Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Kunnen wateren met veel ondergedoken waterplanten CO2 uit de atmosfeer vastleggen?
Velthuis, Mandy ; Kosten, Sarian ; Hilt, Sabine ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Bakker, L. - \ 2019
Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2019)september. - p. 4 - 7.
Aquatische ecosystemen met veel ondergedoken waterplanten zijn potentiëlehotspots voor de invang van organisch materiaal. Waterplanten slaan koolstofen nutriënten op in hun biomassa, afgestorven planten en andere detritusvormen een organische laag op de bodem. Kunnen dergelijke systemen misschien de hoeveelheid CO2 in de atmosfeer omlaag brengen? En hoe verlooptdie vastlegging als het water door klimaatverandering opwarmt?
Data from: Warming enhances sedimentation and decomposition of organic carbon in shallow macrophyte-dominated systems with zero net effect on carbon burial
Velthuis, Mandy ; Kosten, S. ; Aben, Ralf ; Kazanjian, Garabet ; Hilt, Sabine ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Donk, Ellen van; Bakker, Elisabeth S. - \ 2019
carbon cycle - decomposition - global warming - mineralization - phenology - primary production - sedimentation - submerged aquatic plant
Temperatures have been rising throughout recent decades and are predicted to rise further in the coming century. Global warming affects carbon cycling in freshwater ecosystems, which both emit and bury substantial amounts of carbon on a global scale. Currently, most studies focus on the effect of warming on overall carbon emissions from freshwater ecosystems, while net effects on carbon budgets may strongly depend on burial in sediments. Here, we tested whether year‐round warming increases the production, sedimentation, or decomposition of particulate organic carbon and eventually alters the carbon burial in a typical shallow freshwater system. We performed an indoor experiment in eight mesocosms dominated by the common submerged aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum testing two temperature treatments: a temperate seasonal temperature control and a warmed (+4°C) treatment (n = 4). During a full experimental year, the carbon stock in plant biomass, dissolved organic carbon in the water column, sedimented organic matter, and decomposition of plant detritus were measured. Our results showed that year‐round warming nearly doubled the final carbon stock in plant biomass from 6.9 ± 1.1 g C in the control treatment to 12.8 ± 0.6 g C (mean ± SE), mainly due to a prolonged growing season in autumn. DOC concentrations did not differ between the treatments, but organic carbon sedimentation increased by 60% from 96 ± 9.6 to 152 ± 16 g C m−2 year−1 (mean ± SE) from control to warm treatments. Enhanced decomposition of plant detritus in the warm treatment, however, compensated for the increased sedimentation. As a result, net carbon burial was 40 ± 5.7 g C m−2 year−1 in both temperature treatments when fluxes were combined into a carbon budget model. These results indicate that warming can increase the turnover of organic carbon in shallow macrophyte‐dominated systems, while not necessarily affecting net carbon burial on a system scale.
Modelling induced bank filtration effects on freshwater ecosystems to ensure sustainable drinking water production
Gillefalk, Mikael ; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Janse, Jan H. ; Chang, Manqi ; Köhler, Jan ; Hilt, Sabine - \ 2019
Water Research 157 (2019). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 19 - 29.
Macrophytes - PCLake - Phytoplankton - Regime shift - Shallow lakes - Surface water-groundwater interaction

Induced bank filtration (IBF) is a water abstraction technology using different natural infiltration systems for groundwater recharge, such as river banks and lake shores. It is a cost-effective pre-treatment method for drinking water production used in many regions worldwide, predominantly in urban areas. Until now, research concerning IBF has almost exclusively focussed on the purification efficiency and infiltration capacity. Consequently, knowledge about the effects on source water bodies is lacking. Yet, IBF interrupts groundwater seepage and affects processes in the sediment potentially resulting in adverse effects on lake or river water quality. Securing sufficient source water quality, however, is important for a sustainable drinking water production by IBF. In this study, we analysed the effects of five predicted mechanisms of IBF on shallow lake ecosystems using the dynamic model PCLake: declining CO 2 and nutrient availability, as well as increasing summer water temperatures, sedimentation rates and oxygen penetration into sediments. Shallow lake ecosystems are abundant worldwide and characterised by the occurrence of alternative stable states with either clear water and macrophyte dominance or turbid, phytoplankton-dominated conditions. Our results show that IBF in most scenarios increased phytoplankton abundance and thus had adverse effects on shallow lake water quality. Threshold levels for critical nutrient loading inducing regime shifts from clear to turbid conditions were up to 80% lower with IBF indicating a decreased resilience to eutrophication. The effects were strongest when IBF interrupted the seepage of CO 2 rich groundwater resulting in lower macrophyte growth. IBF could also enhance water quality, but only when interrupting the seepage of groundwater with high nutrient concentrations. Higher summer water temperatures increased the share of cyanobacteria in the phytoplankton community and thus the risk of toxin production. In relative terms, the effects of changing sedimentation rates and oxygen penetration were small. Lake depth and size influenced the effect of IBF on critical nutrient loads, which was strongest in shallower and smaller lakes. Our model results stress the need of a more comprehensive ecosystem perspective including an assessment of IBF effects on threshold levels for regime shifts to prevent high phytoplankton abundance in the source water body and secure a sustainable drinking water supply.

