Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Cost-effectiveness of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention in Dutch primary health care: economic evaluation from a randomised controlled trial
Duijzer, Geerke ; Bukman, Andrea J. ; Meints-Groenveld, Aafke ; Haveman-Nies, Annemien ; Jansen, Sophia C. ; Heinrich, Judith ; Hiddink, Gerrit J. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Wit, G.A. de - \ 2019
BMC Health services research 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1472-6963 - 1 p.
Cost-effectiveness - Diabetes - Economic evaluation - Lifestyle intervention - Prevention

BACKGROUND: Although evidence is accumulating that lifestyle modification may be cost-effective in patients with prediabetes, information is limited on the cost-effectiveness of interventions implemented in public health and primary health care settings. Evidence from well-conducted pragmatic trials is needed to gain insight into the realistic cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention interventions in real-world settings. The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of the SLIMMER lifestyle intervention targeted at patients at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with usual health care in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen high-risk subjects were randomly assigned to the SLIMMER lifestyle intervention or to usual health care. Costs and outcome assessments were performed at the end of the intervention (12 months) and six months thereafter (18 months). Costs were assessed from a societal perspective. Patients completed questionnaires to assess health care utilisation, participant out-of-pocket costs, and productivity losses. Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) were calculated based on the SF-36 questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves were generated using bootstrap analyses. RESULTS: The cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the incremental costs of the SLIMMER lifestyle intervention were €547 and that the incremental effect was 0.02 QALY, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €28,094/QALY. When cost-effectiveness was calculated from a health care perspective, the ICER decreased to €13,605/QALY, with a moderate probability of being cost-effective (56% at a willingness to pay, WTP, of €20,000/QALY and 81% at a WTP of €80,000/QALY). CONCLUSIONS: The SLIMMER lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes had a low to moderate probability of being cost-effective, depending on the perspective taken. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The SLIMMER study is retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT02094911) since March 19, 2014.

Distribution maps of cetacean and seabird populations in the North‐East Atlantic
Waggitt, J.J. ; Evans, P.G.H. ; Andrade, J. ; Banks, A.N. ; Boisseau, O. ; Bolton, M. ; Bradbury, G. ; Brereton, T. ; Camphuysen, C.J. ; Durinck, J. ; Felce, T. ; Fijn, R.C. ; Garcia‐baron, I. ; Garthe, S. ; Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Gilles, A. ; Goodall, M. ; Haelters, J. ; Hamilton, S. ; Hartny‐mills, L. ; Hodgins, N. ; James, K. ; Jessopp, M. ; Kavanagh, A.S. ; Leopold, M. ; Lohrengel, K. ; Louzao, M. ; Markones, N. ; Martinez‐cediera, J. ; O’cadhla, O. ; Perry, S.I. ; Pierce, G.J. ; Ridoux, V. ; Robinson, K.P. ; Santos, M.B. ; Saavedra, C. ; Skov, H. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Sveegaard, S. ; Thompson, P. ; Vanermen, N. ; Wall, D. ; Webb, A. ; Wilson, J. ; Wanless, S. ; Hiddink, J.G. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Ecology (2019). - ISSN 0021-8901 - 45 p.
Nutrition in medical education: a systematic review
Crowley, Jennifer ; Ball, Lauren ; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2019
The Lancet Planetary Health 3 (2019)9. - ISSN 2542-5196 - p. e379 - e389.

Background: In many countries, doctors are recommended to provide nutrition care to patients to improve the dietary behaviours of individuals and populations. Here, we present a systematic review that aims to critically synthesise literature on nutrition education provided to medical students. Methods: In this systematic review, a literature search was done between May 1 and July 1, 2018, for articles on medical students' nutrition knowledge, skills, and confidence to counsel patients, from Nov 1, 2012, to Dec 31, 2018. Search terms related to medical students included “nutrition in medical education”, “medical nutrition education”, and “undergraduate medical nutrition education”. Search terms for topic of interest included “nutrition”, “knowledge”, “skills”, “nutrition counselling”, “confidence”, “nutrition care”, or “nutrition education”. Included studies examined any aspect of recently graduated (ie, ≤4 years) or current medical students' nutrition knowledge, attitudes, skills, or confidence (or all three) in nutrition or nutrition counselling; evaluated nutrition curriculum initiatives for medical students; or assessed recently graduated or current medical students' perceptions of nutrition education. Quality assessment appraisal of the studies was done using a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Curriculum initiatives were also appraised. Findings: 66 studies were identified by the search and 24 were eligible for full-text analysis. 16 quantitative studies, three qualitative studies, and five curriculum initiatives from the USA (n=11), Europe (n=4), the Middle East (n=1), Africa (n=1), and Australasia (n=7) met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis of these studies showed that nutrition is insufficiently incorporated into medical education, regardless of country, setting, or year of medical education. Deficits in nutrition education affect students' knowledge, skills, and confidence to implement nutrition care into patient care. A modest positive effect was reported from curriculum initiatives. Interpretation: Despite the centrality of nutrition to healthy lifestyle, medical students are not supported to provide high-quality, effective nutrition care. Medical education can be enhanced by institutional commitment to make nutrition education compulsory in medical training, establishment of nutrition competencies to provide a benchmark for nutrition knowledge and skills to be included in curricula, and supported by funding for innovative curriculum initiatives. These initiatives will improve nutrition in medical training to support future doctors for the 21st century. Funding: Sir John Logan Campbell Medical Fellowship 2017, and an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowship.

