Records 1 - 20 / 1025
Genome-wide analysis reveals transcription factors regulated by spider-mite feeding in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
He, Jun ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Kappers, Iris F. - \ 2020
Plants 9 (2020)8. - ISSN 2223-7747 - p. 1 - 16.
Cis-acting regulatory elements - Cucumber - Promoter - Spider mite - Transcription factor
To gain insight into the regulatory networks that underlie the induced defense in cucumber against spider mites, genes encoding transcription factors (TFs) were identified in the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genome and their regulation by two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) herbivory was analyzed using RNA-seq. Of the total 1212 annotated TF genes in the cucumber genome, 119 were differentially regulated upon spider-mite herbivory during a period of 3 days. These TF genes belong to different categories but the MYB, bHLH, AP2/ERF and WRKY families had the highest relative numbers of differentially expressed genes. Correlation analysis of the expression of TF genes with defense-associated genes during herbivory and pathogen infestation, and in different organs resulted in the putative identification of regulators of herbivore-induced terpenoid and green-leaf-volatile biosynthesis. Analysis of the cis-acting regulatory elements (CAREs) present in the promoter regions of the genes responsive to spider-mite feeding revealed potential TF regulators. This study describes the TF genes in cucumber that are potentially involved in the regulation of induced defense against herbivory by spider mites.
Assessing ambitious nature conservation strategies within a 2 degree warmer and food-secure world
Kok, Marcel T.J. ; Meijer, J.W. ; Zeist, Willem-Jan van; Hilbers, Jelle P. ; Immovilli, Marco ; Janse, Jan H. ; Stehfest, Elke ; Bakkenes, Michel ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Schipper, Aafke M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. - \ 2020
BioRxiv - 56 p.
Global biodiversity is projected to further decline under a wide range of future socio-economic development pathways, even in sustainability oriented scenarios. This raises the question how biodiversity can be put on a path to recovery, the core challenge for the CBD post-2020 global biodiversity framework. We designed two contrasting, ambitious global conservation strategies, ‘Half Earth’ (HE) and ‘Sharing the Planet’ (SP), and evaluated their ability to restore terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and to provide ecosystem services while also mitigating climate change and ensuring food security. We applied the integrated assessment framework IMAGE with the GLOBIO biodiversity model, using the ‘Middle of the Road’ Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSP2) with its projected human population growth as baseline.
We found that both conservation strategies result in a reduction in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services globally, but without additional measures to achieve effective climate mitigation they will be insufficient to restore biodiversity. The HE strategy performs better for terrestrial biodiversity protection (biodiversity intactness (MSA), Red List Index, geometric mean abundance) in currently still natural regions, reflecting global conservation priorities. The SP strategy yields more improvements for biodiversity in human-used areas, aquatic biodiversity and for regulating ecosystem services (pest control, pollination, erosion control), reflecting regional priorities. However, ‘conservation only’ scenarios show a considerable increase in food security risks (especially in Sub-Saharan Africa) compared to the baseline and limited reduction of global temperature increase. Only when conservation strategies are combined with climate change mitigation efforts and additional actions especially in the agricultural and energy system into a portfolio of ‘integrated sustainability measures’, both conservation strategies result in restoring biodiversity to current values or even some improvement, while keeping global warming below two degrees and keeping food security risks below baseline. Minimizing food wastes and reducing consumption of animal products will be crucial
Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk
Thomas, Minta ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A. ; Lee, Jeffrey K. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Dampier, Christopher H. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Wolk, Alicja ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Gsur, Andrea ; Lindblom, Annika ; Castells, Antoni ; Win, Aung Ko ; Namjou, Bahram ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Tangen, Catherine M. ; He, Qianchuan ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Bishop, D.T. ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Schaid, Daniel ; Drew, David A. ; Muller, David C. ; Duggan, David ; Crosslin, David R. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Giovannucci, Edward L. ; Larson, Eric ; Qu, Flora ; Mentch, Frank ; Giles, Graham G. ; Hakonarson, Hakon ; Hampel, Heather ; Stanaway, Ian B. ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Minnier, Jessica ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Hampe, Jochen ; Harley, John B. ; Visvanathan, Kala ; Curtis, Keith R. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Li, Li ; Marchand, Loic Le; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Lemire, Mathieu ; Woods, Michael O. ; Song, Mingyang ; Murphy, Neil ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Dikilitas, Ozan ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Milne, Roger L. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Ogino, Shuji ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Zaidi, Syed H. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Moreno, Victor ; Martín, Vicente ; Arndt, Volker ; Wei, Wei Qi ; Chung, Wendy ; Su, Yu Ru ; Hayes, Richard B. ; White, Emily ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Casey, Graham ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Potter, John D. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Jarvik, Gail P. ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hsu, Li - \ 2020
American Journal of Human Genetics 107 (2020)3. - ISSN 0002-9297 - p. 432 - 444.
