Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Stepwise screening of candidate antagonists for biological control of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici
Köhl, Jürgen ; Goossen van de Geijn, Helen ; Groenenboom de Haas, Lia ; Henken, Betty ; Hauschild, Rüdiger ; Hilscher, Ulrike ; Lombaers-van der Plas, Carin ; Bosch, Trudy van den; Wikström, Mariann - \ 2019
Biological Control 136 (2019). - ISSN 1049-9644
Antagonists - Biological control - Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici - Powdery mildew - Risk assessment - Screening criteria - Tilletiospsis pallescens - Wheat

Antagonists for the biological control of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici were selected using a stepwise screening approach. Fungal colonizers of powdery mildew pustules were isolated from leaves of cereals and other plant species. Spore production, cold tolerance, drought tolerance and UV-B resistance as important characteristics for application of biocontrol candidates in the phyllosphere were tested in in vitro assays and preliminary risk assessments were conducted. Amongst 850 tested isolates 58% belonged to various taxonomical groups of Cladosporium. Only 3% belonged to species that have been reported in literature as antagonistic to powdery mildews. The stepwise screening approach allowed to reduce the number of candidate antagonists using screening criteria that can be tested reliably and cost-effectively in in vitro assays and by data mining from initially 1237 isolates down to 143 candidate antagonists belonging to 42 taxonomical groups. The potential of these isolates to reduce conidia production of B. graminis f. sp. tritici. in wheat was assessed in bioassays on potted winter wheat plants under controlled conditions. A set of ten superior isolates was subsequently tested in a series of trials on potted spring wheat plants under open field conditions. Isolates Tilletiopsis pallescens BC0441 and T. pallescens BC0850 significantly reduced the number of powdery mildew pustules per flag leaf by 30 to 62%. Slopes of the regression lines fitted to data on number of powdery mildew pustules during time were significantly reduced by the antagonists indicating that the powdery mildew epidemics were slowed down. Treatments with T. pallescens BC0441 and T. pallescens BC0850 also reduced leaf coverage with powdery mildew pustules in a small-scale field trial in spring wheat.

Resistentie tegen trips en prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2018
Broad spectrum insect resistance and metabolites in close relatives of the cultivated tomato
Vosman, Ben ; van’t Westende, Wendy P.C. ; Henken, Betty ; Eekelen, Henriëtte D.L.M. van; Vos, Ric C.H. de; Voorrips, Roeland E. - \ 2018
Euphytica 214 (2018)3. - ISSN 0014-2336
Acyl sugars - Aphid - Caterpillar - Flavonoids - Lycopersicon group - Metabolomics - Thrips - Whitefly
Wild relatives of tomato possess effective means to deal with several pests, among which are a variety of insects. Here we studied the presence of resistance components against Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Myzus persicae, Frankliniella occidentalis, and Spodoptera exigua in the Lycopersicon group of Solanum section Lycopersicon by means of bioassays and comprehensive metabolite profiling. Broad spectrum resistance was found in Solanum galapagense and a few accessions of S. pimpinellifolium. Resistance to the sap sucking insects may be based on the same mechanism, but different from the caterpillar resistance. Large and highly significant differences in the leaf metabolomes were found between S. galapagense, containing type IV trichomes, and its closest relative S. cheesmaniae, which lacks type IV trichomes. The most evident differences were the relatively high levels of different methylated forms of the flavonoid myricetin and many acyl sucrose structures in S. galapagense. Possible candidate genes regulating the production of these compounds were identified in the Wf-1 QTL region of S. galapagense, which was previously shown to confer resistance to the whitefly B. tabaci. The broad spectrum insect resistance identified in S. galapagense will be very useful to increase resistance in cultivated tomato.