Warming enhances sedimentation and decomposition of organic carbon in shallow macrophyte-dominated systems with zero net effect on carbon burial
Velthuis, Mandy ; Kosten, Sarian ; Aben, Ralf ; Kazanjian, Garabet ; Hilt, Sabine ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Donk, Ellen van; Bakker, Elisabeth S. - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 5231 - 5242.
carbon cycle - decomposition - global warming - mineralization - phenology - primary production - sedimentation - submerged aquatic plant

Temperatures have been rising throughout recent decades and are predicted to rise further in the coming century. Global warming affects carbon cycling in freshwater ecosystems, which both emit and bury substantial amounts of carbon on a global scale. Currently, most studies focus on the effect of warming on overall carbon emissions from freshwater ecosystems, while net effects on carbon budgets may strongly depend on burial in sediments. Here, we tested whether year-round warming increases the production, sedimentation, or decomposition of particulate organic carbon and eventually alters the carbon burial in a typical shallow freshwater system. We performed an indoor experiment in eight mesocosms dominated by the common submerged aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum testing two temperature treatments: a temperate seasonal temperature control and a warmed (+4°C) treatment (n = 4). During a full experimental year, the carbon stock in plant biomass, dissolved organic carbon in the water column, sedimented organic matter, and decomposition of plant detritus were measured. Our results showed that year-round warming nearly doubled the final carbon stock in plant biomass from 6.9 ± 1.1 g C in the control treatment to 12.8 ± 0.6 g C (mean ± SE), mainly due to a prolonged growing season in autumn. DOC concentrations did not differ between the treatments, but organic carbon sedimentation increased by 60% from 96 ± 9.6 to 152 ± 16 g C m−2 yaer−1 (mean ± SE) from control to warm treatments. Enhanced decomposition of plant detritus in the warm treatment, however, compensated for the increased sedimentation. As a result, net carbon burial was 40 ± 5.7 g C m−2 year−1 in both temperature treatments when fluxes were combined into a carbon budget model. These results indicate that warming can increase the turnover of organic carbon in shallow macrophyte-dominated systems, while not necessarily affecting net carbon burial on a system scale.

Impacts of warming on top-down and bottom-up controls of periphyton production
Kazanjian, Garabet ; Velthuis, Mandy ; Aben, Ralf ; Stephan, Susanne ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Frenken, Thijs ; Touwen, Jelle ; Xue, Fei ; Kosten, Sarian ; De Waal, Dedmer B. Van; Senerpont Domis, Lisette N. De; Donk, Ellen van; Hilt, Sabine - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Global warming profoundly impacts the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Nonetheless, the effect of warming on primary producers is poorly understood, especially periphyton production, which is affected both directly and indirectly by temperature-sensitive top-down and bottom-up controls. Here, we study the impact of warming on gross primary production in experimental ecosystems with near-realistic foodwebs during spring and early summer. We used indoor mesocosms following a temperate temperature regime (control) and a warmed (+4 °C) treatment to measure biomass and production of phytoplankton and periphyton. The mesocosms' primary production was dominated by periphyton (>82%) during the studied period (April-June). Until May, periphyton production and biomass were significantly higher in the warm treatment (up to 98% greater biomass compared to the control) due to direct temperature effects on growth and indirect effects resulting from higher sediment phosphorus release. Subsequently, enhanced grazer abundances seem to have counteracted the positive temperature effect causing a decline in periphyton biomass and production in June. We thus show, within our studied period, seasonally distinct effects of warming on periphyton, which can significantly affect overall ecosystem primary production and functioning.