Assessing bottom trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; McConnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1075 - 1084.
benthic invertebrates - bottom trawl - fisheries management - impact assessment - life-history meta-analysis - seabed disturbance - systematic review

Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase in populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. The shortest lived organisms (<1 year) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling but showed no response to trawling in long-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life span >1 year decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2–3× larger effect on biota living >10 years than on biota living 1–3 years. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the long-lived biota. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. Synthesis and applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2018
fisheries management - bottom trawl - benthic invertebrates - impact assessment - meta-analysis - systematic review - life history - seabed disturbance
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. 3. The shortest-lived organisms (<1yr) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling, but showed no response to trawling in longer-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life-span >1yr decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2-3× larger effect on biota living >10yr than on biota living 1-3yr. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the longer-lived biota. 4. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. 5. Synthesis and Applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.
Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
Data from: Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2018
benthos
Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e. slower growth, late maturation). We analyse data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e. suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2cm, shifted the community towards shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.
Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, Tobias van - \ 2018
Ecological Applications 28 (2018)5. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1302 - 1312.
benthic fauna - ecosystem-based management - effects of trawling - impact assessment - indicators - sea floor

Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e., slower growth, late maturation). We analyze data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e., suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2 cm, shifted the community toward shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.

Response of benthic fauna to experimental bottom fishing : A global meta-analysis
Sciberras, Marija ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Kneafsey, Brian ; Clarke, Leo J. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 698 - 715.
Dredging - Effects of trawling - Fishing impacts - Invertebrate communities - Systematic review - Taxonomic analysis
Bottom-contact fishing gears are globally the most widespread anthropogenic sources of direct disturbance to the seabed and associated biota. Managing these fishing disturbances requires quantification of gear impacts on biota and the rate of recovery following disturbance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of 122 experiments on the effects-of-bottom fishing to quantify the removal of benthos in the path of the fishing gear and to estimate rates of recovery following disturbance. A gear pass reduced benthic invertebrate abundance by 26% and species richness by 19%. The effect was strongly gear-specific, with gears that penetrate deeper into the sediment having a significantly larger impact than those that penetrate less. Sediment composition (% mud and presence of biogenic habitat) and the history of fishing disturbance prior to an experimental fishing event were also important predictors of depletion, with communities in areas that were not previously fished, predominantly muddy or biogenic habitats being more strongly affected by fishing. Sessile and low mobility biota with longer life-spans such as sponges, soft corals and bivalves took much longer to recover after fishing (>3 year) than mobile biota with shorter life-spans such as polychaetes and malacostracans (<1 year). This meta-analysis provides insights into the dynamics of recovery. Our estimates of depletion along with estimates of recovery rates and large-scale, high-resolution maps of fishing frequency and habitat will support more rigorous assessment of the environmental impacts of bottom-contact gears, thus supporting better informed choices in trade-offs between environmental impacts and fish production.
Food stories : Unraveling the mechanisms underlying healthful eating
Swan, Emily ; Bouwman, Laura ; Aarts, Noelle ; Rosen, Leah ; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan ; Koelen, Maria - \ 2018
Appetite 120 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 456 - 463.

