Records 1 - 20 / 1134
Governance prospects for maritime spatial planning in the tropical atlantic compared to EU case studies
Guerreiro, José ; Carvalho, Ana ; Casimiro, Daniela ; Bonnin, Marie ; Calado, Helena ; Toonen, Hilde ; Fotso, Philippe ; Ly, Ibrahima ; Silva, Osvaldina ; Silva, Solange Teles da - \ 2021
Marine Policy 123 (2021). - ISSN 0308-597X
Institutional framework - Legal framework - Maritime governance - Maritime spatial planning - Tropical Atlantic
Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is a governance approach that has been applauded for its promise to reconcile human uses and conservation, and is now widely implemented in member states of the European Union (EU), as well as in other countries in the Global North, like Canada, the United States and Australia. Five years ago, very few countries in the Global South seemed to be engaged in MSP. The Atlantic Ocean assumes the status of a major ecosystem and has geopolitical importance in the context of EU and is even more strengthened by the long-term political cooperation with the Tropical Atlantic countries regarding maritime affairs. The PADDLE project (EU RISE) aims to assess, in a north-south context, precisely how countries on the “Atlantic Boarder”, namely Senegal, Cape Verde and Brazil, encompass this trend towards MSP within their legal, institutional and political frameworks, following blue economy options and blue growth strategies. This contribution is an updated output of an international PADDLE project expert assessment, held in Brazil in February 2019, following two years of research. It intends to summarize the main conclusions on the state of the art and MSP prospects in the Tropical Atlantic, also referring to the ongoing MSP process in several EU countries. Political, legal and institutional frameworks enhancing MSP were presented and future trends for tropical MSP governance discussed.
The one health problem of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus : current insights and future research agenda
Verweij, Paul E. ; Lucas, John A. ; Arendrup, Maiken C. ; Bowyer, Paul ; Brinkmann, Arjen J.F. ; Denning, David W. ; Dyer, Paul S. ; Fisher, Matthew C. ; Geenen, Petra L. ; Gisi, Ulrich ; Hermann, Dietrich ; Hoogendijk, Andre ; Kiers, Eric ; Lagrou, Katrien ; Melchers, Willem J.G. ; Rhodes, Johanna ; Rietveld, Anton G. ; Schoustra, Sijmen E. ; Stenzel, Klaus ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Fraaije, Bart A. - \ 2020
Fungal Biology Reviews 34 (2020)4. - ISSN 1749-4613 - p. 202 - 214.
Aspergillus fumigatus - Azole resistance - Demethylase inhibitor - Expert meeting - Fungicide
Azole resistance is a concern for the management of diseases caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in humans. Azole fungicide use in the environment has been identified as a possible cause for development of resistance, which increases the complexity and number of stakeholders involved in this emerging problem. A workshop was held in Amsterdam early 2019 in which stakeholders, including medical and agricultural researchers, representatives from the government, public health, fungicide producers and end-users, reviewed the current evidence supporting environmental selection for resistance and to discuss which research and measures are needed to retain the effectiveness of the azole class for environmental and medical applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest insights and understanding of azole resistance development in the clinical setting and the wider environment. A One Health problem approach was undertaken to list and prioritize which research will be needed to provide missing evidence and to enable preventive interventions.
