Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sub-diurnal variability of the carbon dioxide and water vapor isotopologues at the field observational scale
Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Koren, Gerbrand ; Ouwersloot, Huug G. ; Velde, Ivar van der; Röckmann, Thomas ; Miller, John B. - \ 2019
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 275 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 114 - 135.
Boundary-layer dynamics - CO - Coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere model - HO - Harvard Forest observations - Stable isotopologues - Sub-diurnal variability

We investigated the sub-diurnal variability of the carbon dioxide and water vapour isotopologues by modelling a representative case measured above the Harvard Forest. To this end, we developed a model that couples the local processes governed by soil and vegetation conditions to non-local atmospheric processes such as entrainment and long-range advection. The model formulation is based on solving the stable isotopologues 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2 16O and H2 18O as conserved variables. It also includes simultaneously solving the meteorological state variables coupled with their respective surface fluxes. Our model results indicate the need for a comprehensive observational data-set to ensure that the essential processes and interactions between the boundary-layer dynamics of a forest and the atmospheric boundary layer are satisfactorily reproduced. We present and discuss the temporal evolution of the budgets of 13CO2 and C18OO, in order to quantify the individual contributions made by soil, plant and entrainment dynamics. All these contributions turn out to be relevant, as they enable us to quantify how the energy, water and carbon fluxes on sub-daily scales are partitioned. Regarding the role played by entrainment, we carried out a set of three systematic experiments in which air, with different CO2 and H2O isotopic compositions originating in the residual layer, mix with the boundary-layer air. Our findings show that both the C18OO and H2 18O isotopic ratios and their respective isofluxes are influenced by the entrainment event. This result indicates that high frequency and accurate isotopologues surface measurements (seconds or minutes)can be used to quantify how non-local atmospheric processes modify isotopic composition at sub-daily scales.

High species diversity and turnover in granite inselberg floras highlight the need for a conservation strategy protecting many outcrops
Yates, Colin J. ; Robinson, Todd ; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W. ; Keppel, Gunnar ; Hopper, Stephen D. ; Schut, Antonius G.T. ; Byrne, Margaret - \ 2019
Ecology and Evolution 9 (2019)13. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 7660 - 7675.
beta diversity - conservation strategy - generalized dissimilarity modeling - granite inselbergs - OCBIL theory - rock outcrops - species turnover - water availability

Determining patterns of plant diversity on granite inselbergs is an important task for conservation biogeography due to mounting threats. However, beyond the tropics there are relatively few quantitative studies of floristic diversity, or consideration of these patterns and their environmental, biogeographic, and historical correlates for conservation. We sought to contribute broader understanding of global patterns of species diversity on granite inselbergs and inform biodiversity conservation in the globally significant Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). We surveyed floristics from 16 inselbergs (478 plots) across the climate gradient of the SWAFR stratified into three major habitats on each outcrop. We recorded 1,060 species from 92 families. At the plot level, local soil and topographic variables affecting aridity were correlated with species richness in herbaceous (HO) and woody vegetation (WO) of soil-filled depressions, but not in woody vegetation on deeper soils at the base of outcrops (WOB). At the outcrop level, bioclimatic variables affecting aridity were correlated with species richness in two habitats (WO and WOB) but, contrary to predictions from island biogeography, were not correlated with inselberg area and isolation in any of the three habitats. Species turnover in each of the three habitats was also influenced by aridity, being correlated with bioclimatic variables and with interplot geographic distance, and for HO and WO habitats with local site variables. At the outcrop level, species replacement was the dominant component of species turnover in each of the three habitats, consistent with expectations for long-term stable landscapes. Our results therefore highlight high species diversity and turnover associated with granite outcrop flora. Hence, effective conservation strategies will need to focus on protecting multiple inselbergs across the entire climate gradient of the region.

