Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Elmendorf, Sarah C. ; Normand, Signe ; Rüger, Nadja ; Beck, Pieter S.A. ; Blach-Overgaard, Anne ; Blok, Daan ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Forbes, Bruce C. ; Georges, Damien ; Goetz, Scott J. ; Guay, Kevin C. ; Henry, Gregory H.R. ; Hillerislambers, Janneke ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Karger, Dirk N. ; Kattge, Jens ; Manning, Peter ; Prevéy, Janet S. ; Rixen, Christian ; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela ; Thomas, Haydn J.D. ; Vellend, Mark ; Wilmking, Martin ; Wipf, Sonja ; Carbognani, Michele ; Hermanutz, Luise ; Lévesque, Esther ; Molau, Ulf ; Petraglia, Alessandro ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Spasojevic, Marko J. ; Tomaselli, Marcello ; Vowles, Tage ; Alatalo, Juha M. ; Alexander, Heather D. ; Anadon-Rosell, Alba ; Angers-Blondin, Sandra ; Beest, Mariska te; Berner, Logan ; Björk, Robert G. ; Buchwal, Agata ; Buras, Allan ; Christie, Katherine ; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D. ; Ozinga, Wim A. - \ 2018
Nature 526 (2018). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 57 - 62.
The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature–trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
Soil microbes contribute to the classic plant diversity-productivity pattern
Schnitzer, S.A. ; Klironomos, J.N. ; HilleRisLambers, J. ; Kinkel, L.L. ; Reich, P.B. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. - \ 2011
Ecology 92 (2011)2. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 296 - 303.
arbuscular mycorrhizae - nitrogen deposition - species-diversity - elevated co2 - biodiversity - feedback - disease - ecosystems - communities - pathogens
Ecosystem productivity commonly increases asymptotically with plant species diversity, and determining the mechanisms responsible for this well-known pattern is essential to predict potential changes in ecosystem productivity with ongoing species loss. Previous studies attributed the asymptotic diversity–productivity pattern to plant competition and differential resource use (e.g., niche complementarity). Using an analytical model and a series of experiments, we demonstrate theoretically and empirically that host-specific soil microbes can be major determinants of the diversity–productivity relationship in grasslands. In the presence of soil microbes, plant disease decreased with increasing diversity, and productivity increased nearly 500%, primarily because of the strong effect of density-dependent disease on productivity at low diversity. Correspondingly, disease was higher in plants grown in conspecific-trained soils than heterospecific-trained soils (demonstrating host-specificity), and productivity increased and host-specific disease decreased with increasing community diversity, suggesting that disease was the primary cause of reduced productivity in species-poor treatments. In sterilized, microbe-free soils, the increase in productivity with increasing plant species number was markedly lower than the increase measured in the presence of soil microbes, suggesting that niche complementarity was a weaker determinant of the diversity–productivity relationship. Our results demonstrate that soil microbes play an integral role as determinants of the diversity–productivity relationship
|Habitat segregation and complex life cycles; managing fish populations exhibiting ontogenetic habitat shifts.
Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; HilleRisLambers, R. ; Gardmark, A. - \ 2010
In: Book of abstracts of the Netherlands Annual Ecology Meeting 9 - 10 February 2010, Lunteren. The Netherlands. - - p. 9 - 9.
Vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid grazing systems
HilleRisLambers, R. ; Rietkerk, M. ; Bosch, F. van den; Prins, H.H.T. ; Kroon, H. de - \ 2001
Ecology 82 (2001). - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 50 - 61.
Hypotheses about the origin of vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid areas around the world almost all include a common feature of semi-arid areas: the presence of a positive feedback between plant density and water infiltration. We investigate whether this positive feedback and the spatial redistribution of runoff water are sufficient to explain vegetation pattern formation. For this purpose, we analyze a spatially explicit model consisting of partial differential equations using a method for demonstrating pattern formation (Turing analysis). Our analysis reveals that pattern formation can occur in semi-arid areas given only the positive feedback between plant density and local water infiltration coupled with the spatial redistribution of runoff water. Thus, slope and underlying heterogeneity are not essential conditions. Other factors in the model, such as herbivory, plant dispersal, rainfall, and drought tolerance of plants, appear to determine under what conditions pattern formation is likely but are not the primary factors that generate the patterns. The model is in agreement with field observations and indicates the conditions for which vegetation pattern formation can be expected in arid and semi-arid grazing systems.