Mechanistic Effect Modeling of Earthworms in the Context of Pesticide Risk Assessment: Synthesis of the FORESEE Workshop
Forbes, Valery E. ; Agatz, Annika ; Ashauer, Roman ; Butt, Kevin R. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Duquesne, Sabine ; Ernst, Gregor ; Focks, Andreas ; Gergs, Andre ; Hodson, Mark E. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Johnston, Alice S.A. ; Meli, Mattia ; Nickisch, Dirk ; Pieper, Silvia ; Rakel, Kim J. ; Reed, Melissa ; Roembke, Joerg ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Thorbek, Pernille ; Spurgeon, David J. ; Berg, Erik Van den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. Van; Zorn, Mathilde I. ; Roeben, Vanessa - \ 2020
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management (2020). - ISSN 1551-3793
Cross-species extrapolation - Plant protection products - Population modeling - Soil organisms - Uptake routes
Earthworms are important ecosystem engineers, and assessment of the risk of plant protection products toward them is part of the European environmental risk assessment (ERA). In the current ERA scheme, exposure and effects are represented simplistically and are not well integrated, resulting in uncertainty when the results are applied to ecosystems. Modeling offers a powerful tool to integrate the effects observed in lower tier laboratory studies with the environmental conditions under which exposure is expected in the field. This paper provides a summary of the (In)Field Organism Risk modEling by coupling Soil Exposure and Effect (FORESEE) Workshop held 28–30 January 2020 in Düsseldorf, Germany. This workshop focused on toxicokinetic–toxicodynamic (TKTD) and population modeling of earthworms in the context of ERA. The goal was to bring together scientists from different stakeholder groups to discuss the current state of soil invertebrate modeling and to explore how earthworm modeling could be applied to risk assessments, in particular how the different model outputs can be used in the tiered ERA approach. In support of these goals, the workshop aimed at addressing the requirements and concerns of the different stakeholder groups to support further model development. The modeling approach included 4 submodules to cover the most relevant processes for earthworm risk assessment: environment, behavior (feeding, vertical movement), TKTD, and population. Four workgroups examined different aspects of the model with relevance for risk assessment, earthworm ecology, uptake routes, and cross-species extrapolation and model testing. Here, we present the perspectives of each workgroup and highlight how the collaborative effort of participants from multidisciplinary backgrounds helped to establish common ground. In addition, we provide a list of recommendations for how earthworm TKTD modeling could address some of the uncertainties in current risk assessments for plant protection products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;00:1–12.
Cross-scale risk perception: differences between tribal leaders and resource managers in Arctic Alaska
Blair, B.S. ; Kofinas, G.P. - \ 2020
Ecology and Society 25 (2020)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 18 p.
adaptation - Arctic - community development - institutional fit - risk perception - sustainability
Communities of Alaska’s North Slope are affected by concurrent, rapid changes due to climate change and industrial activities. Because these impacts are expected to shape community planning agendas into the foreseeable future, increased attention has been paid to decision-making processes that support adaptation. The planning and development decisions that shape adaptation outcomes in North Slope communities take place within complex institutional and policy processes. At the same time, the resilience of rural Alaska communities is closely tied to the extent their interests and local-level priorities are reflected in national- and regional-level decisions on resources that support local livelihoods. For this reason it is important to survey which adaptive responses are of high priority and what are the risks to adaptation at the community level. Given the nested nature of institutions in the region, comparing perceptions across scales can provide insight into potential areas of agreement and difference. To assess these differences, we surveyed North Slope Iñupiat tribal leaders and Alaska State and U.S. federal resource management professionals about perceived risks to North Slope community sustainability. Results showed shared areas of understanding about the extent of impacts from certain changes. However, there were marked differences in risk priorities, in the evaluations of local capacity to treat risks, and community resilience. Our findings suggest that although there are effective channels of communication to exchange observations and understandings regarding land use and cover changes, the views on risk and resilience held by key actors correlate with their role in and proximity to the social-ecological system under examination. By evaluating scale-specific risk priorities and the resources already in place to respond to change, decision makers can better leverage existing resources and adaptive capacities.