Strategies for robust and accurate experimental approaches to quantify nanomaterial bioaccumulation across a broad range of organisms
Petersen, Elijah J. ; Mortimer, Monika ; Burgess, Robert M. ; Handy, Richard ; Hanna, Shannon ; Ho, Kay T. ; Johnson, Monique ; Loureiro, Susana ; Selck, Henriette ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Spurgeon, David ; Unrine, Jason ; Brink, Nico W. Van Den; Wang, Ying ; White, Jason ; Holden, Patricia - \ 2019
Environmental Science: Nano covers the benefits... 6 (2019)6. - ISSN 2051-8153 - p. 1619 - 1656.

One of the key components for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is data on bioaccumulation potential. Accurately measuring bioaccumulation can be critical for regulatory decision-making regarding material hazard and risk, and for understanding the mechanism of toxicity. This perspective provides expert guidance for performing ENM bioaccumulation measurements across a broad range of test organisms and species. To accomplish this aim, we critically evaluated ENM bioaccumulation within three categories of organisms: single-celled species, multicellular species excluding plants, and multicellular plants. For aqueous exposures of suspended single-celled and small multicellular species, it is critical to perform a robust procedure to separate suspended ENMs and small organisms to avoid overestimating bioaccumulation. For many multicellular organisms, it is essential to differentiate between the ENMs adsorbed to external surfaces or in the digestive tract and the amount absorbed across epithelial tissues. For multicellular plants, key considerations include how exposure route and the role of the rhizosphere may affect the quantitative measurement of uptake, and that the efficiency of washing procedures to remove loosely attached ENMs to the roots is not well understood. Within each organism category, case studies are provided to illustrate key methodological considerations for conducting robust bioaccumulation experiments for different species within each major group. The full scope of ENM bioaccumulation measurements and interpretations are discussed including conducting the organism exposure, separating organisms from the ENMs in the test media after exposure, analytical methods to quantify ENMs in the tissues or cells, and modeling the ENM bioaccumulation results. One key finding to improve bioaccumulation measurements was the critical need for further analytical method development to identify and quantify ENMs in complex matrices. Overall, the discussion, suggestions, and case studies described herein will help improve the robustness of ENM bioaccumulation studies.

Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N5 Viruses in Europe in 2016-2017 Appears Related to the Timing of Reassortment Events
Bergervoet, Saskia A. ; Ho, Cynthia K.Y. ; Heutink, Rene ; Bossers, Alex ; Beerens, Nancy - \ 2019
Viruses 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 1999-4915
avian influenza - genetic analysis - highly pathogenic avian influenza - reassortment

During the epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Europe in 2016-2017, HPAI viruses of subtype H5N5 were also isolated. However, the detection of H5N5 viruses was limited compared to H5N8. In this study, we show that the genetic constellation of a newly isolated H5N5 virus is different from two genotypes previously identified in the Netherlands. The introduction and spread of the three H5N5 genotypes in Europe was studied using spatiotemporal and genetic analysis. This demonstrated that the genotypes were isolated in distinguishable phases of the epizootic, and suggested multiple introductions of H5N5 viruses into Europe followed by local spread. We estimated the timing of the reassortment events, which suggested that the genotypes emerged after the start of autumn migration. This may have prevented large-scale spread of the H5N5 viruses on wild bird breeding sites before introduction into Europe. Experiments in primary chicken and duck cells revealed only minor differences in cytopathogenicity and replication kinetics between H5N5 genotypes and H5N8. These results suggest that the limited spread of HPAI H5N5 viruses is related to the timing of the reassortment events rather than changes in virus pathogenicity or replication kinetics.

Using a reaction-diffusion model to estimate day respiration and reassimilation of (photo)respired CO2 in leaves
Berghuijs, Herman N.C. ; Yin, Xinyou ; Ho, Q.T. ; Retta, Moges A. ; Nicolaï, Bart M. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2019
New Phytologist 223 (2019)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 619 - 631.
C photosynthesis - mesophyll conductance - photorespiration - reaction-diffusion model - reassimilation - respiration

