Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effects of climate change on the distribution of crop wild relatives in the Netherlands in relation to conservation status and ecotope variation
    Treuren, R. van; Hoekstra, R. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. ; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Conservation 23 (2020). - ISSN 2351-9894
    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are wild plant taxa that are genetically related to a cultivatedspecies and are considered rich sources of useful traits for crop improvement. CWR aregenerally underrepresented in genebanks, while their survival in nature is not guaranteed.Inventories and risk analyses are needed to prioritize CWR for conservation in order toensure that they remain available for utilization. Here the effects of climate change on thedistribution of 214 CWR in the Netherlands are predicted by ecological niche modellingand related to data on IUCN conservation status and variation in key ecological habitatfactors. It is shown that climate change is expected to affect red list species as well asspecies that currently are of least concern. Particularly worrisome is thefinding thatalready critically endangered CWR show the largest expected loss of distribution area. Ingeneral, reduced distribution areas show a geographical shift to more northern locations inthe Netherlands. No clear relationship is found between changes in distribution and thehabitat characteristics vegetation structure, nutrient level, moisture condition, salinity andacidity. A moderate positive correlation is observed between ecological amplitude andtolerance level to climatic change. Study results are used in developing strategies to ensurethat Dutch CWR remain available for utilization.
    Exploiting Donnan Dialysis to enhance ammonia recovery in an electrochemical system
    Rodrigues, Mariana ; Sleutels, Tom ; Kuntke, Philipp ; Hoekstra, Douwe ; Heijne, Annemiek ter; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M. - \ 2020
    Chemical Engineering Journal 395 (2020). - ISSN 1385-8947
    Ammonia recovery - Donnan dialysis - Electrochemical system

    A hydrogen recycling electrochemical system (HRES) can be used for energy efficient removal of TAN (Total ammonia nitrogen, ammonium and ammonia) from wastewater. When a current is applied, a concentration gradient of cations builds up between catholyte and feed solution. When no current is applied, cations (Na+ and K+) diffuse back to the feed solution from the catholyte as a result of the concentration difference. These cations will be exchanged for other cations (NH4 + and H+) to maintain electroneutrality: a phenomenon known as Donnan Dialysis. In this study, Donnan Dialysis was explored as a strategy to enhance the TAN removal efficiency in an HRES. In continuous operation, Donnan Dialysis did not clearly affect TAN removal efficiency. In batch operation, Donnan Dialysis resulted in (10 ± 2) % higher removal efficiency compared to operation without Donnan Dialysis. By analyzing transport numbers of the different cations, we show that in batch mode, Donnan Dialysis indeed exchanges mostly NH4 + with Na+ and K+. In continuous mode, however, more protons were transported from anode to cathode. Batch operation with Donnan Dialysis achieved similar removal to continuous operation but consumed less energy (between 7.8 kJ gN −1 and 10.1 kJ gN −1) than continuous operation. Donnan Dialysis can be a good strategy to enhance TAN recovery in batch operation mode since additional ammonium was removed at a lower energy input.

    Productivity and topsoil quality of young and old permanent grassland : An on-farm comparison
    Iepema, Goaitske ; Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Goede, Ron de; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grassland productivity - Grassland renewal - Nitrogen - Production system - Soil functions - Soil organic matter - Sustainable land-use

    Renewing agricultural grasslands for improved yields and forage quality generally involves eliminating standing vegetation with herbicides, ploughing and reseeding. However, grassland renewal may negatively affect soil quality and related ecosystem services. On clay soil in the north of the Netherlands, we measured grass productivity and soil chemical parameters of 'young' (5-15 years since last grassland renewal) and 'old' (>20 years since last grassland renewal) permanent grasslands, located as pairs at 10 different dairy farms. We found no significant difference with old permanent grassland in herbage dry matter yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) response, whereas herbage N yield was lower in young permanent grassland. Moreover, the young grassland soil contained less soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (C) and soil organic N compared to the old grassland soil. Grass productivity was positively correlated with SOM and related parameters such as soil organic C, soil organic N and potentially mineralizable N. We conclude that on clay soils with 70% desirable grasses (i.e., Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense) or more, the presumed yield benefit of grassland renewal is offset by a loss of soil quality (SOM and N-total). The current practice of renewing grassland after 10 years without considering the botanical composition, is counter-productive and not sustainable.

    The effect of grazing system and level of concentrate protein feeding on milk production and N use efficiency of dairy cows on peat meadows
    Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Zom, Ronald ; Philipsen, Bert ; Schils, René ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Fat and protein corrected milk yield - FPCM - Kurzrasen - Milk urea - Strip-grazing

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of two contrasting grazing systems, strip-grazing and kurzrasen, at a high stocking rate on herbage intake and milk production and quality on a peat meadow. Additionally, we assessed the effect of the level of crude protein (CP) fed in concentrate on milk production and N use efficiency. Even at the relatively high stocking rates, cows still achieved substantial fresh grass intake (on average >6 kg dry matter cow-1 day-1) from both systems. Despite the lower level of gross grass production under kurzrasen management, the difference in milk production between kurzrasen and strip-grazing was small and non-significant. Feeding concentrate with a lower CP level, had no negative impact on milk yield, provided that the CP content of the total ration remained above ~150 g kg-1 DM and milk urea content was above ~18 mg 100 g-1 milk. Reducing the CP content in the concentrate significantly increased the N use efficiency, and both were strongly related to the milk urea content. Therefore, optimising the use of milk urea as a management tool on dairy farms, also during the grazing season, could reduce N losses to the environment, while maintaining productivity.