Resistentie tegen trips in prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2017
Veredelingsonderzoek tripsresistentie in prei : Groene Veredeling Prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. ; Bücher, J. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Groene Veredeling ; Veredelingsonderzoek tripsresistentie in prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Henken, B. ; Burger, K. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2013
resistentieveredeling - thrips - plaagresistentie - preien - vollegrondsgroenten - plantenveredeling - biologische plantenveredeling - genetisch bepaalde resistentie - resistance breeding - pest resistance - leeks - field vegetables - plant breeding - organic plant breeding - genetic resistance
Brochure met onderzoeksinformatie. Het Groene Veredelings-onderzoek naar tripsresistentie in prei levert een bijdrage aan de ontwikkeling van prei met een hoger niveau van tripsresistentie; voor zowel de biologische als de gangbare sector.
Groene veredeling: Veredelingsonderzoek tripsresistentie prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger, K. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2012
resistentieveredeling - preien - plantenveredeling - thrips - plaagresistentie - vollegrondsgroenten - resistance breeding - leeks - plant breeding - pest resistance - field vegetables
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
Stoken op olifantsgras: energie en milieueffecten
Kasper, G.J. - \ 2011
V-focus 8 (2011)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 23 - 25.
brandstofgewassen - miscanthus - bio-energie - verbranding - milieufactoren - emissie - biobased economy - fuel crops - bioenergy - combustion - environmental factors - emission
In V-focus van februari 2011 zijn de resultaten van teelt, oogst en opslag van olifantsgras bij witvleeskalverhouder Henken in Rhenen besproken. Warmteopwekking door verbranding in een biomassaketel is het uiteindelijke doel van deze grasteelt. De resultaten van verbranding en de milieu- en energievoordelen voor de hele keten worden in dit artikel besproken.
Diversity, distribution, and evolution of Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes
Lokossou, A.A. ; Rietman, H. ; Wang, M. ; Krenek, P. ; Schoot, J. van der; Henken, G. ; Hoekstra, R. ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. ; Vossen, E.A.G. van der; Visser, R.G.F. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2010
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 23 (2010)9. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 1206 - 1216.
phytophthora-infestans resistance - broad-spectrum resistance - potato late blight - nbs-lrr genes - disease resistance - r-gene - arabidopsis-thaliana - avirulence genes - cultivated potato - tomato
Knowledge on the evolution and distribution of late blight resistance genes is important for a better understanding of the dynamics of these genes in nature. We analyzed the presence and allelic diversity of the late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-blb3, originating from Solanum bulbocastanum, in a set of tuber-bearing Solanum species comprising 196 different taxa. The three genes were only present in some Mexican diploid as well as polyploid species closely related to S. bulbocastanum. Sequence analysis of the fragments obtained from the Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb3 genes suggests an evolution through recombinations and point mutations. For Rpi-blb2, only sequences identical to the cloned gene were found in S. bulbocastanum accessions, suggesting that it has emerged recently. The three resistance genes occurred in different combinations and frequencies in S. bulbocastanum accessions and their spread is confined to Central America. A selected set of genotypes was tested for their response to the avirulence effectors IPIO-2, Avr-blb2, and Pi-Avr2, which interact with Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-blb3, respectively, as well as by disease assays with a diverse set of isolates. Using this approach, some accessions could be identified that contain novel, as yet unknown, late blight resistance factors in addition to the Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-blb3 genes.
A novel approach to locate Phytophthora infestans resistance genes on the potato genetic map
Jacobs, M.M.J. ; Vosman, B. ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Henken, G. ; Berg, R.G. van den - \ 2010
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 120 (2010)4. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 785 - 796.
late-blight resistance - broad-spectrum resistance - disease-resistance - solanum-bulbocastanum - r-gene - chromosome-ix - tomato - plant - homologs - genome
Mapping resistance genes is usually accomplished by phenotyping a segregating population for the resistance trait and genotyping it using a large number of markers. Most resistance genes are of the NBS-LRR type, of which an increasing number is sequenced. These genes and their analogs (RGAs) are often organized in clusters. Clusters tend to be rather homogenous, viz. containing genes that show high sequence similarity with each other. From many of these clusters the map position is known. In this study we present and test a novel method to quickly identify to which cluster a new resistance gene belongs and to produce markers that can be used for introgression breeding. We used NBS profiling to identify markers in bulked DNA samples prepared from resistant and susceptible genotypes of small segregating populations. Markers co-segregating with resistance can be tested on individual plants and directly used for breeding. To identify the resistance gene cluster a gene belongs to, the fragments were sequenced and the sequences analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Putative map positions arising from this analysis were validated using markers mapped in the segregating population. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated with a number of populations derived from wild Solanum species segregating for P. infestans resistance. Newly identified P. infestans resistance genes originating from S. verrucosum, S. schenckii, and S. capsicibaccatum could be mapped to potato chromosomes 6, 4, and 11, respectively.