Methods using gas exchange measurements to estimate respiration in the light (day respiration R d ) make implicit assumptions about reassimilation of (photo)respired CO 2 ; however, this reassimilation depends on the positions of mitochondria. We used a reaction-diffusion model without making these assumptions to analyse datasets on gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and anatomy for tomato leaves. We investigated how R d values obtained by the Kok and the Yin methods are affected by these assumptions and how those by the Laisk method are affected by the positions of mitochondria. The Kok method always underestimated R d . Estimates of R d by the Yin method and by the reaction-diffusion model agreed only for nonphotorespiratory conditions. Both the Yin and Kok methods ignore reassimilation of (photo)respired CO 2 , and thus underestimated R d for photorespiratory conditions, but this was less so in the Yin than in the Kok method. Estimates by the Laisk method were affected by assumed positions of mitochondria. It did not work if mitochondria were in the cytosol between the plasmamembrane and the chloroplast envelope. However, mitochondria were found to be most likely between the tonoplast and chloroplasts. Our reaction-diffusion model effectively estimates R d , enlightens the dependence of R d estimates on reassimilation and clarifies (dis)advantages of existing methods.

Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Bixby, Honor ; Bentham, James ; Zhou, Bin ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Bennett, James E. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Sorić, Maroje ; Gregg, Edward W. ; Miranda, J.J. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Savin, Stefan ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Iurilli, Maria L.C. ; Solomon, Bethlehem D. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bovet, Pascal ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Starc, Gregor ; Zainuddin, Ahmad A. ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abdrakhmanova, Shynar ; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila ; Abdul Hamid, Zargar ; Abubakar Garba, Jamila ; Ferrieres, Jean ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Visser, Marjolein ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7755. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 260 - 264.

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

Blood and urine analyses after radioembolization of liver malignancies with [166Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres
Bakker, Robbert C. ; Roos, Remmert de; Tessa Ververs, F.F. ; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. ; Lee, Martijn K. van der; Zonnenberg, Bernard A. ; Krijger, Gerard C. - \ 2019
Nuclear medicine and biology 71 (2019). - ISSN 0969-8051 - p. 11 - 18.
Blood - Holmium - Radioisotope - SIRT - Urine

Background: [ 166 Ho]Ho-acetylacetonate-poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres were used in radioembolization of liver malignancies by intra-arterial administration. The primary aim of this study was to assess the stability and biodistribution of these microspheres. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and urine samples were obtained from two clinical studies. Patient and in vitro experiment samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), gamma-ray spectroscopy, light microscopy, Coulter particle counting, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The median percentage holmium compared to the total amount injected into the hepatic artery was 0.19% (range 0.08–2.8%) and 0.32% (range 0.03–1.8%) in the 1 h blood plasma and 24 h urine, respectively. Both the blood plasma and urine were correlated with the neutron irradiation exposure required for [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere production (ρ = 0.616, p = 0.002). After a temporary interruption of the phase 2 clinical study, the resuspension medium was replaced to precipitate [ 166 Ho]Ho 3+ pre-administration using phosphate. The in vitro near-maximum neutron irradiation experiments showed significant [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere damage. Conclusion: The amount of holmium in the peripheral blood and urine samples after [ 166 Ho]Ho-AcAc-PLLA microsphere intrahepatic infusion was low. A further decrease was observed after reformulation of the resuspension solution but minimization of production damage is necessary.

Morphological and quality characterization of grape berry and rachis in response to postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene and elevated oxygen and carbon dioxide atmospheres
Wang, Lei ; Luo, Zisheng ; Li, Junhao ; Yang, Mingyi ; Yan, Jiawei ; Lu, Hongyan ; Li, Dong ; Chen, Cunkun ; Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani ; Wu, Bin ; Li, Li - \ 2019
Postharvest Biology and Technology 153 (2019). - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 107 - 117.
1-Methylcyclopropene - Berry - Elevated O /CO atmosphere - Gene expression - Rachis

