker, Markus ; Shapiro, Nicole ; Kyrpides, Nikos C. ; Klenk, Hans Peter ; Schaap, Peter ; Stams, Fons ; Machado de Sousa, Diana - \ 2020
Wageningen University & Research
Comparative genomics - Protein domains - Halophilic - Psychrophilic - 1,3-propanediol
Background The genus Trichococcus currently contains nine species: T. flocculiformis, T. pasteurii, T. palustris, T. collinsii, T. patagoniensis, T. ilyis, T. paludicola, T. alkaliphilus, and T. shcherbakoviae. In general, Trichococcus species can degrade a wide range of carbohydrates. However, only T. pasteurii and a non-characterized strain of Trichococcus, strain ES5, have the capacity of converting glycerol to mainly 1,3-propanediol. Comparative genomic analysis of Trichococcus species provides the opportunity to further explore the physiological potential and uncover novel properties of this genus. Results In this study, a genotype-phenotype comparative analysis of Trichococcus strains was performed. The genome of Trichococcus strain ES5 was sequenced and included in the comparison with the other nine type strains. Genes encoding functions related to e.g. the utilization of different carbon sources (glycerol, arabinan and alginate), antibiotic resistance, tolerance to low temperature and osmoregulation could be identified in all the sequences analysed. T. pasteurii and Trichococcus strain ES5 contain a operon with genes encoding necessary enzymes for 1,3-PDO production from glycerol. All the analysed genomes comprise genes encoding for cold shock domains, but only five of the Trichococcus species can grow at 0 °C. Protein domains associated to osmoregulation mechanisms are encoded in the genomes of all Trichococcus species, except in T. palustris, which had a lower resistance to salinity than the other nine studied Trichococcus strains. Conclusions Genome analysis and comparison of ten Trichococcus strains allowed the identification of physiological traits related to substrate utilization and environmental stress resistance (e.g. to cold and salinity). Some substrates were used by single species, e.g. alginate by T. collinsii and arabinan by T. alkaliphilus. Strain ES5 may represent a subspecies of Trichococcus flocculiformis and contrary to the type strain (DSM 2094T), is able to grow on glycerol with the production of 1,3-propanediol.
Effecten vernattingsmaatregelen op veenweidebedrijven in Noord-Holland : Technische en economische consequenties en effecten op bodemdaling en broeikasgasemissie
Hoving, I.E. ; Holshof, G. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1274) - 113
Model calculations have been used to explore the technical and economic consequences and effects on soil subsidence and greenhouse gas emissions for a dairy farm on peat soil in the province North Holland of The Netherlands (IPV project farm) of wetting measures. The wetting measures concerned pump-driven submerged drains with different target levels for the groundwater table (30, 40 and 50 cm below mowing field), ditch water level raising, trench infiltration and cattail cultivation and combinations of these measures, which are being experimented within the IPV project. The measures have been compared with a common situation with a ditch water level of 50 cm below mowing field. Apart from pump-controlled submerged drains with a target level for the groundwater table of 50 cm below mowing field, all waterlogging measures and combinations of measures led to extra waterlogging and loss of grass production, which in particular increased the costs for feed purchase. As a result, the economic operating result can be drastically reduced. Pump-driven submerged drains with a target groundwater level of 30 cm below ground level and trench infiltration at a trench distance of 12,5 m gave the largest estimated reduction in ground level subsidence and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 en N2O). Trench infiltration appears to be more cost effective, given the high cost of pump-controlled submerged drains.