Price decline, land rental markets and grain production in the North China Plain
Wang, Qian ; Li, Fan ; Yu, Jin ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Ritsema, Coen J. - \ 2020
China Agricultural Economic Review (2020). - ISSN 1756-137X
Grain production - Heterogeneous strategies - Land rental market - North China Plain - Price decline
Purpose: This study examines the heterogeneous correlations between rural farmers' land renting behavior and their grain production when they experienced a significant price decline. Design/methodology/approach: We used well-timed panel data obtained from a two-round survey held in 2013 and 2017 among 621 households in the North China Plain. The empirical analyses were conducted by using the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed effects models. Findings: Rural tenants were having heterogeneous responses in land renting behavior and agricultural production when there was a price decline. A group of optimistic tenants (as professional farmers) were more likely to enlarge the farm scale for grain production through land rental markets but decrease variable investment levels (and subsequently decreased productivity) to cope with price decline. In contrast, nonprofessional farmers (the other rural tenants) were rather pessimistic about market performance, and they significantly decreased their grain production area to cope the price decline, but there was no decrease in grain productivity through reducing variable inputs. Originality/value: This study contributes to the extant literature on the relationship between farmers' land renting-in behavior and agricultural production. By dividing the tenants into professional and nonprofessional farmers, we argue that there is a significant heterogeneous correlation between rural tenants' land renting behavior and grain production when farmers experience a price decline.
Nudging healthy eating in Dutch sports canteens : A multi-method case study
Rookhuijzen, Merije van; Vet, Emely de - \ 2020
Public Health Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1368-9800 - 11 p.
Case study - Choice architecture - Eating behaviour - Implementation - Nudging - Public health
Objective:To provide a micro-investigation into the long-term effects and process of implementation of a nudge intervention on food choice in sports canteens.Design:Multi-method case study.Setting:Eight products were added to the range of foods and drinks in two football canteens in the Netherlands for 3 and 15 weeks, serving as a baseline period. In the intervention period, these products were promoted with the use of salience, scarcity, availability and default nudges, for 26 and 16 weeks, respectively. Aside from the collection of sales and revenue data, reach, acceptability, adherence and applicability were measured using observations, questionnaires and interviews.Participants:Questionnaires were filled in by seventy and fifty-nine visitors of the canteens. Four interviews were held with board members and canteen personnel.Results:Mixed results were obtained regarding the suitability of nudges to be used to promote healthy eating in sports clubs. Sales and revenue data did show positive trends, the intervention was seen as acceptable by all stakeholders and the intervention had a large reach. However, adherence to the intervention in both canteens and the effects of the nudges on the total consumption pattern were low. Factors were identified that promoted or hindered the intervention at an individual, interventional and organisational level.Conclusions:Nudges seem to be a valuable addition to other efforts to combat unhealthy eating. However, the extent of their impact as a single intervention tool is limited in the current food-abundant environment.
Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation
Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.
Research and development challenges in scaling innovation: a case study of the LEAP-Agri RAMSES II project
Seghieri, J. ; Brouwers, Jan ; Bidou, J.E. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Droy, I. ; Bastide, B. ; Sanogo, D. - \ 2020
Agroforestry Systems (2020). - ISSN 0167-4366 - 12 p.
A widely held assumption is that intensifying agroforestry will lead to sustainable increases in production, societal resilience and food security, urgently needed in the current context of changes in markets, climate and demography. Current thinking assumes that to achieve sustainable innovation a participatory approach with public, civil and private stakeholders is necessary, combined with a systemic, trans-disciplinary approach, rather than a technical approach. This study presents a case of applying the Theory of Change (ToC) concept to test this assumption. The ToC was designed to articulate the process of scaling of action-research findings, and to adapt the research to the context of complex groforestry systems at plot, household, farm, village and landscape levels. This allowed to develop an intervention logic that unpacks what sustainability means for farmers and other local stakeholders in four West African agroforestry systems. The conceptual approach created an awareness of potential impacts of scaling initiatives based on a ToC with pathways to impact combined with monitoring the effects of the research & development project on a variety of ecological, agronomic and economic performance indicators. A number of constraints and paradoxes that are linked to current research and development short term funding are also discussed.