Response of submerged macrophyte communities to external and internal restoration measures in north temperate shallow lakes
Hilt, Sabine ; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M. ; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Blindow, Irmgard ; Davidson, Thomas A. ; Gillefalk, Mikael ; Hansson, Lars Anders ; Janse, Jan H. ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Jeppesen, Erik ; Kabus, Timm ; Kelly, Andrea ; Köhler, Jan ; Lauridsen, Torben L. ; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Noordhuis, Ruurd ; Phillips, Geoff ; Rücker, Jacqueline ; Schuster, Hans Heinrich ; Søndergaard, Martin ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Weyer, Klaus van de; Donk, Ellen van; Waterstraat, Arno ; Willby, Nigel ; Sayer, Carl D. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Aquaticplants - Biomanipulation - Eutrophication - Lakerestoration - Nutrient loadreduction - PCLake - Plant traits - Regime shift
Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallowareas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative propagules facilitating rapid initial growth and that can complete their life cycle by early summer. Later in the growing season these plants are, according to our simulations, outcompeted by periphyton, leading to late-summer phytoplankton blooms. Internal lake restoration measures often coincide with a rapid but transient colonization by hornworts, waterweeds or charophytes. Stable clear-water conditions and a diverse macrophyte flora only occurred decades after external nutrient load reduction or when measures were combined.
Data from: Warming advances top-down control and reduces producer biomass in a freshwater plankton community
Velthuis, Mandy ; Senerpont Domis, Lisette de; Frenken, Thijs ; Stephan, Susanne ; Kazanjian, Garabet ; Aben, Ralf ; Hilt, Sabine ; Kosten, Sarian ; Donk, Ellen van; De Waal, Dedmer B. Van - \ 2017
chytrid dynamics - global warming - phytoplankton community dynamics - seasonal succession - zooplankton phenology - Synedra - Dinobryon - Keratella - Bosmina
Global warming has been shown to affect ecosystems worldwide. Warming may, for instance, disrupt plant herbivore synchrony and bird phenology in terrestrial systems, reduce primary production in oceans, and promote toxic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. Responses of communities will not only depend on direct species-specific temperature effects, but also on indirect effects related to bottom-up and top-down processes. Here, we investigated the impact of warming on freshwater phytoplankton community dynamics, and assessed the relative contribution of nutrient availability, fungal parasitism, and grazing therein. For this purpose, we performed an indoor mesocosm experiment following seasonal temperature dynamics of temperate lakes and a warmed (+4°C) scenario from early spring to late summer. We assessed phytoplankton biomass, C:N:P stoichiometry and community composition, dissolved nutrient availabilities, fungal parasite (i.e., chytrid) prevalence, and zooplankton abundance. Warming led to an overall reduction in phytoplankton biomass as well as lower C:P and N:P ratios, while phytoplankton community composition remained largely unaltered. Warming resulted in an earlier termination of the diatom spring bloom, and an epidemic of its fungal parasite ended earlier as well. Furthermore, warming advanced zooplankton phenology, leading to an earlier top-down control on phytoplankton in the period after the spring bloom. Linear model analysis showed that most of the observed variance in phytoplankton biomass was related to seasonal temperature dynamics in combination with zooplankton abundance. Our findings showed that warming advanced grazer phenology and reduced phytoplankton biomass, thereby demonstrating how bottom-up and top-down related processes may shape future phytoplankton dynamics.
Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change
Aben, Ralf C.H. ; Barros, Nathan ; Donk, Ellen Van; Frenken, Thijs ; Hilt, Sabine ; Kazanjian, Garabet ; Lamers, Leon P.M. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Roelofs, Jan G.M. ; Senerpont Domis, Lisette N. De; Stephan, Susanne ; Velthuis, Mandy ; De Waal, Dedmer B. Van; Wik, Martin ; Thornton, Brett F. ; Wilkinson, Jeremy ; Delsontro, Tonya ; Kosten, Sarian - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature. As these temperature-ebullition relationships may have been affected by seasonal variation in organic matter availability, we also conducted a controlled year-round mesocosm experiment. Here 4 °C warming led to 51% higher total annual CH4 ebullition, while diffusion was not affected. Our combined findings suggest that global warming will strongly enhance freshwater CH4 emissions through a disproportional increase in ebullition (6-20% per 1 °C increase), contributing to global warming.