Arousal influences olfactory abilities in adults with different degree of food neophobia
Menghi, Leonardo ; Khomenko, Iuliia ; Pedrotti, Michele ; Cliceri, Danny ; Aprea, Eugenio ; Endrizzi, Isabella ; Cavazzana, Annachiara ; Biasioli, Franco ; Giacalone, Davide ; Gasperi, Flavia - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020). - ISSN 2045-2322
Food neophobia, i.e., the aversion to novel foods, and olfaction are both factors strongly affecting food choices. Mounting evidence suggests a higher arousal towards food as a key factor underlying the reluctance to eat what is unfamiliar to us. As the role of olfaction behind this phenomenon is poorly understood, we explored the associations between food neophobia and trait anxiety, olfactory functions (odor threshold, discrimination and identification) and retronasal aroma release from a reference food in a healthy cohort of 83 adult volunteers. We grouped participants in Low-Neophobics or neophilics (n = 35), Medium-Neophobics (n = 32) and High-Neophobics (n = 16) according to the widely recognized Food Neophobia Scale. Participants with higher neophobic tendencies were found to have marginally higher trait anxiety levels than neophilics (p = 0.10). A lower global olfactory functioning and odor discrimination abilities characterized High-Neophobics, while Medium-Neophobics showed a higher odor sensitiveness than Low-Neophobics. Lastly, High-Neophobics showed a lower extent of retronasal aroma release, likely due to a shorter duration of oral processing and higher anxiety-related physiological responses (such as breathing rate). In summary, this study supports the assumption that the conflicting relationship that neophobics have with food may be led by higher levels of arousal toward foods, rather than different chemosensory functions.
Groenvoorziening in sociale woningbouw : Stand van zaken in literatuur en praktijk voor het project ‘Prettig Groen Wonen’
Klostermann, Judith ; Krijgsman, Amanda ; Snep, Robbert - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 3021) - 78
The objective of the ‘Pleasant Green Living’ project is to investigate what a healthy, green public space around social housing should look like and how it can be realized. In this document, current knowledge and experiences from pilot projects are reported. Social housing is inhabited by vulnerable groups such as low-income households. It is unknow what green infrastructure social tenants would like to have. Example projects provide an indication that residents value a meeting place, play areas, and colorful and diverse greenery. It is difficult to identify the costs of greenery. Investing in residents’ participation for greening of their environment has positive results: it makes residents proud of their neighborhood, it leads to more social cohesion and more careful use of the outdoor space. The energy transition and climate adaptation must be included in the restructuring of these neighborhoods.
Stakeholder views on the potential impact of a sugar-sweetened beverages tax on the budgets, dietary intake, and health of lower and higher socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands
Djojosoeparto, Sanne K. ; Eykelenboom, Michelle ; Poelman, Maartje P. ; Stralen, Maartje M. van; Renders, Carry M. ; Olthof, Margreet R. ; Steenhuis, Ingrid H.M. ; Kamphuis, Carlijn B.M. - \ 2020
Archives of Public Health 78 (2020). - ISSN 0778-7367
Budgets - Dietary intake - Health - Inequalities - Socioeconomic groups - Stakeholder views - Sugar-sweetened beverages tax
Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity exist in many European countries. A sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) tax may contribute to a reduction of these inequalities. However, in the Netherlands, the government decided to not (yet) introduce an SSB tax, although the government has acknowledged its potential to be pro-equity. Understanding how various stakeholder groups perceive the potential effects of an SSB tax on different socioeconomic groups may provide useful insights into equity-related considerations in the debate whether or not to implement an SSB tax. This study aims to gain insight into the perceptions of stakeholder groups in the Netherlands on (1) the effects of an SSB tax on the budgets of lower and higher socioeconomic groups and (2) the impact of an SSB tax on socioeconomic inequalities in dietary intake and health. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2019 with 27 participants from various stakeholder groups in the Netherlands (i.e. health and consumer organizations, health professional associations, trade associations, academia, advisory bodies, ministries and parliamentary parties). Data were analyzed using a thematic content approach. Results: Participants from all stakeholder groups indicated that an SSB tax would have a larger impact on the budgets of lower socioeconomic groups. Participants from nearly all stakeholder groups (except trade associations) mentioned that an SSB tax could have greater health benefits among lower socioeconomic groups as these often have a higher SSB consumption and are more likely to be overweight or obese. Some participants mentioned that an SSB tax may have no or adverse health effects among lower socioeconomic groups (e.g. compensation of lower SSB consumption with other unhealthy behaviours). Some participants emphasised that an SSB tax should only be introduced when accompanied by other interventions (e.g. offering healthy alternatives), to make it easier for lower socioeconomic groups to lower their SSB consumption in response to an SSB tax, and to prevent adverse health effects. Conclusions: Participants believed an SSB tax could contribute to a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in dietary intake and health. However, additional interventions facilitating the reduction of SSB consumption in lower socioeconomic groups were recommended.