Effects of an artificial hay aroma and compound feed formulation on feed intake pattern, rumen function and milk production in lactating dairy cows
Binti Abd Rahim, Sholeha ; Laar, Harmen van; Dijkstra, J. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Fowers, R. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Leen, F. ; Martín-Tereso, J. - \ 2020
Animal 14 (2020)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 529 - 537.
The Kempen system is a dairy feeding system in which diet is provided in the form of a compound feed (CF) and hay offered ad libitum. Ad libitum access to CF and hay allows cows in this system to achieve a high DM intake (DMI). Out of physiological concerns, the voluntary hay intake could be increased and the consumption pattern of CF could be manipulated to maintain proper rumen functioning and health. This study investigated the effects of an artificial hay aroma and CF formulation on feed intake pattern, rumen function and milk production in mid- to late-lactating dairy cows. Twenty Holstein–Friesian cows were assigned to four treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diet consisted of CF and grass hay (GH), fed separately, and both offered ad libitum, although CF supply was restricted in maximum meal size and speed of supply by an electronic system. Treatments were the combination of two CF formulations – high in starch (CHS) and fibre (CHF); and two GH – untreated (UGH) and the same hay treated with an artificial aroma (TGH). Meal criteria were determined using three-population Gaussian–Gaussian–Weibull density functions. No GH × CF interaction effects on feed intake pattern characteristics were found. Total DMI and CF intake, but not GH intake, were greater (P < 0.01) in TGH treatment, and feed intake was not affected by type of CF. Total visits to feeders per day, visits to the GH feeder, visits to the CF feeder and CF eating time (all P < 0.01) were significantly greater in cows fed with TGH. Meal frequency, meal size and meal duration were unaffected by treatments. Cows fed CHF had a greater milk fat (P = 0.02), milk urea content (P < 0.01) and a greater milk fat yield (P < 0.01). Cows fed TGH had a greater milk lactose content and lactose yield (P < 0.05), and milk urea content (P < 0.01). Cows fed TGH had smaller molar proportions of acetic acid and greater molar proportions of propionic acid compared with UGH. In conclusion, treatment of GH with an artificial aroma increased CF intake and total DMI, but did not affect hay intake. Additionally, GH treatment increased the frequency of visits to both feeders, and affected rumen volatile fatty acid profile. Type of CF did not affect meal patterns, ruminal pH, nor fermentation profiles.
A systematic comparison of ectoine production from upgraded biogas using Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum and a mixed haloalkaliphilic consortium
Cantera, Sara ; Phandanouvong-Lozano, Vienvilay ; Pascual, Celia ; García-Encina, Pedro A. ; Lebrero, Raquel ; Hay, Anthony ; Muñoz, Raúl - \ 2020
Waste Management 102 (2020). - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 773 - 781.
Biogas-biorefinery - Ectoine - Haloalkaliphilic methanotrophs - Methane treatment
Biogas is the byproduct of anaerobic digestion with the highest valorization potential, however its full exploitation is limited by the lack of tax incentives and the inherent presence of pollutants. The development of technologies for biogas conversion into added-value products is crucial in order to ensure the competitiveness of this bioresource. This study constitutes the first proof of concept of upgraded biogas bioconversion into the high profit margin product ectoine. Ectoine represents the most expensive product synthesized by microorganisms with a retail value of 1000 $ kg-1 and a yearly increasing demand that currently entails a total market opportunity of 15000 M€. First, the production of ectoine from upgraded biogas was assessed in batch bioreactors. The presence of H2S did not exert a negative effect on the growth of the haloalkaliphilic ectoine producers, and ectoine yields up to 49 mg g biomass-1 were obtained. A second experiment conducted in continuous bubble column bioreactors confirmed the feasibility of the process under continuous mode (with ectoine yields of 109 mg g biomass-1). Finally, this study revealed that the removal of toxic compounds (i.e. medium dilution rate of 0.5 day-1) and process operation with a consortium composed of methylotrophic/non-methylotrophic ectoine producers enhanced upgraded biogas bioconversion. This research discloses the basis for the application of this innovative technology and could boost the economic performance of anaerobic digestion.