This research studied the morphological characterization and quality attributes of ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Yongyou NO.1’ (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.) grape berry and rachis in response to postharvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) alone or in combination with elevated 80% O 2 (H-O 2 ) / 20% CO 2 (H-CO 2 ). Results indicated that the integrated application of exogenous 1-MCP alone and combined with H-O 2 /H-CO 2 significantly prevented the rachis browning and chlorophyll degradation, maintained the cellular microstructure integrity and promoted esters and terpenes synthesis. Additionally, the transcriptional expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was sharply downregulated by 1-MCP treatment in both cultivar rachis and berries. And genes expression related to softening was also downregulated by 1-MCP alone and plus elevated O 2 /CO 2 atmospheres treatment. Particularly, the combinatorial treatment of 1-MCP and H-O 2 effectively impeded berry abscission and alcohols accumulation; whereas 1-MCP with H-CO 2 treatment maintained the membrane permeability in berries. Nevertheless, 1-MCP alone or in combination with elevated atmospheres did not significantly affect total soluble solids and titratable acidity and did not harm sensory quality in both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Yongyou NO.1’ cultivars after 32 days of storage.

Limited contribution of non-intensive chicken farming to ESBL-producing Escherichia coli colonization in humans in Vietnam : an epidemiological and genomic analysis
Nguyen, Vinh Trung ; Jamrozy, Dorota ; Matamoros, Sébastien ; Carrique-Mas, Juan J. ; Ho, Huynh Mai ; Thai, Quoc Hieu ; Nguyen, Thi Nhu Mai ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Thwaites, Guy ; Parkhill, Julian ; Schultsz, Constance ; Ngo, Thi Hoa - \ 2019
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 74 (2019)3. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 561 - 570.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of colonization with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) in humans in Vietnam associated with non-intensive chicken farming. METHODS: Faecal samples from 204 randomly selected farmers and their chickens, and from 306 age- and sex-matched community-based individuals who did not raise poultry were collected. Antimicrobial usage in chickens and humans was assessed by medicine cabinet surveys. WGS was employed to obtain a high-resolution genomic comparison between ESBL-Ec isolated from humans and chickens. RESULTS: The adjusted prevalence of ESBL-Ec colonization was 20.0% (95% CI 10.8%-29.1%) and 35.2% (95% CI 30.4%-40.1%) in chicken farms and humans in Vietnam, respectively. Colonization with ESBL-Ec in humans was associated with antimicrobial usage (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.08-5.87) but not with involvement in chicken farming. blaCTX-M-55 was the most common ESBL-encoding gene in strains isolated from chickens (74.4%) compared with blaCTX-M-27 in human strains (47.0%). In 3 of 204 (1.5%) of the farms, identical ESBL genes were detected in ESBL-Ec isolated from farmers and their chickens. Genomic similarity indicating recent sharing of ESBL-Ec between chickens and farmers was found in only one of these farms. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of epidemiological and genomic data in this study has demonstrated a limited contribution of non-intensive chicken farming to ESBL-Ec colonization in humans in Vietnam and further emphasizes the importance of reducing antimicrobial usage in both human and animal host reservoirs.

Unexpected role of canonical aerobic methanotrophs in upland agricultural soils
Ho, Adrian ; Lee, Hyo Jung ; Reumer, Max ; Meima-Franke, Marion ; Raaijmakers, Ciska ; Zweers, Hans ; Boer, Wietse de; Putten, Wim H. Van der; Bodelier, Paul L.E. - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 131 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 1 - 8.
C labelling - High-affinity methane oxidation - Methylocystaceae - PLFA analysis/ land-use change - pmoA