Identification and mapping of a new apple scab resistance gene
Soriano Soriano, J.M. ; Joshi, S.G. ; Groenwold, R. ; Henken, G. ; Kaauwen, M.P.W. van; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2009
Acta Horticulturae 2009 (2009)839. - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 449 - 453.
Here we report the identification of a new resistance gene (Vd3) against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) from the apple selection 1980-015-25 of the breeding program at Plant Research International. This accession also contains the Vf gene. We mapped Vd3, using SSR and DArT markers, on linkage group 1, at a distance of 6 cM from Vf gene, but in repulsion phase to Vf. Based on pedigree analysis and resistance tests, it could be deduced that 1980-015-25 had inherited Vd3 from the founder D3. This gene provides resistance to the highly virulent EU-NL-24 strain of the race 7 of V. inaequalis. This strain has overcome the resistance from both Vf and Vg. However, Vd3 has been not effective against the majority of other V. inaequalis strains we used in our disease tests
Identification and mapping of the novel apple scab resistance gene Vd3
Soriano Soriano, J.M. ; Joshi, S.G. ; Kaauwen, M.P.W. van; Noordijk, Y. ; Groenwold, R. ; Henken, G. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Schouten, H.J. - \ 2009
Tree Genetics and Genomes 5 (2009)3. - ISSN 1614-2942 - p. 475 - 482.
x-domestica borkh. - venturia-inaequalis - microsatellite markers - technology dart - linkage maps - malus - vf - genome - region - r12740-7a
Apple scab, caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, is one of the most devastating diseases for the apple growing in temperate zones with humid springs and summers. Breeding programs around the world have been able to identify several sources of resistance, the Vf from Malus floribunda 821 being the most frequently used. The appearance of two new races of V. inaequalis (races 6 and 7) in several European countries that are able to overcome the resistance of the Vf gene put in evidence the necessity of the combination of different resistance genes in the same genotype (pyramiding). Here, we report the identification and mapping of a new apple scab resistance gene (Vd3) from the resistant selection “1980-015-25” of the apple breeding program at Plant Research International, The Netherlands. This selection contains also the Vf gene and the novel V25 gene for apple scab resistance. We mapped Vd3 on linkage group 1, 1 cM to the south of Vf in repulsion phase to it. Based on pedigree analysis and resistance tests, it could be deduced that 1980-015-25 had inherited Vd3 from the founder “D3.” This gene provides resistance to the highly virulent EU-NL-24 strain of race 7 of V. inaequalis capable of overcoming the resistance from Vf and Vg.
Olifantsgras warmt kalvermelk op. Familie Henken stookt Miscanthus in eigen ketel.
Kasper, G.J. - \ 2008
De kalverhouder april 2008 (2008). - ISSN 1389-3386 - p. 31 - 32.
Olifantsgras voor het opwarmen van kalvermelk
Kasper, G.J. - \ 2008
V-focus 5 (2008)april (2). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 26 - 27.
rundveehouderij - kalveren - vleesvee - kalvervoeding - kunstmelk - verwarming - miscanthus - energetische waarde - cattle husbandry - calves - beef cattle - calf feeding - filled milk - heating - energy value
Veehouderijbedrijven zoeken naar alternatieven voor energie-bronnen. Op het vleeskalverbedrijf van de familie Henken te Rhenen wordt Miscanthus geteeld, ofwel olifantsgras, als vervanger voor fossiele energie
Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.)