Warming advances top-down control and reduces producer biomass in a freshwater plankton community
Velthuis, Mandy ; Senerpont Domis, Lisette N. de; Frenken, Thijs ; Stephan, Susanne ; Kazanjian, Garabet ; Aben, Ralf ; Hilt, Sabine ; Kosten, Sarian ; Donk, Ellen van; De Waal, Dedmer B. Van - \ 2017
Ecosphere 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 2150-8925
Global warming has been shown to affect ecosystems worldwide. Warming may, for instance, disrupt plant herbivore synchrony and bird phenology in terrestrial systems, reduce primary production in oceans, and promote toxic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. Responses of communities will not only depend on direct species-specific temperature effects, but also on indirect effects related to bottom-up and top-down processes. Here, we investigated the impact of warming on freshwater phytoplankton community dynamics, and assessed the relative contribution of nutrient availability, fungal parasitism, and grazing therein. For this purpose, we performed an indoor mesocosm experiment following seasonal temperature dynamics of temperate lakes and a warmed (+4°C) scenario from early spring to late summer. We assessed phytoplankton biomass, C:N:P stoichiometry and community composition, dissolved nutrient availabilities, fungal parasite (i.e., chytrid) prevalence, and zooplankton abundance. Warming led to an overall reduction in phytoplankton biomass as well as lower C:P and N:P ratios, while phytoplankton community composition remained largely unaltered. Warming resulted in an earlier termination of the diatom spring bloom, and an epidemic of its fungal parasite ended earlier as well. Furthermore, warming advanced zooplankton phenology, leading to an earlier top-down control on phytoplankton in the period after the spring bloom. Linear model analysis showed that most of the observed variance in phytoplankton biomass was related to seasonal temperature dynamics in combination with zooplankton abundance. Our findings showed that warming advanced grazer phenology and reduced phytoplankton biomass, thereby demonstrating how bottom-up and top-down related processes may shape future phytoplankton dynamics.
Herbivory on freshwater and marine macrophytes : A review and perspective
Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Wood, Kevin A. ; Pagès, Jordi F. ; Veen, G.F. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Santamaría, Luis ; Nolet, Bart A. ; Hilt, Sabine - \ 2016
Aquatic Botany 135 (2016). - ISSN 0304-3770 - p. 18 - 36.
Climate change - Conservation - Ecosystem functions - Grazing - Seagrass - Stoichiometry
Until the 1990s, herbivory on aquatic vascular plants was considered to be of minor importance, and the predominant view was that freshwater and marine macrophytes did not take part in the food web: their primary fate was the detritivorous pathway. In the last 25 years, a substantial body of evidence has developed that shows that herbivory is an important factor in the ecology of vascular macrophytes across freshwater and marine habitats. Herbivores remove on average 40–48% of plant biomass in freshwater and marine ecosystems, which is typically 5–10 times greater than reported for terrestrial ecosystems. This may be explained by the lower C:N stoichiometry found in submerged plants. Herbivores affect plant abundance and species composition by grazing and bioturbation and therewith alter the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, including biogeochemical cycling, carbon stocks and primary production, transport of nutrients and propagules across ecosystem boundaries, habitat for other organisms and the level of shoreline protection by macrophyte beds. With ongoing global environmental change, herbivore impacts are predicted to increase. There are pressing needs to improve our management of undesirable herbivore impacts on macrophytes (e.g. leading to an ecosystem collapse), and the conflicts between people associated with the impacts of charismatic mega-herbivores. While simultaneously, the long-term future of maintaining both viable herbivore populations and plant beds should be addressed, as both belong in complete ecosystems and have co-evolved in these long before the increasing influence of man. Better integration of the freshwater, marine, and terrestrial herbivory literatures would greatly benefit future research efforts.
Enhanced Input of Terrestrial Particulate Organic Matter Reduces the Resilience of the Clear-Water State of Shallow Lakes: A Model Study
Lischke, B. ; Hilt, S. ; Janse, J.H. ; Kuiper, J.J. ; Mehner, T. ; Mooij, W.M. ; Gaedke, U. - \ 2014
Ecosystems 17 (2014)4. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 616 - 626.