cancer risk prediction - colorectal cancer - machine learning - polygenic risk score
Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
A new TROPOMI product for tropospheric NO2 columns over East Asia with explicit aerosol corrections
Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Kong, Hao ; Boersma, K.F. ; Eskes, Henk ; Kanaya, Yugo ; He, Qin ; Tian, Xin ; Qin, Kai ; Xie, Pinhua ; Spurr, Robert ; Ni, Ruijing ; Yan, Yingying ; Weng, Hongjian ; Wang, Jingxu - \ 2020
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13 (2020)8. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 4247 - 4259.
We present a new product with explicit aerosol corrections, POMINO-TROPOMI, for tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs) over East Asia, based on the newly launched TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument with an unprecedented high horizontal resolution. Compared to the official TM5-MP-DOMINO (OFFLINE) product, POMINO-TROPOMI shows stronger concentration gradients near emission source locations and better agrees with MAX-DOAS measurements (R2 D 0:75; NMB D 0:8% versus R2 D 0:68, NMB D 41:9 %). Sensitivity tests suggest that implicit aerosol corrections, as in TM5-MP-DOMINO, lead to underestimations of NO2 columns by about 25%over the polluted northern East China region. Reducing the horizontal resolution of a priori NO2 profiles would underestimate the retrieved NO2 columns over isolated city clusters in western China by 35% but with overestimates of more than 50% over many offshore coastal areas. The effect of a priori NO2 profiles is more important under calm conditions.
The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.
The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.
Examining Health of Wetlands with Multiple Ecosystem Services as Targets in China’s Coastal Regions
Zhou, Yangming ; Dou, Yuehan ; Yu, Xiubo ; Zhang, Li ; Huang, Chong ; Wang, Yuyu ; Li, Xiaowei ; Li, He ; Jia, Yifei ; Bakker, Martha ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Zhou, Yan ; Duan, Houlang - \ 2020
Chinese Geographical Science 30 (2020)4. - ISSN 1002-0063 - p. 600 - 613.
coastal zones - ecosystem services - Wetland Health Index (WHI) - wetland utilization
Coastal zones are key interconnectors of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Due to the degradation and fragmentation of coastal wetlands, there is an urgent need to develop assessment methodology to compare the health of wetland ecosystems at different spatial scales. This will help efficiently develop and implement protections using easy-to-access ecosystem health data. This study aims to understand the spatial distribution of coastal and inland wetland health for China’s coastal regions. A Wetland Health Index (WHI) was developed to provide a basis for policy and decision making. Four utilization models—Long Term Model, Open Model, Nature Reserve Model, and Protected and Economic Model—were defined in the context of China’s coastal regions to specifically examine wetland health. Results show that the average WHI score was 63.6 with the range of 44.8–84.3 for 35 National Nature Reserves (NNRs), and the southern NNRs generally performed better than the northern NNRs. The wetlands in the southern provinces/municipalities are relatively healthier than their northern counterparts. The competent authority has slight influence on WHI scores but duration of conservation establishment does not show a clear correlation. With increasing economic activity, the differences in health conditions (WHI scores) of China’s coastal regions also increase. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or economic intensification does not relate to WHI scores. Appropriate trade-offs between wetland management and economic development could contribute to improve health conditions, conservation and utilization of coastal and inland wetlands.