Lobster fisheries in the Oosterschelde : An overview of biology, management & available data
Overmaat, Wiske ; Post, Stefan ; Spoor, Lianne - \ 2020
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C075/20) - 47
Lobsters have been fished in the Oosterschelde since 1881. The so-called Oosterschelde lobster (Homarus gammarus) is very popular with the consumer, but little is known about the lobster fishery. This report summarises the available data on the lobster fishery. The study was carried about by students of University of Applied Sciences Van Hall Larenstein Leeuwarden, as part of the Bachelors' programme Kust en Zee Management. The three main questions are: What do we know about lobster biology, how is the lobster fishery currently managed and what data is available? The research project was commissioned in cooperation between the fishing association OWV (Vereniging van Beroepsvissers op de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Westerschelde) and Wageningen Marine Research, as part of preparations for a research grant proposal towards the development of a stock assessment. For implementing optimal management and to develop a stock assessment of the lobster population in the Oosterschelde in future, it is necessary to obtain a detailed overview of the current situation. A literature study was conducted and six lobster fishers who fish in the Oosterschelde were interviewed for this study. The fishers were asked to share information about their use of fishing gear, their license, how much lobster they catch and their views on the development of the lobster stock. In the Oosterschelde, there are 42 active lobster fishing licenses, of which 37 are affiliated with the fishing association OWV. Two years ago, a major change was made in the system. The "lobster race" has been changed into a lottery system, organized by OWV. This lottery system is an improvement in the lobster sector, as with the new system every lobster fisher has equal opportunities. The abundance of lobster varies due to natural factors, but a continuing downward trend has been observed in recent years by lobster fishers and recreational divers. An overview of available data on the stock is shown in Table 2, but these have not been structurally analysed. The observed downward trends can therefore not be explained. An overview of the different views on stock decline by interviewed fishers can be found in Table 4 and 5. Since the exact reasons for the declining lobster population are unknown, no focused action or policy can be undertaken and made. Plans to reduce the number of licences to reduce fishing effort and increase the economic viability failed in 2015 after a process of ten years. There was no stock assessment to base these decisions on, and lack of support to carry out the proposed changes. The study leads to four recommendations: 1. The early benthic phase (EBP) of the lobster is not feasible to use in a future stock assessment. Assessing larger individuals will give a more reliable view of the lobster population in the Oosterschelde; 2. Further research should be carried out into which natural and anthropogenic factors (Table 4 and 5) impact lobster stocks in the Oosterschelde; 3. A survey should be held among all lobster fishers to further improve insights into the perceptions on stock development and management as well as their willingness to contribute to future data collection projects. This will inform the development of a stock assessment and research priorities. 4. Communications between the fishers and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality in relation to monitoring of (illegal) fishing activities should be improved.
Performance of success and failure in grassroots conservation and development interventions : Gender dynamics in participatory forest management in India
Nandigama, Sailaja - \ 2020
Land Use Policy 97 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
India - Participatory forest management - Performance - Situated agency - Success - Women
Co-governance of forests, or participatory forest management, has been a wide-spread conservation and development (C&D) intervention in India for over two decades. The practice began in the 1990s as Joint Forest Management (JFM), where local communities – organised into forest protection committees (FPCs) – worked in cooperation with various state forest departments. Later on, this intervention took shape of Community Forest Management (CFM), where communities managed their forests largely independent of the forest departments. Under both the JFM and CFM models, gender mainstreaming – enabling equal distribution of opportunities and services across genders – held a pivotal position. This study shows that despite continued marginalisation, female FPC members often performed as if initiatives were successful. Thus, the central question investigated in this paper is: “Why women performed success in participatory forest management interventions while experiencing marginalisation in the FPC?” This paper adopts an ethnographic case study methodology (immersion), utilising in-depth ethnographic case studies from three states of India for analysing performances of success and the resulting dynamics of participation, to explain the gendered nuances of the grassroots conservation and development interventions. The concept of ‘situated agency’ of community actors is explored to understand the practices around the performances of success in C&D interventions in forest-dependent communities in India. The paper argues that these performances hold the promise of a slow, but steady progress towards the creation of a gender-sensitive system in an otherwise patriarchal social structure.