Aerobic oxidation of methane at (circum-)atmospheric concentrations (<40 ppmv) has long been assumed to be catalyzed by the as-yet-uncultured high-affinity methanotrophs in well-aerated, non-wetland (upland) soils, the only known biological methane sink globally. Although the low-affinity canonical methanotrophs with cultured representatives have been detected along with the high-affinity ones, their role as a methane sink in upland soils remains enigmatic. Here, we show that canonical methanotrophs can contribute to (circum-)atmospheric methane uptake in agricultural soils. We performed a stable-isotope 13C–CH4 labelling incubation in the presence and absence of bio-based residues that were added to the soil to track the flow of methane. Residue amendment transiently stimulated methane uptake rate (<50 days). Soil methane uptake was sustained throughout the incubation (130 days), concomitant to the enrichment of 13C–CO2. The 13C-enriched phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were distinct in both soils, irrespective of amendments, and were unambiguously assigned almost exclusively to canonical alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs with cultured representatives. 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequence analyses revealed that the as-yet-uncultured high-affinity methanotrophs were virtually absent in these soils. The stable-isotope labelling approach allowed to attribute soil methane uptake to canonical methanotrophs, whereas these were not expected to consume (circum-)atmospheric methane. Our findings thus revealed an overlooked reservoir of high-affinity methane-oxidizers represented by the canonical methanotrophs in agriculture-impacted upland soils. Given that upland agricultural soils have been thought to marginally or do not contribute to atmospheric methane consumption due to the vulnerability of the high-affinity methanotrophs, our findings suggest a thorough revisiting of the contribution of agricultural soils, and the role of agricultural management to mitigation of climate change.

Narrative Assessment : A new approach to advocacy monitoring, evaluation, learning and communication
Wessel, M.G.J. van; Ho, W.W.S. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Hivos - 42 p.
Traceability in food supply chains: administrative burden or opportunity for sustainability and resilience
Akkerman, Renzo - \ 2018
Local and global food supply chains: dealing with perceptions and realities
Akkerman, Renzo - \ 2018
High Output LED in hybride belichting : monitoring praktijkproef bij Alstroemeria
García Victoria, Nieves ; Weerheim, Kees ; Kempkes, Frank ; Steenhuizen, Johan ; Vreugdenhil, Arend ; Groot, Marco de - \ 2018
Bleiswijk : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Glastuinbouw (Rapport WPR 806) - 50
In order to increase the intensity of the artificial light with the least possible electricity costs, an Alstroemeria production company experiments with a Hybrid light installation. The Hybrid lighting was created by complementing the existing 61 μmol/m2 HPS lamps with 21 μmol/m2s Philips High Output (HO) LED lamps to a total intensity of 81 μmol/m2s. The performance of this hybrid lighting was investigated between January 2017 and May 2019 and compared with the existing HPS installation (62 μmol/m2s) and with Regular Output (RO) LED at an intensity of 79 μmol/m2s. The light sum in the Hybrid lighting was 288 Mol/m2 higher than in the HPS reference (4%) thanks to the 33% higher light level and the 442 more burning hours of the HO LED, and yielded 8% more production (longer, heavier stems). The light sum in the LED treatment was 215 Mol light (3%) higher than the reference, due to 33% higher intensity but was used as many hours as the HPS lamps, and increased production by 6% (more branches). Of the three systems, the Full LED option is the most energy-efficient and
the Hybrid lighting had the lowest EUE (electricity use efficiency). The research was funded by the program “ Greenhouse as Source of Energy” of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and LTO Glaskracht, the Knowledge Cooperative Alstroemeria, Philips Lighting and Fa. Vreugdenhil.
Dynamics of the Phanerochaete carnosa transcriptome during growth on aspen and spruce
Jurak, E. ; Suzuki, H. ; Erven, G. van; Gandier, J.A. ; Wong, P. ; Chan, K. ; Ho, C.Y. ; Gong, Y. ; Tillier, E. ; Rosso, M.N. ; Kabel, M.A. ; Miyauchi, S. ; Master, E.R. - \ 2018
BMC Genomics 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
Carbohydrate active enzymes - Hydrophobins - Lignocellulose conversions - Loosenins - Phanerochaete carnosa - Transcriptomics