The Beneficial Effect of Farm Milk Consumption on Asthma, Allergies, and Infections: From Meta-Analysis of Evidence to Clinical Trial
Brick, Tabea ; Hettinga, Kasper ; Kirchner, Benedikt ; Pfaffl, Michael W. ; Ege, Markus Johannes - \ 2020
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 8 (2020)3. - ISSN 2213-2198 - p. 878 - 889.e3.
Allergies - Asthma - Farm exposures - Farm milk - Milk components - Raw cow's milk - Respiratory infections
The low prevalence of asthma and allergies in farm children has partially been ascribed to the consumption of raw cow's milk. A literature search identified 12 publications on 8 pertinent studies. A meta-analysis corroborated the protective effect of raw milk consumption early in life (<1 to 5 years, according to study) on asthma (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.49-0.69), current wheeze (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78), hay fever or allergic rhinitis (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.82), and atopic sensitization (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.95). The effect particularly on asthma was observed not only in children raised on farms (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.82) but also in children living in rural areas but not on a farm (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.74). This demonstrates that the effect of farm milk consumption is independent of other farm exposures and that children not living on a farm can theoretically profit from this effect. Because of the minimal but real risk of life-threatening infections, however, consumption of raw milk and products thereof is strongly discouraged. Raw farm milk and industrially processed milk differ in many instances including removal of cellular components, manipulation of the fat fraction, and various degrees of heating. Preliminary evidence attributes the effect to heat-labile molecules and components residing in the fat fraction. The Milk Against Respiratory Tract Infections and Asthma (MARTHA) trial is currently testing the protective effect of microbiologically safe, minimally processed cow's milk against standard ultra-heat-treated milk in children from 6 months to 3 years with the primary outcome of an asthma diagnosis until age 5 years. If successful, this approach might provide a simple but effective prevention strategy.
Influência do ambiente de armazenamento na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br
Silva, Girlânio Holanda da; Toledo, Mariana Zampar ; Teixeira, Renake Nogueira ; Rossi, Rubiana Falopa ; Nakagawa, João - \ 2019
Journal of seed science 41 (2019)3. - ISSN 2317-1537 - p. 286 - 292.
Conservation - Germination - Physiological quality
Millet is a species of the grass family used in cattle pastures, for hay, for silage, and in soil cover in no-tillage systems. However, studies on seed production and post-harvest techniques for this species have not been sufficiently developed, considering the demand for and potential of this crop. The objective of this study was to monitor the physiological quality of millet seeds stored in porous packaging. Millet seeds were stored under four ambient conditions (natural laboratory environment, dry chamber, refrigerator, and freezer). Physiological quality was evaluated by germination and vigor tests before and during storage each year, up to six years for the dry chamber and natural laboratory environment, and up to 12 years for the refrigerator and freezer. Analysis of variance was conducted on the data, which were in 4 × 6 and 2 × 12 (environment and storage period) factorial arrangements. The means of the environments were compared by the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05) and the storage periods by regression analysis. The germination capacity of millet seeds is best conserved in a refrigerator and freezer, and they remain viable for up to twelve years of storage under these conditions.
Modification of the equine gastrointestinal microbiota by Jerusalem artichoke meal supplementation
Glatter, M. ; Borewicz, K. ; Bogert, B. van den; Wensch-Dorendorf, M. ; Bochnia, M. ; Greef, J.M. ; Bachmann, M. ; Smidt, H. ; Breves, G. ; Zeyner, A. - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of natural prebiotic active compounds on the microbial composition in different regions of the equine gastrointestinal tract. Twelve adult horses (body weight [bwt] 534 ± 64.5 kg; age 14 ± 7.5 years) were randomly divided into two feeding groups. Six horses received a basal diet consisting of 1.5 kg hay/ 100 kg bwt x d-1 and oat grains equal to 1.19 g starch/kg bwt x d-1, supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke meal providing prebiotic fructooligosaccharides + inulin in a quantity of 0.15 g/kg bwt x d-1. The remaining horses received a placebo added to the basal diet. The horses were fed for 21 d and euthanized at the end of the feeding period. Digesta samples from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract were taken, DNA extracted and the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified. Supplementation with the prebiotic increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05), with a concurrent reduction of the relative abundance of Streptococcus mainly in the stomach (P < 0.05). In the hindgut, the supplemental prebiotic also increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus but further reduced the relative abundance of fibrolytic bacteria, specifically the unclassified members of the families Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.05) and Ruminococcaceae. The relative abundance of the genus Ruminococcus increased solely in the caecum and colon transversum. Overall, the addition of the prebiotic significantly increased the diversity in nearly all parts of the gastrointestinal tract (P < 0.05). The feeding of this natural prebiotic compound to horses had an impact on the microbial community in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the effect on the bacterial community in the foregut (especially the stomach) was more pronounced in comparison to the effect in the hindgut. Therefore, the impact on stomach health should be carefully considered.