Estimation of nitrogen supply for winter wheat production through a long-term field trial in China
Huang, Shaohui ; Ding, Wencheng ; Yang, Junfang ; Zhang, Jiajia ; Ullah, Sami ; Xu, Xinpeng ; Liu, Yingxia ; Yang, Yunma ; Liu, Mengchao ; He, Ping ; Jia, Liangliang - \ 2020
Journal of Environmental Management 270 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
Nitrogen use efficiency - Relative yield - Total nitrogen supply - Winter wheat
Excessive synthetic nitrogen (N) applications, high mineral N accumulation and low N use efficiency (NUE) are current issues in intensively cultivated winter wheat production system impeding the sustainable development of agriculture in China. To solve these problems, soil accumulated N in the top 1 m of the soil profile before sowing (Nsoil), returned straw-N from the previous maize crop (Nstraw) and fertilizer N application (Nfertilizer) should be comprehensively considered N supply sources in N management. As such, the objective of this research was to determine the optimal total N supply (TNsupply) level needed to meet crop requirements while minimizing environmental impacts. A 9-year on-farm experiment was conducted in accordance with a split-plot design involving two different fertilizer management systems (main treatments) and three N application strategies (sub treatments). Extensive TNsupply levels (ranging from 61 kg ha−1 to 813 kg ha−1) were detected, and relative yield (RY), N input and N output in response to the TNsupply were measured. The relationships between TNsupply and RY, N input, and N output strongly fit linear-plateau, linear, and linear-plateau models, respectively. The minimum TNsupply levels needed to achieve the maximum RY and N output were 325 and 392 kg ha−1, respectively. On the basis of N supply capacity, the TNsupply was removed from the growing system by 61% (N input). As the N input increased past 209 kg ha−1, the NUE declined, at which point the TNsupply reached 433 kg ha−1. Therefore, the suitable TNsupply should range from 325 kg ha−1 (ensuring a total N supply for high yield and N uptake) to 433 kg ha−1 (obtaining a relatively higher NUE and less N loss to the environment). The TNsupply was highlighted to be an indicator for use in N management recommendations. Considering the average high N accumulation in winter wheat production systems, N management should essentially take into account the consumption of Nsoil, the levels of Nstraw and the minimum application of Nfertilizer to obtain high yields while minimizing environmental impacts under suitable TNsupply levels.
Increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize in Northeast China through ecological intensification management
Xu, Rui ; Xu, Rui ; Xu, Xin Peng ; Hou, Yun Peng ; Zhang, Jia Jia ; Huang, Shao Hui ; Ding, Wen Cheng ; Liu, Ying Xia ; He, Ping - \ 2020
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers 26 (2020)3. - ISSN 1008-505X - p. 461 - 471.
Ecological intensive nutrient management - Nitrogen balance - Nitrogen use efficiency - Spring maize
[Objectives] In view of the problems in ecological environment and sustainable agricultural development caused by excessive and unreasonable fertilizer application in spring maize production in China, the effects of ecological intensive nutrient management on spring maize yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen balance in Northeast China were studied in order to make full use of resources, increase production efficiency and ensure national food security scientifically and rationally. [Methods] A long-term experiment was conducted from 2009 to 2017 in Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province. Two factors of split plot were designed in the experiment. The main plot was two fertilization managements: the ecological intensive nutrient management (EI) and farmer practice management (FP). The sub-plot was three N application methods, including no N application treatment (N0), N application in two of three years (N2/3) and in three years (N3/3). In EI treatment, P2O575 kg/hm2, K2O 90 kg/hm2, S 30 kg/hm2, Zn 5 kg/hm2and 1/4 of N (180 kg/hm2in 2009-2014, 200 kg/hm2in 2015-2017) applied as basal, 1/2 N top dressed at jointing stage and 1/4 N at tassel stage. In the treatment of FP, N 251 kg/hm2, P2O5145 kg/hm2and K2O 100 kg/hm2were applied once as basal. The yield, N uptake and accumulation of maize and the balance of soil N were investigated. [Results] In N0 treatment, the yield and N uptake showed a downward trend since 2010. In N2/3 treatment, the yield and N uptake decreased in the year without N application, and increased to the level of N3/3 treatment in the case of N application in the following year. In EI treatment, the average yield of N3/3 treatment was 11505 kg/hm2in 9 years, while that of FP treatment was significantly lower, which was 10764 kg/hm2. Compared with FP treatment, EI treatment significantly increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency (AEN), recovery efficiency (REN) and partial factor productivity (PFPN) by 47.4%, 39.6% and 43.8%, respectively. The residual N and apparent loss of N in EI treatment were 49.2% and 63.9% lower than those in FP treatment, respectively. [Conclusions] Ecological intensive nutrient management, including right fertilization rate and time, and suitable cultivar and plant density, is proved to be effective in increasing spring maize yield and N utilization, reducing residue and apparent loss of N in soil. The experiment also confirms that continuous appropriate N fertilizer application is essential for high and stable yield of maize in Northeast China.