Zheng Sijun, S.J. ; Henken, B. ; Maagd, R.A. de; Purwito, A. ; Krens, F.A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2005
Transgenic Research 14 (2005)3. - ISSN 0962-8819 - p. 261 - 272.
tumefaciens-mediated transformation - synthetic sex-pheromone - delta-endotoxin - communication disruption - plant-regeneration - domain iii - agrobacterium - lepidoptera - noctuidae - dna
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot
The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)
Zheng Sijun, S.J. ; Henken, B. ; Ahn, Y.K. ; Krens, F.A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2004
Molecular Breeding 14 (2004)3. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 293 - 307.
thuringiensis delta-endotoxin - bacillus-thuringiensis - mediated transformation - plant-regeneration - reporter gene - cepa l. - particle bombardment - expression - dna - callus
This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus sources: callus induced from both apical and non-apical root segments of in vitro plantlets, true garlic seeds and bulbils. Two different reporter genes were used in our garlic transformation experiments, namely the gusA gene coding for -glucuronidase and the gfp gene coding for green fluorescent protein. A total of seven independent transformed callus lines derived from different callus sources were obtained. The advantage of the system developed is the short time period needed for completion of the protocol (about 6 months) and the year-round availability of high quality callus from in vitro roots. The highest transformation frequency in a single experiment (1.47%), was obtained using garlic cv. ''Printanor''. Differences existed between cultivars in transformation frequency but were not significant. The same was found for the plasmids used in transforming garlic. Via PCR the presence of the gusA, hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) and gfp genes could be demonstrated in putative transformed in vitro plants. Southern hybridization showed that the reporter gene gusA and the selective gene hpt were stably integrated into the garlic genome. After transfer to the greenhouse of in vitro regenerants, transgenic garlic harbouring the gusA gene survived and grew well, whereas the gfp transgenic garlic gradually died under these conditions. Using this protocol transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm using the cry1Ca and H04 resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis were developed. Via Southern hybridization it was shown that the cry1Ca sequence was stably integrated into the garlic genome. After transfer of the transgenic in vitro garlic plants to the greenhouse, the cry1Ca plants developed normally and grew well to maturity with normal bulbs. However, all transgenic in vitro H04 garlic plants did not survive after transfer to the greenhouse. Transgenic cry1Ca garlic plants proved completely resistant to beet armyworm in a number of in vitro bio-assays. This finding will facilitate the development of new garlic cultivars resistant to beet armyworm.
Genetic transformation of Allium cepa mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Zheng Sijun, S.J. ; Henken, B. ; Krens, F.A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2004
In: Transgenic crops of the World - Essential Protocols / Curtis, I.S., Amsterdam : Kluwer Academic Publishers - ISBN 1402023324 - p. 281 - 290.
The development of an efficient cultivar-independent plant regeneration system from callus derived from both apical and non-apical root segments of garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Zheng, S.J. ; Henken, G. ; Krens, F.A. ; Kik, C. - \ 2003
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology. Plant 39 (2003)3. - ISSN 1054-5476 - p. 288 - 292.
somatic embryogenesis - shoot regeneration - tissue-culture - cepa - tip - transformation - primordia
Callus induction and later plant regeneration were studied in four widely grown garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars from Europe. Root segments from in vitro plantlets were used as starting material. In addition to cultivar effects, the effects of auxin and cytokinin levels and the position of the segments on the root were studied. There were no statistically significant differences among cultivars for the number of root segments that induced callus in the two series of experiments. The average induction frequency was 34.7% in the first series of experiments. Callus induction on apical root segments was significantly higher compared to callus induction on non-apical root segments in the second series of experiments. Two months after callus induction, callus lines were transferred to a regeneration medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 30 g l-1 sucrose and 1 mg l-1 (4.6 M) kinetin. Calluses derived from different experiments were quite uniform with respect to their regeneration potential. Also it was found that our regeneration system was cultivar-independent. The average shoot regeneration frequency was 17.9% in the first series of experiments. Highly significant differences were found in the frequency of shoot regeneration among different callus induction treatments. When the cytokinin 6-(,-dimethylallylamino)purine (0.1 mg l-1: 0.5 M) was present during callus induction, shoot regeneration ranged from 30.10 to 47.60%. Shoot regeneration from callus induced on non-apical segments was higher, although not significant, compared to callus induction from apical root segments in the second series of experiments. All in all, an efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system was developed from both apical and non-apical segments taken along the entire length of the roots. This system has potential to be used for garlic transformation.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots
Zheng, S.J. ; Khrustaleva, L.I. ; Henken, G. ; Sofiari, E. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Kik, C. ; Krens, F.A. - \ 2001
Molecular Breeding 7 (2001)2. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 101 - 115.