BACKGROUND: The basidiomycete Phanerochaete carnosa is a white-rot species that has been mainly isolated from coniferous softwood. Given the particular recalcitrance of softwoods to bioconversion, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis of P. carnosa following growth on wood powder from one softwood (spruce; Picea glauca) and one hardwood (aspen; Populus tremuloides). P. carnosa was grown on each substrate for over one month, and mycelia were harvested at five time points for total RNA sequencing. Residual wood powder was also analyzed for total sugar and lignin composition. RESULTS: Following a slightly longer lag phase of growth on spruce, radial expansion of the P. carnosa colony was similar on spruce and aspen. Consistent with this observation, the pattern of gene expression by P. carnosa on each substrate converged following the initial adaptation. On both substrates, highest transcript abundances were attributed to genes predicted to encode manganese peroxidases (MnP), along with auxiliary activities from carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZy) families AA3 and AA5. In addition, a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from family AA9 was steadily expressed throughout growth on both substrates. P450 sequences from clans CPY52 and CYP64 accounted for 50% or more of the most highly expressed P450s, which were also the P450 clans that were expanded in the P. carnosa genome relative to other white-rot fungi. CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of five growth points and two wood substrates was important to revealing differences in the expression profiles of specific sequences within large glycoside hydrolase families (e.g., GH5 and GH16), and permitted co-expression analyses that identified new targets for study, including non-catalytic proteins and proteins with unknown function.

Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants
Ezzati, Majid ; Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara di; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Sorić, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (2018)3. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 872 - 883i.
Blood pressure - Global health - Hypertension - Non-communicable disease - Population health

Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

Significant enhancement of micropollutant photocatalytic degradation using a TiO2 nanotube array photoanode based photocatalytic fuel cell
Ye, Yin ; Bruning, Harry ; Li, Xiaolu ; Yntema, Doekle ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. - \ 2018
Chemical Engineering Journal 354 (2018). - ISSN 1385-8947 - p. 553 - 562.
MCPA - Photocatalysis - Photocatalytic fuel cell - Scavengers - TiO nanotube arrays

This study evaluated the application of a membrane-free photocatalytic fuel cell composed of a TiO2 nanotube array photoanode and a Cu cathode, i.e. TNA-Cu PFC system, for micropollutant removal from water. Significantly enhanced removal of a commonly present aqueous micropollutant 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was obtained in this TNA-Cu PFC system: the TNA-Cu PFC system achieved better MCPA degradation compared to the conventional photocatalytic method using the same catalyst. In the TNA-Cu PFC system, the MCPA degradation was largely promoted under acidic conditions, indicating this as an important operational condition. The enhancement of MCPA degradation in the TNA-Cu PFC system involved better e/h+ separation and generation of other oxidants: in conventional photocatalytic process, hydroxyl radicals in liquid phase contributed to 93.7% MCPA degradation while only 2.4% MCPA degradation was mediated by other oxidants like [rad]O2 , H2O2, [rad]HO2; for MCPA degradation in the TNA-Cu PFC system, the contribution of hydroxyl radicals in the liquid phase decreased to 83.6%, while contribution of other oxidants like [rad]O2 , H2O2, [rad]HO2 increased to 15.3%. This change in MCPA degradation mechanisms was confirmed via degradation intermediates analysis by LC-MS/MS. The study on the effect of electrolyte concentration suggests that when operated under acidic conditions, addition of electrolyte is not required. The TNA-Cu PFC system was shown to work well in the presence of up to 15 mg/L natural organic matter (originating from two large rivers), high amounts of common inorganic ions, and even in WWTP effluent. The TNA-Cu PFC system also exhibited relatively good stability after several cycles of repeated use. The obtained results demonstrated that this is an adequate system for micropollutant removal from water at various places in the water cycle, i.e. as polisher of WWTP effluents before discharge or for cleaning intake water before producing drinking water.

B Vitamins Can Reduce Body Weight Gain by Increasing Metabolism-related Enzyme Activities in Rats Fed on a High-Fat Diet
Zheng, Ying ; Ma, A. ; Zheng, Ming C. ; Wang, Qiuzhen ; Liang, Hui ; Han, Xiuxia ; Schouten, Evert G. - \ 2018
Current Medical Science 38 (2018)1. - ISSN 2096-5230 - p. 174 - 183.
B vitamins - body weight gain - enzyme activities - obesity - rats