Deadly banana fungus reaches Latin America
Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2019
Energy and nitrogen balance of dairy cattle as affected by provision of different essential amino acid profiles at the same metabolizable protein supply
Nichols, K. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8963 - 8976.
amino acid imbalance - energy balance - metabolizable protein - milk nitrogen efficiency - nitrogen balance
Amino acid composition of metabolizable protein (MP) is important in dairy cattle diets, but effects of AA imbalances on energy and N utilization are unclear. This study determined the effect of different AA profiles within a constant supplemental MP level on whole-body energy and N partitioning in dairy cattle. Five rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (2.8 ± 0.4 lactations; 81 ± 11 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design in which each experimental period consisted of 5 d of continuous abomasal infusion followed by 2 d of rest. A total mixed ration consisting of 58% corn silage, 16% alfalfa hay, and 26% concentrate (dry matter basis) was formulated to meet 100 and 83% of net energy and MP requirements, respectively, and was fed at 90% of ad libitum intake by individual cow. Abomasal infusion treatments were saline (SAL) or 562 g/d of essential AA delivered in 4 profiles where individual AA content corresponded to their relative content in casein. The profiles were (1) a complete essential amino acid mixture (EAAC), (2) Ile, Leu, and Val (ILV), (3) His, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, Val (GR1+ILV), and (4) Arg, His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp (GR1+ALT). The experiment was conducted in climate respiration chambers to determine energy and N balance in conjunction with milk production and composition, digestibility, and plasma constituents. Compared with SAL, infusion of EAAC increased milk, protein, and lactose yield, increased energy retained as body protein, and did not affect milk N efficiency. Total N intake and urine N output was higher with all AA infusions relative to SAL. Compared with EAAC, infusions of GR1+ILV and GR1+ALT produced the same milk yield and the same yield and content of milk fat, protein, and lactose, and had similar energy and N retention. Milk N efficiency was not different between EAAC and GR1+ILV, but was lower with GR1+ALT compared with EAAC, and tended to be lower with GR1+ALT compared with GR1+ILV. Infusion of ILV tended to decrease dry matter intake compared with the other AA infusions. Milk production and composition was not different between ILV and SAL. Compared with EAAC, infusion of ILV decreased or tended to decrease milk, protein, and lactose yields and milk protein content, and increased milk fat and lactose content. Milk N efficiency decreased with ILV compared with SAL, EAAC, and GR1+ILV. Milk urea concentration was not affected by essential amino acid (EAA) infusions. Plasma urea concentration did not differ between EAAC and SAL, tended to increase with ILV and GR1+ILV over SAL, and increased with GR1+ALT compared with EAAC and SAL. In conclusion, removing Arg, Lys, and Thr or removing Ile, Leu, and Val from a complete EAA profile when the total amount of EAA infused remained constant did not impair milk production, but milk N efficiency decreased when Ile, Leu, and Val were absent. Infusion of only Ile, Leu, and Val decreased milk protein yield and content and reduced milk N efficiency compared with a complete EAA profile.
Expression of genes related to energy metabolism and the unfolded protein response in dairy cow mammary cells is affected differently during dietary supplementation with energy from protein and fat
Nichols, K. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Laar, H. van; Kim, J.J.M. ; Cant, J.P. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6603 - 6613.