Ancient globetrotters—connectivity and putative native ranges of two cosmopolitan biofouling amphipods
Beermann, Jan ; Hall-mullen, Allison K. ; Havermans, Charlotte ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. ; Dibbits, Bert ; Held, Christoph ; Desiderato, Andrea - \ 2020
PeerJ 8 (2020). - ISSN 2167-8359 - p. e9613 - e9613.
amphipoda - biofouling - biological invasion - cosmopolitan distribution - marine dispersal - marine shipping
The geographic distributions of some coastal marine species have appeared as
cosmopolitan ever since they were first scientifically documented. In particular, for many benthic species that are associated with anthropogenic substrata, there is much mechanisms of dispersal. Here, we focused on two congeneric coastal crustaceans nearly all kinds of artificial hard substrata in temperate to warm seas. We hypothesized that shipping activities that started centuries ago. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the CO1 fragment of specimens from distinct marine regions around the world were on putative native ranges of the two Jassa species. Populations of both species exhibited considerable genetic diversity with differing levels of geographic structure. For both species, at least two dominant haplotypes were shared among several geographic populations. Rapid demographic expansion and high migration rates between geographically distant regions support a scenario of ongoing dispersal all J. marmorata is the Northwest Atlantic, whereas the likely former native range of J. slatteryi is the Northern Pacific region. As corroborated by the genetic connectivity between populations, shipping still appears to be the more successful vector of the two species’ dispersal when compared to natural mechanisms. Historical invasion events that likely started centuries ago, along with current ongoing dispersal, confirm
these species’ identities as true “neocosmopolitans”.
Living and dying with incurable cancer : A qualitative study on older patients' life values and healthcare professionals' responsivity
Gurp, Jelle L.P. Van; Ebenau, Anne ; Burg, Simone van der; Hasselaar, Jeroen - \ 2020
BMC Palliative Care 19 (2020). - ISSN 1472-684X
Advanced cancer - Life values - Older persons - Palliative care - Patient outlooks on life - Patient perspective
Background: In ageing Western societies, many older persons live with and die from cancer. Despite that present-day healthcare aims to be patient-centered, scientific literature has little knowledge to offer about how cancer and its treatment impact older persons' various outlooks on life and underlying life values. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to: 1) describe outlooks on life and life values of older people (≥ 70) living with incurable cancer; 2) elicit how healthcare professionals react and respond to these. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 12 older persons with advanced cancer and two group interviews with healthcare professionals were held and followed by an analysis with a grounded theory approach. Results: Several themes and subthemes emerged from the patient interview study: a) handling incurable cancer (the anticipatory outlook on "a reduced life", hope and, coping with an unpredictable disease) b) being supported by others ("being there", leaving a legacy, and having reliable healthcare professionals) and; c) making end-of-life choices (anticipatory fears, and place of death). The group interviews explained how healthcare professionals respond to the abovementioned themes in palliative care practice. Some barriers for (open) communication were expressed too by the latter, e.g., lack of continuity of care and advance care planning, and patients' humble attitudes. Conclusions: Older adults living with incurable cancer showed particular outlooks on life and life values regarding advanced cancer and the accompanying last phase of life. This paper could support healthcare professionals and patients in jointly exploring and formulating these outlooks and values in the light of treatment plans.
Stoichiometric variation within and between a terrestrial herbivorous and a semi-aquatic carnivorous mammal
Wenting, Elke ; Siepel, Henk ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2020
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 62 (2020). - ISSN 0946-672X
Ecological stoichiometry - Ionomics - Macro nutrients - Minerals - Trace elements
Background: The elemental composition of the mammalian body is widely believed to be more or less constant within and among species, yet reliable comparisons of elemental content are lacking. Here, we examine the elemental composition of two mammal species with different diet and provenance: terrestrial herbivorous Fallow deer (Dama dama) - collected from a single area - and semi-aquatic carnivorous Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) - collected from different areas. Methods: We compared twelve elemental contents for twelve different body tissues and organs, for four tissue samples per species. Homogeneous samples were tested for twelve elemental contents using ICP-OES. Results: We found evidence for differences in elemental composition between species, between tissues, and between individuals. Herbivorous Fallow deer seemed more variable in its elemental composition compared to carnivorous Eurasian otter. The absolute concentration of some elements, e.g. Mn and Cu, showed differences between the species as well. Conclusion: Since we found stoichiometric variation among the species, these findings question the widely held assumption that mammals are under relative tight stoichiometrically homeostatic control.