Light from below matters: Quantifying the consequences of responses to far‐red light reflected upwards for plant performance in heterogeneous canopies
Zhang, Ningyi ; Westreenen, Arian Van; He, Lizhong ; Evers, Jochem B. ; Anten, Niels P.R. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2020
Plant, Cell & Environment (2020). - ISSN 0140-7791
In vegetation stands, plants receive red to far‐red ratio (R:FR) signals of varying strength from all directions. However, plant responses to variations in R:FR reflected from below have been largely ignored despite their potential consequences for plant performance. Using a heterogeneous rose canopy, which consists of bent shoots down in the canopy and vertically growing upright shoots, we quantified upward far‐red reflection by bent shoots and its consequences for upright shoot architecture. With a three‐dimensional plant model, we assessed consequences of responses to R:FR from below for plant photosynthesis. Bent shoots reflected substantially more far‐red than red light, causing reduced R:FR in light reflected upwards. Leaf inclination angles increased in upright shoots which received low R:FR reflected from below. The increased leaf angle led to an increase in simulated plant photosynthesis only when this low R:FR was reflected off their own bent shoots and not when it reflected off neighbour bent shoots. We conclude that plant response to R:FR from below is an under‐explored phenomenon which may have contrasting consequences for plant performance depending on the type of vegetation or crop system. The responses are beneficial for performance only when R:FR is reflected by lower foliage of the same plants.
Bioconversion efficiencies, greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during black soldier fly rearing – A mass balance approach
Parodi, Alejandro ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Heetkamp, Marcel J.W. ; Schelt, Jeroen van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van - \ 2020
Journal of Cleaner Production 271 (2020). - ISSN 0959-6526
Ammonia - Bioconversion - Emissions - GHG - Hermetia illucens - Nitrogen
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are acknowledged for their potential to upcycle waste biomass into animal feed, human food or biofuels. To ensure sustainable BSFL rearing, insight into nutrient bioconversion efficiencies and nutrient losses via gaseous emissions is key. This study used a mass balance approach to quantify nutrient bioconversion efficiencies (i.e., carbon, energy, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and gaseous emissions (i.e., greenhouse gasses and ammonia) of BSFL reared on a substrate used in industrial production. On this substrate, bioconversion efficiencies ranged from 14% (potassium) to 38% (nitrogen). The proportion of dietary inputs found in the residues ranged from 55% (energy) to 86% (potassium), while the proportion of dietary inputs lost via gaseous emissions ranged from 1% (nitrogen) to 24% (carbon). Direct emissions of methane and nitrous oxide during rearing were 16.8 ± 8.6 g CO2-equivalents per kg of dry BSFL biomass. Even though ammonia emissions were minimal, these could have been avoided if larvae would have been harvested before the CO2 peak was reached. Our results provide the first complete mass balance and comprehensive quantification of BSF larval metabolism and GHG emissions, required to assess and improve the environmental sustainability of BSFL production systems.