hydrogenated palm fatty acid - mammary cell - rumen-protected protein - tricarboxylic acid cycle - unfolded protein response
Secretory capacity of bovine mammary glands is enabled by a high number of secretory cells and their ability to use a range of metabolites to produce milk components. We isolated RNA from milk fat to measure expression of genes involved in energy-yielding pathways and the unfolded protein response in mammary glands of lactating cows given supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. We hypothesized that PT and FT would affect expression of genes in the branched-chain AA catabolic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle based on the different energy types (aminogenic versus lipogenic) used to synthesize milk components. We also hypothesized that the response of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis via the unfolded protein response would reflect the increase in milk production stimulated by PT and FT. Fifty-six multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter basis) for a 28-d control period. Experimental rations were then fed for 28 d, consisting of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF); (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF); (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF); or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on dry matter basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a dry matter basis. RNA from milk fat samples collected on d 27 of each period underwent real-time quantitative PCR. Energy from protein increased expression of BCAT1 (branched-chain amino acid transferase 1) mRNA, but only at the LF level, and tended to decrease expression of mRNA encoding the main subunit of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. mRNA expression of malic enzyme, a proposed channeling route for AA though the TCA cycle, was decreased by PT, but only at the LF level. Expression of genes associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis was not affected by PT or FT. Energy from fat had no independent effect on genes related to ER homeostasis. At the LF level, PT activated XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) mRNA. At the HF level, PT increased mRNA expression of the gene encoding GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 34). These findings support our hypothesis that mammary cells use aminogenic and lipogenic precursors differently for milk component production when dietary intervention alters AA and fatty acid supply. They also suggest that mammary cells respond to increased AA supply through mechanisms of ER homeostasis, dependent on the presence of FT.
Microbial Diversity and Organic Acid Production of Guinea Pig Faecal Samples
Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul ; Oost, Hans van der; Oost, John van der; Vliet, Daan M. van; Plugge, Caroline M. - \ 2019
Current Microbiology 76 (2019)4. - ISSN 0343-8651 - p. 425 - 434.
The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) or cavy is a grass-eating rodent. Its main diet consists of grass or hay, which comprises cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and their derivatives. Here, the microbial diversity of faecal samples of two guinea pigs and microbial enrichments made with substrates, including starch waste and dried grass, were investigated along with organic acid production profiles. The microbial communities of the faecal samples were dominated by the phyla Bacteroidetes (40%) and Firmicutes (36%). Bacteroidales S24-7 (11% in Cavy 1 and 21% in Cavy 2) was the most abundant order. At genus level, many microorganisms remained unclassified. Different carbon sources were used for organic acid production in faecal enrichments. The dominant bacterial groups in the secondary enrichments with dried grass, starch waste and xylose were closely related to Prevotella and Blautia. Acetate was the predominant organic acid from all enrichments. The organic acid production profiles corresponded to a mixed acid fermentation but differed depending on the substrate. Eight phylogenetically different isolates were obtained, including a novel Streptococcus species, strain Cavy grass 6. This strain had a low abundance (1%) in one of the faecal samples but was enriched in the dried grass enrichment (3%). Cavy grass 6, a fast-growing heterolactic bacterium, ferments cellobiose to lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol. Our results show that cavy faecal samples can be applied as microbial source for organic acid production from complex organic substrates. The cavy gut contains many as-yet-uncultivated bacteria which may be appropriate targets for future studies.
Mammary gland utilization of amino acids and energy metabolites differs when dairy cow rations are isoenergetically supplemented with protein and fat
Nichols, K. ; Laar, H. van; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1160 - 1175.