climate-change - food webs - humic substances - resource use - fresh-water - loch ness - land-use - carbon - ecosystem - phosphorus
The amount of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) entering lakes is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. This may especially alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems in small, shallow lakes which can rapidly shift from a clear-water, macrophyte-dominated into a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state. We used the integrative ecosystem model PCLake to predict how rising t-POM inputs affect the resilience of the clear-water state. PCLake links a pelagic and benthic food chain with abiotic components by a number of direct and indirect effects. We focused on three pathways (zoobenthos, zooplankton, light availability) by which elevated t-POM inputs (with and without additional nutrients) may modify the critical nutrient loading thresholds at which a clear-water lake becomes turbid and vice versa. Our model results show that (1) increased zoobenthos biomass due to the enhanced food availability results in more benthivorous fish which reduce light availability due to bioturbation, (2) zooplankton biomass does not change, but suspended t-POM reduces the consumption of autochthonous particulate organic matter which increases the turbidity, and (3) the suspended t-POM reduces the light availability for submerged macrophytes. Therefore, light availability is the key process that is indirectly or directly changed by t-POM input. This strikingly resembles the deteriorating effect of terrestrial dissolved organic matter on the light climate of lakes. In all scenarios, the resilience of the clear-water state is reduced thus making the turbid state more likely at a given nutrient loading. Therefore, our study suggests that rising t-POM input can add to the effects of climate warming making reductions in nutrient loadings even more urgent.
Extending one-dimensional models for deep lakes to simulate the impact of submerged macrophytes on water quality
Sachse, R. ; Petzoldt, T. ; Blumstock, M. ; Moreira, S. ; Pätzig, M. ; Rücker, J. ; Janse, J.H. ; Mooij, W.M. ; Hilt, S. - \ 2014
Environmental Modelling & Software 61 (2014). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 410 - 423.
shallow eutrophic lakes - phytoplankton biomass - nutrient dynamics - phosphorus - ecosystem - growth - state - fish - zooplankton - vegetation
Submerged macrophytes can stabilise clear water conditions in shallow lakes. However, many existing models for deep lakes neglect their impact. Here, we tested the hypothesis that submerged macrophytes can affect the water clarity in deep lakes. A one-dimensional, vertically resolved macrophyte model was developed based on PCLake and coupled to SALMO-1D and GOTM hydrophysics and validated against field data. Validation showed good coherence in dynamic growth patterns and colonisation depths. In our simulations the presence of submerged macrophytes resulted in up to 50% less phytoplankton biomass in the shallowest simulated lake (11 m) and still 15% less phytoplankton was predicted in 100 m deep oligotrophic lakes. Nutrient loading, lake depth, and lake shape had a strong influence on macrophyte effects. Nutrient competition was found to be the strongest biological interaction. Despite a number of limitations, the derived dynamic lake model suggests significant effects of submerged macrophytes on deep lake water quality.
Abrupt regime shifts in space and time along rivers and connected lake systems
Hilt, S. ; Köhler, J. ; Kozerski, H.P. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. - \ 2011
Oikos 120 (2011)5. - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 766 - 775.
advection-dominated systems - alternative stable state - shallow lakes - submerged macrophytes - chlorophyll-a - water-quality - flow - ecosystems - streams - phytoplankton
Regime shifts between clear and turbid water states are commonly found in shallow lakes. These shifts are attributed to a positive feedback between water clarity and submerged macrophytes (underwater plants). Altering the retention time of the water may influence these interactions and thus potentially reduce the probability of alternative stable states. Here we assessed the effect of water retention time on the occurrence of alternative states in water quality of flushed lakes, chains of lakes and rivers using a spatially explicit simple model. Our results indicate that increased flushing of lakes rapidly decreases the range of parameters with alternative stable states up to their total disappearance at a flushing rate of about 50% the algal growth rate. Similarly, in a chain of lakes or in rivers with low flowing velocity, our model predicts that alternative stable states can only occur for systems with a high retention time. Despite the lack of hysteresis at lower water retention times, we predict that abrupt changes between clear and turbid states are still possible both in time and in space. Over a wide range of parameters, the equilibrium state of the chain of lakes shows a steep gradient of vegetation cover. Further, the transient dynamics of the model often include rapid shifts in time. For example, a local regime shift that occurs upstream may propagate through the whole lake chain or river due to a domino effect. All results of the simple model could qualitatively be reproduced with a more mechanistic model. The abrupt rather than gradual response of submerged macrophytes to reduced turbidity levels still makes river systems rather resilient to management measure. The importance of the initial turbidity and the observed domino effect suggest that restoration measures should start upstream and that these measures should eventually trigger regime shifts downstream
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