manihot-esculenta crantz - oryza-sativa-l - gene-transfer - indica rice - t-dna - transient expression - suspension-cultures - plant-regeneration - immature embryos - reporter gene
This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development of the protocol a large number of parameters were studied. The expression of the uidA gene coding for -glucuronidase was used as an indicator in the optimization of the protocol. Subspecies (onion and shallot) and cultivar were important factors for a successful transformation: shallot was better than onion and for shallot cv. Kuning the best results were obtained. Also, it was found that constantly reducing the size of the calli during subculturing and selection by chopping, thus enhancing exposure to the selective agent hygromycin, improved the selection efficiency significantly. Furthermore, callus induction medium and co-cultivation period showed a significant effect on successful stable transformation. The usage of different Agrobacterium strains, callus ages, callus sources and osmotic treatments during co-cultivation did not influence transformation efficiency. The highest transformation frequency (1.95%), was obtained with shallot cv. Kuning. A total of 11 independent transformed callus lines derived from zygotic embryos were produced: seven lines from shallot and four lines from onion. Large differences in plantlet production were observed among these lines. The best line produced over 90 plantlets. Via PCR the presence of the uidA and hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase) genes could be demonstrated in these putative transformed plants. Southern hybridization showed that most lines originated from one transformation event. However, in one line plants were obtained indicating the occurrence and rescue of at least three independent transformation events. This suggested that T-DNA integration occurred in different cells within the callus. Most transgenic plants only had one copy of T-DNA integrated into their genomes. FISH performed on 12 plants from two different lines representing two integration events showed that original T-DNA integration had taken place on the distal end of chromosomes 1 or 5. A total of 83 transgenic plants were transferred to the greenhouse and these plants appeared to be diploid and normal in morphology
Molecular characterization of transgenic shallots (Allium cepa L.) by adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) and sequencing of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders
Zheng, S.J. ; Henken, G. ; Sofiari, E. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Krens, F.A. - \ 2001
Transgenic Research 10 (2001)3. - ISSN 0962-8819 - p. 237 - 245.
polymerase chain-reaction - mediated transformation - arabidopsis-thaliana - plasmid rescue - amplification - walking - plants - gene - junctions - fragments
Genomic DNA blot hybridization is traditionally used to demonstrate that, via genetic transformation, foreign genes are integrated into host genomes. However, in large genome species, such as Allium cepa L., the use of genomic DNA blot hybridization is pushed towards its limits, because a considerable quantity of DNA is needed to obtain enough genome copies for a clear hybridization pattern. Furthermore, genomic DNA blot hybridization is a time-consuming method. Adaptor ligation PCR (AL-PCR) of genomic DNA flanking T-DNA borders does not have these drawbacks and seems to be an adequate alternative to genomic DNA blot hybridization. Using AL-PCR we proved that T-DNA was integrated into the A. cepa genome of three transgenic lines transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 (pCAMBIA 1301). The AL-PCR patterns obtained were specific and reproducible for a given transgenic line. The results showed that T-DNA integration took place and gave insight in the number of T-DNA copies present. Comparison of AL-PCR and previously obtained genomic DNA blot hybridization results pointed towards complex T-DNA integration patterns in some of the transgenic plants. After cloning and sequencing the AL-PCR products, the junctions between plant genomic DNA and the T-DNA insert could be analysed in great detail. For example it was shown that upon T-DNA integration a 66bp genomic sequence was deleted, and no filler DNA was inserted. Primers located within the left and right flanking genomic DNA in transgenic shallot plants were used to recover the target site of T-DNA integration
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