amino acid - hydrogenated palm fatty acid - lactose synthesis - mammary gland - protein synthesis
Mammary gland utilization of AA and other metabolites in response to supplemental energy from protein (PT) and supplemental energy from fat (FT) was tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design. Fifty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were adapted during a 28-d control period to a basal total mixed ration consisting of 34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Experimental rations were fed for 28 d immediately following the control period and consisted of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF), (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF), (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF), and (4) high protein, high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the high-protein (HP) and high-fat (HF) diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically [net energy (MJ/d) basis] with 2.0 kg/d rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on a DM basis) and 0.68 kg/d hydrogenated palm fatty acids on a DM basis. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected on d 28 of both periods. Isoenergetic supplements (MJ/d) of protein and fat independently and additively increased milk yield, PT increased protein yield, and FT increased fat yield. A PT × FT interaction affected arterial concentration of all essential AA (EAA) groups, where they increased in response to PT by a greater magnitude at the LF level (on average 35%) compared with the HF level (on average 14%). Mammary gland plasma flow was unaffected by PT or FT. Supplementation with PT tended to decrease mammary clearance of total EAA and decreased group 1 AA clearance by 19%. In response to PT, mammary uptake of total EAA and group 2 AA increased 12 and 14%, respectively, with significantly higher uptake of Arg, Ile, and Leu. Energy from fat had no effect on mammary clearance or uptake of any AA group. The mammary gland uptake:milk protein output ratio was not affected by FT, whereas PT increased this ratio for EAA and group 2 AA. Arterial plasma insulin concentration decreased in response to FT, in particular on the HP/HF diet, as indicated by a PT × FT interaction. Arterial concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerol, and long-chain fatty acids increased in response to FT, and concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetate decreased in response to FT only at the HP level. Mammary clearance and uptake of triacylglycerol and long-chain fatty acids increased in response to FT. Energy from PT and FT increased lactose yield despite no change in arterial glucose concentration or mammary glucose uptake. Mammary-sequestered glucose with PT or FT was used in the same amount for lactose synthesis, and a positive net mammary glucose balance was found across all treatments. Results presented here illustrate metabolic flexibility of the mammary gland in its use of aminogenic versus lipogenic substrates for milk synthesis.
Evaluation of titanium dioxide and chromic oxide as digestibility markers in ponies fed alfalfa hay in relation to marker dosing frequency
Schaafstra, F.J.W.C. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Schonewille, J.T. ; Boom, R. Van Den; Verschuur, M. ; Blok, M.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2019
Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 702 - 708.
apparent digestibility - CrO - equines - TiO - total faeces collection
In equines, Cr2O3 is widely accepted as an indigestible marker, but there are health concerns regarding the carcinogenic properties of Cr2O3. Recently, TiO2 has been suggested to be an alternative digestibility marker in equines. However, a comparison between Cr2O3 and TiO2 has not been made in equines. Six Welsh pony geldings (initial BW: 254±3 kg; 7 years of age) fed chopped alfalfa hay were used to evaluate the use of TiO2 (Ti) and Cr2O3 (Cr) as markers for calculating apparent digestibility and to investigate the effect of frequency of marker administration on the measurement of digestibility values. Diets contained 4.65 kg dry matter (DM) chopped alfalfa hay supplemented with minerals, vitamins, TiO2 (3.3 g Ti/day) and Cr2O3 (3.2 g Cr/day). Ponies were dosed with either 3.3 g Ti and 3.2 g Cr once daily (DF1) or with 1.65 g Ti and 1.60 g Cr twice daily (DF2). After adaptation to the diets and procedures for 14 days, voluntary voided faeces were collected quantitatively over 7 days and analysed for moisture, ash, Ti and Cr. Apparent total tract DM digestibility (DMD) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) were calculated using the total faecal collection (TFC) and marker method (Ti and Cr). The overall mean cumulative faecal recovery of Cr and Ti (as % of intake) were 102.0% and 96.6%, respectively. Mean daily faecal recoveries of Cr as well as of Ti were not different (P=0.323; P=0.808, respectively) between treatments. Overall daily faecal recovery of Cr differed (P=0.019) from 100% when the marker was dosed once daily, whereas overall daily faecal recovery was similar to 100% for both administration frequencies when Ti was used as a marker. For both markers, the coefficient of variation of the mean faecal marker recovery between horses was lower when the markers were administrated twice per day. Across treatments, cumulative DMD and OMD estimated with Ti were similar (P=0.345; P=0.418, respectively) compared with those values determined by TFC method. When Cr was used, the calculated cumulative DMD tended (P=0.097) to be greater compared with those estimated with TFC, and cumulative OMD values were overestimated (P=0.013). Orally supplemented Ti recovery in the faeces of ponies fed chopped alfalfa hay with Ti administered once or twice daily was close to 100%, making it the preferred marker for digestibility trials in equines.
La Guía de las MSP : cómo diseñar y facilitar asociaciones de múltiples partes interesadas
Brouwer, J.H. ; Woodhill, A.J. ; Hemmati, Minu ; Verhoosel, K.S. ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation - ISBN 9781788530293 - 183 p.