The biomedical model of health (BMH) studies the causes and origins of disease. When applied to nutrition research, eating is studied as a behavior that supports physical health. However, the lack of attention the BMH pays to social and historical circumstances in which health behaviors are constructed has been widely addressed in literature. When people are studied without considering contextual influences, the relevance to everyday life is limited. As a result, how individuals actively deal with their context to manage healthful eating is poorly understood. This research applies a complementary model, salutogenic model of health (SMH), and uses life course research methodology to study a group of healthy eaters. The purpose of this research is to unravel how healthful eating develops in everyday life. Healthy eaters (n = 17) were identified and recruited from the NQplus research panel at Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Life course experiences were examined through narrative inquiry. Participants recalled and visually explored life experiences with food and health using timelines. Results indicate that healthful eating results from exposure to individual- and context-bounded factors during childhood and adulthood and involves specific mental and social capacities relevant to coping including amongst others, critical self-awareness; flexibility, craftiness, and fortitude. Through life-course learning moments, participants were able to develop proactive coping strategies which strengthened their sense of agency and helped them in overcoming stressors and challenges. Findings show that nutrition strategies should not only focus on strengthening food-specific factors like cooking skills and nutrition knowledge, but other factors like stress management, empowerment, and participation. Such factors support the development of adaptive skills and behaviors, enable individuals to deal with the demands of everyday life, and are building blocks for health promotion.

Individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors that underlie sense of coherence in Dutch adults
Swan, E. ; Bouwman, L. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Aarts, N. ; Koelen, M. - \ 2018
Global Health Promotion 25 (2018)1. - ISSN 1757-9759 - p. 33 - 42.
Antonovsky’s salutogenesis is a theoretical perspective on health development that explores physical, mental, and social factors that contribute to a ‘healthy life orientation’ and also a theoretical approach to behavior change. Previous studies applying salutogenesis show that a high sense of coherence (SOC), a composite measure from salutogenesis indicating one’s capacity to cope with stress, is associated with a healthy life orientation and lifestyle behaviors, including healthy eating patterns. However, limited evidence exists on the factors that underlie SOC, which could be used to strengthen this capacity as a means to enable healthier eating. Dutch adults (N = 781) participated in a cross-sectional study examining the relationship between SOC and a set of individual, social-environmental, and physical-environmental factors. The main findings indicate that high SOC was associated with a diverse set of factors including lower doctor-oriented health locus of control; higher satisfaction with weight; higher perceived levels of neighborhood collective efficacy; higher situational self-efficacy for healthy eating; lower social discouragement for healthy eating; and higher neighborhood affordability, accessibility and availability of healthy foods. These findings can inform the design of nutrition interventions that target these factors that strengthen SOC and provide the building blocks for a healthier life orientation.
A Brief History of the International Milk Genomics Consorium
Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2017
theme; "Moving Forward with Translational Milk Research to Advance Health"
Present and Future of Nutrition Guidance / Lifestyle Advice in Primary
Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2017
Farewell Speech
Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Ellis, Nick ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)31. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8301 - 8306.
logistic recovery model - systematic review - metaanalysis - impacts - trawling
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity affecting seabed habitats. Here, we collate all available data for experimental and comparative studies of trawling impacts on whole communities of seabed macroinvertebrates on sedimentary habitats and develop widely applicable methods to estimate depletion and recovery rates of biota after trawling. Depletion of biota and trawl penetration into the seabed are highly correlated. Otter trawls caused the least depletion, removing 6% of biota per pass and penetrating the seabed on average down to 2.4 cm, whereas hydraulic dredges caused the most depletion, removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed on average 16.1 cm. Median recovery times posttrawling (from 50 to 95% of unimpacted biomass) ranged between 1.9 and 6.4 y. By accounting for the effects of penetration depth, environmental variation, and uncertainty, the models explained much of the variability of depletion and recovery estimates from single studies. Coupled with
large-scale, high-resolution maps of trawling frequency and habitat, our estimates of depletion and recovery rates enable the assessment of trawling impacts on unprecedented spatial scales.
Determinants of lifestyle behavior change to prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals
Braver, Nicole den; Vet, E.W.M.L. de; Duijzer, G. ; Beek, J. ter; Jansen, S.C. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Haveman-Nies, A. - \ 2017
International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 1479-5868
Background
Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses.

Methods
In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months. The intervention was a combined lifestyle intervention with a dietary and a physical activity (PA) component. The primary and secondary outcomes were change in fasting insulin (pmol/L) and change in body weight (kg) after 18 months, respectively. Firstly, in a multiple mediator model, we investigated whether significant changes in these outcomes were mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior. Secondly, in multiple single mediator models, we investigated whether changes in dietary and PA behavior were mediated by changes in behavioral determinants and the participants’ psychological profile. The mediation analyses used linear regression models, where significance of indirect effects was calculated with bootstrapping.

Results
The effect of the intervention on decreased fasting insulin was 40% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where dietary behavior was an independent mediator of the association (34%). The effect of the intervention on decreased body weight was 20% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where PA behavior was an independent mediator (17%). The intervention significantly changed intake of fruit, fat from bread spread, and fiber from bread. Change in fruit intake was mediated by change in action control (combination of consciousness, self-control, and effort), motivation, self-efficacy, intention, and skills. Change in fat intake was mediated by change in action control and psychological profile. No mediators could be identified for change in fiber intake. The change in PA behavior was mediated by change in action control, motivation, and psychological profile.