Welfare of Farmed Fish in Different Production Systems and Operations
Vis, J.W. van de; Kolarevic, Jelena ; Stien, L.H. ; Kristiansen, T.S. ; Gerritzen, M.A. ; Braak, Karin van de; Abbink, W. ; Saether, B.S. ; Noble, C. - \ 2020
In: The welfare of fish / Kristiansen, T.S., Fernö, A., Pavlidis, M.A., van de Vis, H., Cham : Springer (Animal Welfare ) - ISBN 9783030416744 - p. 323 - 361.
When fish are reared for food production in aquaculture, they can be held in different types of rearing systems and subjected to various husbandry routines and operations. Each of these systems or operations can present different welfare risks to the fish, which in turn are dependent upon both the species and its life stage. In this chapter, we address and outline potential welfare hazards the fish may encounter in a wide range of existing and emerging rearing systems used for on-growing. These systems include: (1) pond-based aquaculture, (2) flow-through systems, (3) semi-closed containment systems, (4) RAS, (5) net cages and (6) farming offshore using sea cages in exposed conditions. We also outline potential welfare hazards for two key farming operations: transport and slaughter. We present the tools the farmer can use to assess fish welfare during on-growing and also outline relevant welfare actions that can be taken to militate against welfare hazards.
Effects of Early and Current Environmental Enrichment on Behavior and Growth in Pigs
Luo, Lu ; Reimert, Inonge ; Middelkoop, Anouschka ; Kemp, Bas ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2297-1769
behavior - early life - environmental enrichment - feed intake - growth - pigs
Enriched environments are known to beneficially affect the behavior of pigs, as compared with barren pens. The influence of enrichment may, however, depend on pigs' early life housing experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of early and later life environmental enrichment on behavior and growth in pigs with different coping styles. Pigs were housed in either barren pens or in larger pens enriched with rooting substrates from birth, and half of them experienced a housing switch, i.e., a loss or gain of enrichment, at 7 weeks of age, creating four treatment groups. Home pen behavior and body weight were recorded until 19 weeks of age. Pigs were classified as reactive or proactive based on a backtest at 2 weeks of age. Enrichment increased time spent exploring, chewing, and play and decreased oral manipulation of penmates and pen-directed exploring and chewing. Behavior of pigs that switched from barren to enriched pens or vice versa reflected not only their actual environment, but also their early life housing. As early and later life enrichment affected most behaviors in opposite directions, effects of enrichment, or lack thereof, after the switch were more pronounced in pigs that had experienced a different early life condition. For instance, pigs experiencing an upgrade from barren to enriched pens seemed to “catch-up” by showing more exploration and play. Conversely, pigs exposed to a downgrade displayed more oral manipulation of penmates than ones kept barren throughout, which particularly held for pigs with a reactive coping style. Effects of early life and current housing on several other behaviors depended on coping style too. Pigs housed in enriched conditions appeared better able to cope with weaning than barren housed pigs, as they gained more weight and had higher feed intake post-weaning. Barren housed pigs had a lower body weight than enriched pigs just before the switch, after which growth was mainly determined by actual housing, with enriched kept pigs having a higher feed intake and body weight. Thus, not only current housing conditions, but also a (mis)match with the early life environment may affect behavior and growth of pigs.
Tropical Wetlands - Innovation in Mapping and Management
Sulaeman, Yiyi ; Poggio, Laura ; Minasny, Budiman ; Nursyamsi, Dedi - \ 2020
London : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9780367209643 - 210 p.