B vitamins are enzyme cofactors that play an important role in energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether B vitamin administration can reduce body weight (BW) gain by improving energy metabolism-related enzyme activities in rats fed on a highfat diet. Fifty rats were randomly assigned to one of the following five groups: control group (C), including rats fed on standard rat chow; four treatment groups (HO, HI, H2, and H3), in which rats were fed on a high-fat diet. Rats in the HI group were treated daily with 100 mg/kg BW thiamine (VB1), 100 mg/kg BW riboflavin (VB2), and 250 mg/kg BW niacin (VPP); rats in the H2 group were treated daily with 100 mg/kg BW pyridoxine (VB6), 100 mg/kg BW cobalamin (VB12), and 5 mg/kg BW folate (FA); and rats in the H3 group were treated daily with all of the B vitamins administered to the HI and H2 groups. After 12 weeks, the BW gains from the initial value were 154.5±58.4 g and 159.1±53.0 g in the HI and C groups, respectively, which were significantly less than the changes in the HO group (285.2±14.8 g, P<0.05). In the HO group, the plasma total cholesterol (CHO) and triglyceride (TG) levels were 1.59±0.30 mmol/L and 1,55±0.40 mmol/L, respectively, which were significantly greater than those in the HI group (1.19±0.18 mmol/L and 0.76±0.34 mmol/L, respectively, P<0.05). The activities of transketolase (TK), glutathione reductase, and Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase were significantly increased in the B vitamin-treated groups and were significantly greater than those in the HO group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic acid kinase, and succinate dehydrogenase activities also were increased after treatment with B vitamins. Supplementation with B vitamins could effectively reduce BW gain and plasma levels of lipids by improving energy metabolism-related enzyme activities in rats, thus possibly providing potential benefits to humans.

Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales : update 2018
Maes, Piet ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Bào, Yīmíng ; Beer, Martin ; Birkhead, Monica ; Briese, Thomas ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Choi, Il Ryong ; Clegg, Christopher S. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Delwart, Eric ; DeRisi, Joseph L. ; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Drosten, Christian ; Druciarek, Tobiasz Z. ; Du, Jiang ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Gergerich, Rose C. ; Gillis, Amethyst N. ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Haenni, Anne Lise ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hồ, Thiện ; Hóng, Ní ; Jain, Rakesh K. ; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Junglen, Sandra ; Keller, Karen E. ; Kemp, Alan ; Kipar, Anja ; Kondov, Nikola O. ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Kormelink, Richard ; Korzyukov, Yegor ; Krupovic, Mart ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Laney, Alma G. ; LeBreton, Matthew ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Markotter, Wanda ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Ng, Terry Fei Fan ; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Peters, Clarence J. ; Plyusnin, Alexander ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Salmenperä, Pertteli ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sanfaçon, Hélène ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schmaljohn, Connie ; Schneider, Bradley S. ; Shirako, Yukio ; Siddell, Stuart ; Sironen, Tarja A. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Storm, Nadia ; Sudini, Harikishan ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E. ; Uppala, Mangala ; Vapalahti, Olli ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wáng, Guópíng ; Wáng, Lìpíng ; Wáng, Yànxiăng ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wiley, Michael R. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wolfe, Nathan D. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Xú, Wénxìng ; Yang, Li ; Yāng, Zuòkūn ; Yeh, Shyi Dong ; Zhāng, Yǒng Zhèn ; Zhèng, Yàzhōu ; Zhou, Xueping ; Zhū, Chénxī ; Zirkel, Florian ; Kuhn, Jens H. - \ 2018
Archives of Virology 163 (2018)8. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 2295 - 2310.
In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.
Synergistic and antagonistic effects of plant and dairy protein blends on the physicochemical stability of lycopene-loaded emulsions
Ho, Kacie K.H.Y. ; Schroën, Karin ; San Martín-González, M.F. ; Berton-Carabin, Claire C. - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 81 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 180 - 190.
Whey-plant protein-based emulsions had high physicochemical stability. Whey and plant protein blend-based interfaces were viscoelastic while casein-based interfaces were relatively viscous. Whey-plant and plant-plant protein blends behaved synergistically leading to enhanced emulsion stability. Sodium caseinate-plant protein-based emulsions were physically unstable.
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