Conclusion
The effect of the SLIMMER intervention on fasting insulin and body weight was mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior, in distinct ways. These results indicate that changing dietary as well as PA behavior is important in T2DM prevention.
Is the success of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention modified by socioeconomic status? A randomised controlled trial
Bukman, A.J. ; Duijzer, G. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Jansen, S. ; Beek, J. ter; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 129 (2017). - ISSN 0168-8227 - p. 160 - 168.
Aim
To explore the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in participation, programme attendance, programme acceptability, adherence to lifestyle guidelines, drop-out, and effectiveness in the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention.
Methods
SLIMMER was a randomised controlled intervention, carried out in a real-world setting, targeting 40- to 70-year-old adults at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (n = 316). The intervention group participated in a 10-month combined dietary and physical activity programme. Measurements were carried out at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months. Effectiveness was determined for fasting insulin, HbA1c, weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height-ratio. Differences between the low SES (no, primary, or lower secondary school) and higher SES group were tested using logistic regression and ANCOVA.
Results
Fifty-two percent of the SLIMMER participants had a low SES. No differences in participation were observed between the low and higher SES group. The most important reason for non-participation in the low SES group was ‘lack of interest’ (32%), whereas in the higher SES group this was ‘I already exercise enough’ (31%). Attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out, and effectiveness after 12 months were similar in the low and higher SES group. After 18 months, the low SES group seemed to maintain slightly better effects for fasting insulin, HbA1c, and waist circumference.
Conclusions
The current study showed that participation, attendance, acceptability, adherence, drop-out, and effectiveness of the SLIMMER intervention were in general not modified by socioeconomic status. The SLIMMER intervention can contribute to health promotion for individuals in both low and higher socioeconomic groups.
Effect and maintenance of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention lifestyle intervention in Dutch primary healthcare: a randomised controlled trial
Duijzer, G. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Jansen, S.C. ; Beek, J. van; Bruggen, Rykel van; Willink, M. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2017
Nutrition & Diabetes 7 (2017)5. - ISSN 2044-4052
Background/Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of the SLIMMER combined dietary and physical activity lifestyle intervention on clinical and metabolic risk factors, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life after 12 months, and to investigate whether effects sustained six months after the active intervention period ended.


Subjects/Methods: SLIMMER was a randomised controlled intervention, implemented in Dutch primary healthcare. In total, 316 subjects aged 40–70 years with increased risk of type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to the intervention group (10-month dietary and physical activity programme) or the control group (usual healthcare). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and physical examination, and filled in questionnaires. Identical examinations were performed at baseline and after 12 and 18 months. Primary outcome was fasting insulin.


Results: The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in anthropometry and glucose metabolism. After 12 and 18 months, differences between intervention and control group were -2.7 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): −3.7; −1.7) and −2.5 kg (95% CI: −3.6; −1.4) for weight, and −12.1 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −19.6; −4.6) and −8.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −14.7; −0.53) for fasting insulin. Furthermore, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life improved significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group.