Fertilization changes soil microbiome functioning, especially phagotrophic protists
Zhao, Zhi Bo ; He, Ji Zheng ; Quan, Zhi ; Wu, Chuan Fa ; Sheng, Rong ; Zhang, Li Mei ; Geisen, Stefan - \ 2020
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 148 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
Fertilization - High-throughput sequencing - Microbiome functioning - Nitrogen - Phagotrophic protists
The soil microbiome determines crop production and drives nutrient cycling, functions that are altered by fertilization. Yet, we have only begun to understand the effects of fertilization on taxonomic changes on soil microorganisms, while impacts on functional groups across the microbiome and therefore potential soil functioning have never been assessed. Here, using a range of methods including high-throughput sequencing, we identified 77 functional parameters of the main microbiome groups including bacteria, fungi, and protists in three common agricultural soil types in China (black, fluvo-aquic, and red soil), which were fertilized in the same way over two years. We show that fertilization most strongly and generally throughout soil types reduced the relative abundance of the main microbial predators, phagotrophic protists, by 31%. Ten functional groups within the microbiome showed soil type-specific responses to fertilization. For example, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and predatory/exoparasitic bacteria were reduced by fertilization in the acidic black and the red soils, while, no other microbial functional group than phagotrophic protists was suppressed by fertilization in the alkaline fluvo-aquic soil. The significant reductions in microbial functional groups especially in acidic soils could be explained by nitrogen enrichment, increased soil acidification and potential biotic links between the functional groups within the microbiome. Together, we show that the fertilization-induced abiotic changes alter microbial functions that depend on the soil and environmental conditions. Particularly the most profound changes on the group of microbial predators might subsequently affect other soil functions performed by bacteria and fungi.
Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
A sustainable food system for the European Union
Jackson, Peter ; Candel, J.J.L. ; Davies, Anna ; Vries, Hugo de; Derani, Cristiane ; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica ; Hoel, Alf Håkon ; Holm, L. ; Morone, Piergiuseppe ; Penker, Marianne ; Guadalupe Rivera Ferre, Marta ; Śpiewak, Ruta ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Thøgersen, John ; Mathijs, Erik - \ 2020
SAPEA, Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (Evidence Review Report 7) - ISBN 9783982030173 - 224 p.
Food lies at the heart of our lives. It is vital for our survival, and links us to our natural and social environment in a unique way. But our food system is unsustainable. How can we ensure future food security without treating people unfairly or leaving them behind?
Food systems have complex social, economic and ecological components, and radical transformation is needed to make them sustainable. This report from SAPEA lays out the science on how that transition can happen in an inclusive, just and timely way.
he global demand for food will increase in the future. To meet this demand, it is not enough simply to increase productivity in a sustainable way. We also need to change from linear mass consumption to a more circular economy — which will mean changing our norms, habits and routines.
The evidence shows that this kind of behaviour change needs to happen collectively, not just individually. So we need joined-up governance at local, national and international levels.
Food systems also contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. This can be addressed by reducing waste or directing it back into the supply chain.
A mix of different measures will be most effective. The evidence shows that taxation is one of the most effective ways to modify behaviour. Accreditation and labelling schemes can also have an impact.
Meanwhile, reform of European agriculture and fisheries policies offer great opportunities to develop resilience and sustainability.
But there is not yet enough evidence to know for sure exactly what works in practice, so the steps we take should be carefully evaluated, and trade-offs anticipated.
Black soldier fly larvae show a stronger preference for manure than for a mass‐rearing diet
Parodi, Alejandro ; Dijk, Kim van; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Schelt, Jeroen van; Zanten, Hannah H.E. van - \ 2020
Journal of Applied Entomology 144 (2020)7. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 560 - 565.