En los últimos años, las asociaciones de múltiples partes interesadas (MSP, por sus siglas en Inglés) se han vuelto populares por enfrentar los complejos desafíos del desarrollo sostenible. Esta guía proporciona un marco práctico para el diseño y la facilitación de estos procesos de colaboración que funcionan más allá de los límites de las empresas, el gobierno, la sociedad civil y la ciencia. La guía vincula los fundamentos subyacentes de las asociaciones de múltiples partes interesadas, con un modelo de proceso de cuatro fases claro, un conjunto de siete principios básicos, ideas clave para la facilitación y 60 herramientas participativas para el análisis, la planificación y la toma de decisiones.
La Guía se ha escrito para aquellos directamente involucrados en las MSP, como parte interesada, líder, facilitador o financiador, para proporcionar los fundamentos conceptuales y las herramientas prácticas que sustentan las alianzas exitosas.
Lo que hay en la Guía se basa en la experiencia directa del personal del Wageningen Centro de Innovación para el Desarrollo (WCDI) de la Universidad de Wageningen, en el apoyo de procesos de MSP en muchos países alrededor del mundo. La guía también compila las ideas y materiales detrás del curso internacional anual de CDI de tres semanas para facilitar las MSP y el aprendizaje social.
Este trabajo ha sido inspirado por la motivación y la pasión que surge cuando las personas se atreven a “caminar en los zapatos del otro” para encontrar nuevos caminos hacia ambiciones compartidas para el futuro.
Intensification of hay production on natural Ethiopian pastures through application of manure and synthetic fertiliser
Ndambi, O.A. ; Wassink, G. ; Nagassa, Merga - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (DairyBISS Research Brief 02) - 3 p.
The burden of cardiovascular diseases among us states, 1990-2016
Roth, Gregory A. ; Johnson, Catherine O. ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Ahmed, Muktar ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ansari, Hossein ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Awoke, Tadesse ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bennett, Derrick ; Bensenor, Isabela ; Biadgilign, Sibhatu ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Davletov, Kairat ; Dharmaratne, Samath ; Ding, Eric L. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Feigin, Valery ; Fernandes, João ; Frostad, Joseph ; Gebru, Alemseged ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru ; Griswold, Max ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hassen, Hamid Yimam ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon ; Heckbert, Susan R. ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; James, Spencer Lewis ; Jara, Dube ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khera, Sahil ; Khoja, Abdullah T. ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Daniel ; Kolte, Dhaval ; Lal, Dharmesh ; Larsson, Anders ; Linn, Shai ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mazidi, Mohsen ; Meier, Toni ; Mendoza, Walter ; Mensah, George A. ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Moran, Andrew Edward ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nguyen, Minh ; Ong, Kanyin Liane ; Owolabi, Mayowa ; Pletcher, Martin ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Purcell, Caroline A. ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rahman, Mahfuzar ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Reitsma, Marissa Bettay ; Renzaho, Andre M.N. ; Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus ; Safiri, Saeid ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Sartorius, Benn ; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Silva, Diego ; Stranges, Saverio ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele ; Thakur, J.S. ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tuzcu, E.M. ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Vlassov, Vasiliy ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wakayo, Tolassa ; Weintraub, Robert ; Wolfe, Charles ; Workicho, Abdulhalik ; Xu, Gelin ; Yadgir, Simon ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Zipkin, Ben ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2018
JAMA Cardiology 3 (2018)5. - ISSN 2380-6583 - p. 375 - 389.
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017. Exposures: Residing in the United States. Main outcomes ans measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-Adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors. Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
Feed and nitrogen efficiency are affected differently but milk lactose production is stimulated equally when isoenergetic protein and fat is supplemented in lactating dairy cow diets
Nichols, K. ; Bannink, A. ; Pacheco, S. ; Valenberg, H.J. van; Dijkstra, J. ; Laar, H. van - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7857 - 7870.