This book contains papers presented at the International Workshop on Tropical Wetlands, held in Banjarmasin, Indonesia. This workshop discussed wetland mapping and characterization as well as wetland management for sustainable agriculture. This volume contains selected papers on tropical wetlands, more specifically, peatland, tidal land, and acid sulphate soils.
This book presents an international overview of wetland and peatland mapping experiences from Indonesia, Congo, Brazil, Australia, and Scotland. Several innovative techniques are discussed, including integrated digital soil mapping and remote sensing techniques, as well as geodatabase processing and field surveying. This book further discussed tropical wetland management for agriculture as practiced in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand.
Update on streptococcus suis research and prevention in the era of antimicrobial restriction: 4th international workshop on s. suis
Segura, Mariela ; Aragon, Virginia ; Brockmeier, Susan L. ; Gebhart, Connie ; Greeff, Astrid de; Kerdsin, Anusak ; O’Dea, Mark A. ; Okura, Masatoshi ; Saléry, Mariette ; Schultsz, Constance ; Valentin-Weigand, Peter ; Weinert, Lucy A. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Gottschalk, Marcelo - \ 2020
Pathogens 9 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-0817
Antimicrobials - Diagnosis - Epidemiology - Genomics - Public health - Streptococcus suis - Swine - Vaccine policies - Vaccines - Zoonosis
Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent afflicting people in close contact with infected pigs or pork meat. Sporadic cases of human infections have been reported worldwide. In addition, S. suis outbreaks emerged in Asia, making this bacterium a primary health concern in this part of the globe. In pigs, S. suis disease results in decreased performance and increased mortality, which have a significant economic impact on swine production worldwide. Facing the new regulations in preventive use of antimicrobials in livestock and lack of effective vaccines, control of S. suis infections is worrisome. Increasing and sharing of knowledge on this pathogen is of utmost importance. As such, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the infection, antimicrobial resistance, progress on diagnosis, prevention, and control were among the topics discussed during the 4th International Workshop on Streptococcus suis (held in Montreal, Canada, June 2019). This review gathers together recent findings on this important pathogen from lectures performed by lead researchers from several countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Thailand, The Netherlands, UK, and USA. Finally, policies and recommendations for the manufacture, quality control, and use of inactivated autogenous vaccines are addressed to advance this important field in veterinary medicine.
Community factors affecting participation in larval source management for malaria control in Chikwawa District, Southern Malawi
Gowelo, Steven ; McCann, Robert S. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Takken, Willem ; Berg, Henk van den; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda - \ 2020
Malaria Journal 19 (2020)1. - ISSN 1475-2875 - 1 p.
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis - Community - Larval source management - Malaria - Malawi
BACKGROUND: To further reduce malaria, larval source management (LSM) is proposed as a complementary strategy to the existing strategies. LSM has potential to control insecticide resistant, outdoor biting and outdoor resting vectors. Concerns about costs and operational feasibility of implementation of LSM at large scale are among the reasons the strategy is not utilized in many African countries. Involving communities in LSM could increase intervention coverage, reduce costs of implementation and improve sustainability of operations. Community acceptance and participation in community-led LSM depends on a number of factors. These factors were explored under the Majete Malaria Project in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi. METHODS: Separate focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with members from the general community (n = 3); health animators (HAs) (n = 3); and LSM committee members (n = 3). In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with community members. Framework analysis was employed to determine the factors contributing to community acceptance and participation in the locally-driven intervention. RESULTS: Nine FGDs and 24 IDIs were held, involving 87 members of the community. Widespread knowledge of malaria as a health problem, its mode of transmission, mosquito larval habitats and mosquito control was recorded. High awareness of an association between creation of larval habitats and malaria transmission was reported. Perception of LSM as a tool for malaria control was high. The use of a microbial larvicide as a form of LSM was perceived as both safe and effective. However, actual participation in LSM by the different interviewee groups varied. Labour-intensiveness and time requirements of the LSM activities, lack of financial incentives, and concern about health risks when wading in water bodies contributed to lower participation. CONCLUSION: Community involvement in LSM increased local awareness of malaria as a health problem, its risk factors and control strategies. However, community participation varied among the respondent groups, with labour and time demands of the activities, and lack of incentives, contributing to reduced participation. Innovative tools that can reduce the labour and time demands could improve community participation in the activities. Further studies are required to investigate the forms and modes of delivery of incentives in operational community-driven LSM interventions.