The attention for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) as an alternative ingredient for food and feed products is on the rise. While many studies have reported the efficiency of BSFL to bio‐convert a wide range of organic waste streams into larval biomass, so far, it is unknown whether BSFL prefer certain waste streams over others when they have the possibility to choose. Here, we performed a choice‐test experiment to explore the preference of BSFL when exposed to pig manure and a mass‐rearing diet consisting of plant by‐products currently used for industrial BSFL production. We found that after 1 hr of exposure to both feeds, BSFL strongly preferred pig manure over the mass‐rearing diet. The preference for manure became stronger as larval age increased. Our results provide the first evidence that BSFL express a distinct diet preference. Understanding the reasons for the strong preference for manure is relevant for a diverse array of practical applications and to inform the discussion on insect welfare.
Transcriptional and metabolite analysis reveal a shift in direct and indirect defences in response to spider‑mite infestation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
He, Jun ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Kappers, Iris F. - \ 2020
Plant Molecular Biology (2020). - ISSN 0167-4412
In the above mentioned publication, part of Fig. 1b was distorted (48 h after TSSM Infestation). The original article has been corrected and the proper version of Fig. 1 is also published here. (Figure presented.).
Heritability estimates for 361 blood metabolites across 40 genome-wide association studies
Hagenbeek, Fiona A. ; Pool, René ; Dongen, Jenny van; Draisma, H.M. ; Jan Hottenga, Jouke ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Abdellaoui, Abdel ; Fedko, Iryna O. ; Braber, Anouk den; Visser, Pieter Jelle ; Geus, Eco J.C.N. de; Willems van Dijk, Ko ; Verhoeven, Aswin ; Suchiman, H.E. ; Beekman, Marian ; Slagboom, P.E. ; Duijn, Cornelia M. van; Barkey Wolf, J.J.H. ; Cats, D. ; Amin, N. ; Beulens, J.W. ; Bom, J.A. van der; Bomer, N. ; Demirkan, A. ; Hilten, J.A. van; Meessen, J.M.T.A. ; Moed, M.H. ; Fu, J. ; Onderwater, G.L.J. ; Rutters, F. ; So-Osman, C. ; Flier, W.M. van der; Heijden, A.A.W.A. van der; Spek, A. van der; Asselbergs, F.W. ; Boersma, E. ; Elders, P.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Ikram, M.A. ; Kloppenburg, M. ; Meulenbelt, I. ; Mooijaart, S.P. ; Nelissen, R.G.H.H. ; Netea, M.G. ; Penninx, B.W.J.H. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. ; Teunissen, C.E. ; Terwindt, G.M. ; Jukema, J.W. ; Reinders, M.J.T. - \ 2020
Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
The original version of the Supplementary Information associated with this Article included an incorrect Supplementary Data 1 file, in which additional delimiters were included in the first column for a number of rows, resulting in column shifts for some of these rows. The HTML has been updated to include a corrected version of Supplementary Data 1; the original incorrect version of Supplementary Data 1 can be found as Supplementary Information associated with this Correction. In addition, the original version of this Article contained an error in the author affiliations. An affiliation of Abdel Abdellaoui with Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands was inadvertently omitted. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
Improvement in municipal wastewater treatment alters lake nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in populated regions
Tong, Yindong ; Wang, Mengzhu ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Liu, Xueyan ; Paerl, Hans W. ; Elser, James J. ; Sardans, Jordi ; Couture, Raoul Marie ; Larssen, Thorjørn ; Hu, Hongying ; Dong, Xin ; He, Wei ; Zhang, Wei ; Wang, Xuejun ; Zhang, Yang ; Liu, Yi ; Zeng, Siyu ; Kong, Xiangzhen ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Lin, Yan - \ 2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (2020)21. - ISSN 0027-8424
Anthropogenic source - Aquatic ecosystem - Nutrient balance - Wastewater treatment - Water quality change
Large-scale and rapid improvement in wastewater treatment is common practice in developing countries, yet this influence on nutrient regimes in receiving waterbodies is rarely examined at broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present a study linking decadal nutrient monitoring data in lakes with the corresponding estimates of five major anthropogenic nutrient discharges in their surrounding watersheds over time. Within a continuous monitoring dataset covering the period 2008 to 2017, we find that due to different rates of change in TN and TP concentrations, 24 of 46 lakes, mostly located in China's populated regions, showed increasing TN/TP mass ratios; only 3 lakes showed a decrease. Quantitative relationships between in-lake nutrient concentrations (and their ratios) and anthropogenic nutrient discharges in the surrounding watersheds indicate that increase of lake TN/TP ratios is associated with the rapid improvement in municipal wastewater treatment. Due to the higher removal efficiency of TP compared with TN, TN/TP mass ratios in total municipal wastewater discharge have continued to increase from a median of 10.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 15.1) in 2008 to 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 13.2 to 27.2) in 2017. Improving municipal wastewater collection and treatment worldwide is an important target within the 17 sustainable development goals set by the United Nations. Given potential ecological impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem function of altered nutrient ratios in wastewater discharge, our results suggest that long-term strategies for domestic wastewater management should not merely focus on total reductions of nutrient discharges but also consider their stoichiometric balance.