Conclusions: The Dutch SLIMMER lifestyle intervention is effective in the short and long term in improving clinical and metabolic risk factors, dietary intake, physical activity, and quality of life in subjects at high risk of diabetes.
Estimating the sustainability of towed fishing-gear impacts on seabed habitats: a simple quantitative risk assessment method applicable to data-limited fisheries
Pitcher, C.R. ; Ellis, Nick ; Jennings, Simon ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Kangas, Mervi I. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Amoroso, Ricardo ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Hilborn, Ray ; Freckleton, Robert - \ 2017
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 472 - 480.
benthic fauna - depletion - ecological risk assessment - ecoystem-based fishery management - effects of trawling - recovery - resilience - sensivity - trawl footprints - vulnerability indicators
1. Impacts of bottom fishing, particularly trawling and dredging, on seabed (benthic) habitats are commonly perceived to pose serious environmental risks. Quantitative ecological risk assessment can be used to evaluate actual risks and to help guide the choice of management measures needed to meet sustainability objectives. 2. We develop and apply a quantitative method for assessing the risks to benthic habitats by towed bottom-fishing gears. The meth od is based on a simple eq uation for relative benthic status (RBS), derived by solving the logistic population growth equation for the equilibrium state. Estimating RBS requires only maps of fishing intensity and habitat type – and parameters for impact and recovery rates, which may be taken from meta-analyses of multiple experimental studies of towed-gear impacts. The aggregate status of habitats in an assessed region is indicated by the distribution of RBS values for the region. The application of RBS is illustrated for a tropical shrimp-trawl fishery. 3. The status of trawled habitats and their RBS value depend on impact rate (depletion per trawl), recovery rate and exposure to tra wling. In the shrimp-trawl fishery region, gravel habitat was most sensitive, and though less exposed than sand or mudd y-sand, was most affected overall (regional RBS = 91% relative to un-trawled RBS = 100%). Muddy-sand was less sensitive, and though relatively most exposed, was less affected overall (RBS = 95%). Sand was most heavily trawled but least sensitive and least affected overall (RBS = 98%). Region-wide , >94% of habitat area had >80% RBS because most tra wling and impacts were confined to small areas. RBS was also applied to the region’s benthic invertebrate communities with similar results. 4. Conclu sions. Unlike qualitative or categorical trait-based risk assessments, the RBS method provides a quantitative estimate of status relative to an unimpacted baseline, with minimal requireme nts for input data. It could be applied to bottom-contact fish erie s world-wide, including situations where detailed data on characteristics of seabed habitats, or the abundance of seabed fauna are not available. The approach supports assessment against sustainability criteria and evaluation of alternative management strategies (e.g. closed areas, effort management, gear modifications).
Differences in biological traits composition of benthic assemblages between unimpacted habitats
Bolam, S.G. ; Garcia, C. ; Eggleton, J. ; Kenny, A.J. ; Buhl-Mortensen, L. ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, G. ; Kooten, T. van; Dinesen, G. ; Hansen, J. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Sciberras, M. ; Smith, C. ; Papadopoulou, N. ; Gumus, A. ; Hoey, G. Van; Eigaard, O.R. ; Bastardie, F. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2017
Marine Environmental Research 126 (2017). - ISSN 0141-1136 - p. 1 - 13.
Biological traits - European shelf - Infauna - Unimpacted assemblages
There is an implicit requirement under contemporary policy drivers to understand the characteristics of benthic communities under anthropogenically-unimpacted scenarios. We used a trait-based approach on a large dataset from across the European shelf to determine how functional characteristics of unimpacted benthic assemblages vary between different sedimentary habitats. Assemblages in deep, muddy environments unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance show increased proportions of downward conveyors and surface deposit-feeders, while burrowing, diffusive mixing, scavenging and predation traits assume greater numerical proportions in shallower habitats. Deep, coarser sediments are numerically more dominated by sessile, upward conveyors and suspension feeders. In contrast, unimpacted assemblages of coarse sediments in shallower regions are proportionally dominated by the diffusive mixers, burrowers, scavengers and predators. Finally, assemblages of gravelly sediments exhibit a relatively greater numerical dominance of non-bioturbators and asexual reproducers. These findings may be used to form the basis of ranking habitats along a functional sensitivity gradient.
Indirect effects of bottom fishing on the productivity of marine fish
Collie, Jeremy ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Kooten, Tobias van; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Jennings, Simon ; Hilborn, Ray - \ 2017
Fish and Fisheries 18 (2017)4. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 619 - 637.
Beam trawls - Benthic disturbance - Dredges - Fish yield - Otter trawl
One quarter of marine fish production is caught with bottom trawls and dredges on continental shelves around the world. Towed bottom-fishing gears typically kill 20-50 per cent of the benthic invertebrates in their path, depending on gear type, substrate and vulnerability of particular taxa. Particularly vulnerable are epifaunal species, which stabilize the sediment and provide habitat for benthic invertebrates. To identify the habitats, fisheries or target species most likely to be affected, we review evidence of the indirect effects of bottom fishing on fish production. Recent studies have found differences in the diets of certain species in relation to bottom fishing intensity, thereby linking demersal fish to their benthic habitats at spatial scales of ~10 km. Bottom fishing affects diet composition and prey quality rather than the amount of prey consumed; scavenging of discarded by-catch makes only a small contribution to yearly food intake. Flatfish may benefit from light trawling levels on sandy seabeds, while higher-intensity trawling on more vulnerable habitats has a negative effect. Models suggest that reduction in the carrying capacity of habitats by bottom fishing could lead to lower equilibrium yield and a lower level of fishing mortality to obtain maximum yield. Trawling effort is patchily distributed - small fractions of fishing grounds are heavily fished, while large fractions are lightly fished or unfished. This patchiness, coupled with the foraging behaviour of demersal fish, may mitigate the indirect effects of bottom fishing on fish productivity. Current research attempts to scale up these localized effects to the population level.
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