digestibility - hydrogenated palm fatty acid - milk lactose - rumen-protected protein
Fifty-six Holstein-Friesian cows were used in a randomized complete block design to test the effects of supplemental energy from protein (PT) and fat (FT) on lactation performance and nutrient digestibility in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. During the control period, cows were adapted for 28 d to a basal total mixed ration consisting of 34% grass silage, 33% corn silage, 5% grass hay, and 28% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Experimental rations were fed for 28 d immediately following the control period and consisted of (1) low protein, low fat (LP/LF), (2) high protein, low fat (HP/LF), (3) low protein, high fat (LP/HF), or (4) high protein and high fat (HP/HF). To obtain the HP and HF diets, intake of the basal ration was restricted and supplemented isoenergetically (net energy basis) with 2.0 kg/d of rumen-protected protein (soybean + rapeseed, 50:50 mixture on DM basis) and 0.68 kg/d of hydrogenated palm fatty acids (FA) on a DM basis. Milk production and composition, nutrient intake, and apparent digestibility were measured during the final 7 d of the control and experimental periods. No interaction was found between PT and FT on milk production and composition. Yields of milk, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and lactose increased in response to PT and FT and lactose concentration was unaffected by treatment. Milk protein concentration and yield increased in response to PT, and protein yield tended to increase in response to FT. Milk fat concentration and yield increased in response to FT and were unaffected by PT. Milk urea concentration increased and nitrogen efficiency decreased in response to PT. Feed and nitrogen efficiency were highest on the LP/HF diet and both parameters increased in response to FT, whereas milk urea concentration was not affected by FT. Energy from fat increased the concentration and yield of ≥16-carbon FA in milk and decreased the concentration of FA synthesized de novo, but had no effect on their yield. Concentration and yield of de novo-synthesized FA increased in response to PT. Concentration and yield of polyunsaturated FA increased and decreased in response to PT and FT, respectively. Apparent total-tract digestibility of crude fat decreased in response to PT, and FT increased crude protein digestibility. Energy supplementation through rumen-inert hydrogenated palm FA appears to be an efficient feeding strategy to stimulate milk production with regard to feed and nitrogen efficiency compared with supplementing an isoenergetic level of rumen-protected protein.
Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies
Schaafstra, F.J.W.C. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Schonewille, J.T. ; Roelfsema, E. ; Westermann, C.M. ; Dansen, O. ; Jacobs, M. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Spronck, E.A. ; Blok, M.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2505 - 2510.
digestibility - equines - exercise - markers - total faeces collection
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided with equivalent levels of feed intake. In addition, the two markers used for estimating apparent DMD and OMD indicate that externally supplemented Ti is a suitable marker to determine digestibility of nutrients in horses performing exercise unlike dietary ADL.
Cow's milk and immune function in the respiratory tract : Potential mechanisms
Perdijk, Olaf ; Splunter, Marloes van; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Neerven, Joost van - \ 2018
Frontiers in Immunology 9 (2018)FEB. - ISSN 1664-3224
Allergies - Asthma - Barrier functioning - Gut-lung axis - Immune regulation - Raw cow's milk - Respiratory syncytial virus - Upper airways
During the last decades, the world has witnessed a dramatic increase in allergy prevalence. Epidemiological evidence shows that growing up on a farm is a protective factor, which is partly explained by the consumption of raw cow's milk. Indeed, recent studies show inverse associations between raw cow's milk consumption in early life and asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis. A similar association of raw cow's milk consumption with respiratory tract infections is recently found. In line with these findings, controlled studies in infants with milk components such as lactoferrin, milk fat globule membrane, and colostrum IgG have shown to reduce respiratory infections. However, for ethical reasons, it is not possible to conduct controlled studies with raw cow's milk in infants, so formal proof is lacking to date. Because viral respiratory tract infections and aeroallergen exposure in children may be causally linked to the development of asthma, it is of interest to investigate whether cow's milk components can modulate human immune function in the respiratory tract and via which mechanisms. Inhaled allergens and viruses trigger local immune responses in the upper airways in both nasal and oral lymphoid tissue. The components present in raw cow's milk are able to promote a local microenvironment in which mucosal immune responses are modified and the epithelial barrier is enforced. In addition, such responses may also be triggered in the gut after exposure to allergens and viruses in the nasal cavity that become available in the GI tract after swallowing. However, these immune cells that come into contact with cow's milk components in the gut must recirculate into the blood and home to the (upper and lower) respiratory tract to regulate immune responses locally. Expression of the tissue homing-associated markers a4β7 and CCR9 or CCR10 on lymphocytes can be influenced by vitamin A and vitamin D3, respectively. Since both vitamins are present in milk, we speculate that raw milk may influence homing of lymphocytes to the upper respiratory tract. This review focuses on potential mechanisms via which cow's milk or its components can influence immune function in the intestine and the upper respiratory tract. Unraveling these complex mechanisms may contribute to the development of novel dietary approaches in allergy and asthma prevention.
Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Pinheiro, Victor ; Outor-Monteiro, D. ; Mourão, J.L. ; Cone, J.W. ; Guimaraes Dias Lourenco, Ana - \ 2018
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 102 (2018)1. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. e460 - e467.
alfalfa level - digestibility - domestic - intake - rabbit - wild
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit does were fed ad libitum two pelleted diets: a control diet (C) with 15% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis) and a test diet (A) with 36% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis), according to a change-over design. Wild does dry matter (DM) intake per kg live weight (BW) was 55% higher (p < .001) than the intake of the D ones (58 g vs. 37 g DM per kg BW respectively). However, no difference (p > .05) was found when intake was expressed per kg0.75 BW (ca. 56 g DM) and tended to be higher (p = .07) in D does when expressed per kg0.67 BW (62 g vs. 55 g DM). Domestic does showed a higher (p < .05) DM, organic matter, crude energy and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (3; 2; 3; 3 percentage points respectively) than W does. The amount of nutrients and energy digested by D does was lower per kg BW (p < .001), similar per kg0.75 BW (p > .05) and tended to be higher per kg0.67 BW (p < .1) than in W does. The diet content of alfalfa did not affect (p > .05) the feed intake nor the diet digestibility. This study suggests that W rabbits exhibit a higher intake per kg BW and a lower digestibility than their D counterparts, which results in similar digestible nutrient and energy intake per kg BW powered to 0.75. The nutritive value of dehydrated alfalfa for rabbits, evaluated through intake and digestibility, seems to be equivalent to their base diets (forage plus concentrate).
Yield gap analysis of feed-crop livestock systems : The case of grass-based beef production in France
Linden, Aart van der; Oosting, Simon J. ; Ven, Gerrie W.J. van de; Veysset, Patrick ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Ittersum, Martin K. van - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 159 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 21 - 31.
Grass growth model - Production ecology - Yield gap mitigation
Sustainable intensification is a strategy contributing to global food security. The scope for sustainable intensification in crop sciences can be assessed through yield gap analysis, using crop growth models based on concepts of production ecology. Recently, an analogous cattle production model named LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) was developed, which allows yield gap analysis in beef production systems. This paper is the first to assess yield gaps of integrated feed-crop livestock systems, to analyse underlying causes of yield gaps, and to identify feasible improvement options. We used grass-based beef production in the Charolais area of France as a case study. To this end, we combined LiGAPS-Beef with crop growth models that simulate grass production (fresh grass under grazing, grass silage, hay) and wheat production (concentrate). Feed crop and cattle production were integrated to simulate potential and resource-limited live weight (LW) production per hectare. Potential production is defined as the theoretical maximum LW production per ha, in the absence of resource or management limitations. Resource-limited production is determined by availability of one or several resources: water and nutrients for crops, and feed quality and quantity for animals. Potential production of a cattle herd with an ad libitum diet of grass silage was 2380 kg LW ha− 1 year− 1 and resource-limited production was 664 kg LW ha− 1 year− 1. Actual LW production (354 kg LW ha− 1 year− 1) was 15% of the potential production, implying a relative yield gap of 85%, and 53% of the resource-limited production, implying a relative yield gap of 47%. Applying yield gap analysis disentangled the major biophysical causes of these yield gaps: feeding diets other than the ad libitum grass silage diet, water-limitation in feed crops, and sub-optimal management. These yield gaps suggest scope to intensify beef production. We demonstrate, however, that yield gap mitigation decreased the operational profit per kg LW under the European regulations for bovine and grassland premiums operational in 2014. Hence, as expected, the premiums aiming to support farmers' income and to promote sustainable agriculture and rural development were not conducive to narrow yield gaps at the same time. The current common agricultural policy (CAP, 2015–2020) provides more scope for intensification, such as increasing stocking density via better grassland management.
Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Hay, Simon I. ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abebo, Teshome Abuka ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Ackerman, Ilana N. ; Adedeji, Isaac A. ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Akinyemiju, Tomi F. ; Akseer, Nadia ; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Maskari, Fatma ; Almazroa, Mohammad Abdulaziz ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1260 - 1344.
Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.