Local narratives of change as an entry point for building urban climate resilience
Marschütz, Benedikt ; Bremer, Scott ; Runhaar, Hens ; Hegger, Dries ; Mees, Heleen ; Vervoort, Joost ; Wardekker, Arjan - \ 2020
Climate Risk Management 28 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0963
Citizen engagement - Climate resilience - Flooding - Narrative analysis
Cities face increasing risks due to climate change, and many cities are actively working towards increasing their climate resilience. Climate change-induced risks and interventions to reduce these risks do not only impact urban risk management systems and infrastructures, but also people's daily lives. In order to build public support for climate adaptation and resilience-building and stimulate collaboration between authorities and citizens, it is necessary that adaptation and resilience-building are locally meaningful. Thus, interventions should be rooted in citizens’ concerns and aspirations for their city. Urban policymakers and researchers have started the search for better citizen participation in adaptation. However, tools to connect the relatively strategic and long-term notions of adaptation to a gradually changing climate held by planners and scientists with how citizens experience today's climate and weather remain elusive. This paper investigates the use of ‘narratives of change’ as an approach to elicit perceptions of past, present and future weather, water, and climate, and how these relate to citizens’ desired futures. We tested this by eliciting and comparing narratives of change from authorities and from citizens in the Dutch city of Dordrecht. Our analysis of the process showed that historical events, embedded in local memory and identity, have a surprisingly strong impact on how climate change is perceived and acted upon today. This contributes to an awareness and sense of urgency of some climate risks (e.g. flood risks). However, it also shifts attention away from other risks (e.g. intensified heat stress). The analysis highlighted commonalities, like shared concerns about climate change and desires to collaborate, but also differences in how climate change, impacts, and action are conceptualized. There are possibilities for collaboration and mutual learning, as well as areas of potential disagreement and conflict. We conclude that narratives are a useful tool to better connect the governance of climate adaptation with peoples’ daily experience of climate risks and climate resilience, thereby potentially increasing public support for and participation in resilience-building.
Is nutrition science ready for the twenty-first century? Moving towards transdisciplinary impacts in a changing world
Tufford, Adèle R. ; Calder, Philip C. ; Van’t Veer, Pieter ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Sikkema, Jan ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2020
European Journal of Nutrition 59 (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 10.
Malnutrition in an obese world was the fitting title of the 13th Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) conference held in October 2019. Many individuals do not eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, and this is now understood to be a major driver of increased disease risk and illness. Moreover, both our current eating patterns and the food system as a whole are environmentally unsustainable, threatening the planetary systems we depend on for survival. As we attempt to feed a growing global population, food systems will increasingly be confronted with their environmental impacts, with the added challenge of climate change-induced threats to food production. As we move into the third decade of the twenty-first century, these challenges demand that the nutrition research community reconsider its scope, concepts, methods, and societal role. At a pre-meeting workshop held at the FENS conference, over 70 researchers active in the field explored ways to advance the discipline’s capacity to address cross-cutting issues of personal, public and planetary health. Using the world cafe method, four themed discussion tables explored (a) the breadth of scientific domains needed to meet the current challenges, (b) the nature and definition of the shifting concepts in nutrition sciences, (c) the next-generation methods required and (d) communication and organisational challenges and opportunities. As a follow-up to earlier work , here we report the highlights of the discussions, and propose the next steps to advance responsible research and innovation in the domain of nutritional science.