SCIENCE TALKS CORONA: Creating a vaccine
Pijlman, G.P. - \ 2020
Wageningen University & Research
Virologist Gorben Pijlman is working on a vaccine against the Corona virus.
In this video he explains how the vaccine is created.
Transcriptional and metabolite analysis reveal a shift in direct and indirect defences in response to spider-mite infestation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
He, Jun ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Dicke, Marcel ; Kappers, Iris F. - \ 2020
Plant Molecular Biology 103 (2020). - ISSN 0167-4412 - p. 489 - 505.
Cucumis sativus - Herbivores - Secondary metabolism - Transcriptome - Two-spotted spider mites - Volatile organic compounds
Key message: Cucumber plants adapt their transcriptome and metabolome as result of spider mite infestation with opposite consequences for direct and indirect defences in two genotypes. Abstract: Plants respond to arthropod attack with the rearrangement of their transcriptome which lead to subsequent phenotypic changes in the plants’ metabolome. Here, we analysed transcriptomic and metabolite responses of two cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genotypes to chelicerate spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) during the first 3 days of infestation. Genes associated with the metabolism of jasmonates, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and l-phenylalanine were most strongly upregulated. Also, genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors for indirect defence-related terpenoids were upregulated while those involved in the biosynthesis of direct defence-related cucurbitacin C were downregulated. Consistent with the observed transcriptional changes, terpenoid emission increased and cucurbitacin C content decreased during early spider-mite herbivory. To further study the regulatory network that underlies induced defence to spider mites, differentially expressed genes that encode transcription factors (TFs) were analysed. Correlation analysis of the expression of TF genes with metabolism-associated genes resulted in putative identification of regulators of herbivore-induced terpenoid, green-leaf volatiles and cucurbitacin biosynthesis. Our data provide a global image of the transcriptional changes in cucumber leaves in response to spider-mite herbivory and that of metabolites that are potentially involved in the regulation of induced direct and indirect defences against spider-mite herbivory.
Arabidopsis in the wild—the effect of seasons on seed performance
Souza Vidigal, Deborah de; He, Hanzi ; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. ; Willems, Leo A.J. ; Bentsink, Leónie - \ 2020
Plants 9 (2020)5. - ISSN 2223-7747
Arabidopsis - Environmental effects - Field conditions - Seed dormancy - Seed longevity
Climate changes play a central role in the adaptive life histories of organisms all over the world. In higher plants, these changes may impact seed performance, both during seed development and after dispersal. To examine the plasticity of seed performance as a response to environmental fluctuations, eight genotypes known to be affected in seed dormancy and longevity were grown in the field in all seasons of two years. Soil and air temperature, day length, precipitation, and sun hours per day were monitored. We show that seed performance depends on the season. Seeds produced by plants grown in the summer, when the days began to shorten and the temperature started to decrease, were smaller with deeper dormancy and lower seed longevity compared to the other seasons when seeds were matured at higher temperature over longer days. The performance of seeds developed in the different seasons was compared to seeds produced in controlled conditions. This revealed that plants grown in a controlled environment produced larger seeds with lower dormancy than those grown in the field. All together the results show that the effect of the environment largely overrules the genetic effects, and especially, differences in seed dormancy caused by the different seasons were larger than the differences between the genotypes.