    Increasing market opportunities for renewable energy technologies with innovations in aquifer thermal energy storage
    Hoekstra, N. ; Pellegrini, M. ; Bloemendal, M. ; Spaak, G. ; Andreu Gallego, A. ; Rodriguez Comins, J. ; Grotenhuis, T. ; Picone, S. ; Murrell, A.J. ; Steeman, H.J. ; Verrone, A. ; Doornenbal, P. ; Christophersen, M. ; Bennedsen, L. ; Henssen, M. ; Moinier, S. ; Saccani, C. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 709 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Aquifer thermal energy storage - District heating and cooling - Geothermal energy - Heating and cooling - Photovoltaic-thermal module - Pilot plant - Remediation - Technological innovation - Water scarcity

    Heating and cooling using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) has hardly been applied outside the Netherlands, even though it could make a valuable contribution to the energy transition. The Climate-KIC project “Europe-wide Use of Energy from aquifers” – E-USE(aq) – aimed to pave the way for Europe-wide application of ATES, through the realization and monitoring of six ATES pilot plants across five different EU countries. In a preceding paper, based on preliminary results of E-USE(aq), conclusions were already drawn, demonstrating how the barriers for this form of shallow geothermal energy can be overcome, and sometimes even leveraged as opportunities. Based on final pilot project results, key economic and environmental outcomes are now presented. This paper starts with the analysis of specific technological barriers: unfamiliarity with the subsurface, presumed limited compatibility with existing energy provision systems (especially district heating), energy imbalances and groundwater contamination. The paper then shows how these barriers have been tackled, using improved site investigation and monitoring technologies to map heterogeneous subsoils. In this way ATES can cost-efficiently be included in smart grids and combined with other sources of renewable (especially solar) energy, while at the same time achieving groundwater remediation. A comparative assessment of economic and environmental impacts of the pilots is included, to demonstrate the sustainability of ATES system with different renewables and renewable-based technologies. The paper concludes with an assessment of the market application potential of ATES, including in areas with water scarcity, and a review of climate beneficial impact.

    Scenarios to limit environmental nitrogen losses from dairy expansion
    Hoekstra, N.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Forrestal, P.J. ; Hennessy, D. ; Krol, D.J. ; Lanigan, G.J. ; Müller, C. ; Shalloo, L. ; Wall, D.P. ; Richards, K.G. - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 707 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Ammonia - N flow model - N footprint - Nitrate - Nitrous oxide

    Increased global demand for dairy produce and the abolition of EU milk quotas have resulted in expansion in dairy production across Europe and particularly in Ireland. Simultaneously, there is increasing pressure to reduce the impact of nitrogen (N) losses to air and groundwater on the environment. In order to develop grassland management strategies for grazing systems that meet environmental targets and are economically sustainable, it is imperative that individual mitigation measures for N efficiency are assessed at farm system level. To this end, we developed an excel-based N flow model simulating an Irish grass-based dairy farm, to evaluate the effect of farm management on N efficiency, N losses, production and economic performance. The model was applied to assess the effect of different strategies to achieve the increased production goals on N utilization, N loss pathways and economic performance at farm level. The three strategies investigated included increased milk production through increased grass production, through increased concentrate feeding and by applying a high profit grass-based system. Additionally, three mitigation measures; low ammonia emission slurry application, the use of urease and nitrification inhibitors and the combination of both were applied to the three strategies. Absolute N emissions were higher for all intensification scenarios (up to 124 kg N ha−1) compared to the baseline (80 kg N ha−1) due to increased animal numbers and higher feed and/or fertiliser inputs. However, some intensification strategies showed the potential to reduce the emissions per ton milk produced for some of the N-loss pathways. The model showed that the assessed mitigation measures can play an important role in ameliorating the increased emissions associated with intensification, but may not be adequate to entirely offset absolute increases. Further improvements in farm N use efficiency and alternatives to mineral fertilisers will be required to decouple production from reactive N emissions.

    Environmental footprint family to address local to planetary sustainability and deliver on the SDGs
    Vanham, Davy ; Leip, Adrian ; Galli, Alessandro ; Kastner, Thomas ; Bruckner, Martin ; Uwizeye, Aimable ; Dijk, Kimo Van; Ercin, Ertug ; Dalin, Carole ; Brandão, Miguel ; Bastianoni, Simone ; Fang, Kai ; Leach, Allison ; Chapagain, Ashok ; Velde, Marijn Van Der; Sala, Serenella ; Pant, Rana ; Mancini, Lucia ; Monforti-ferrario, Fabio ; Carmona-garcia, Gema ; Marques, Alexandra ; Weiss, Franz ; Hoekstra, Arjen Y. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 693 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697
    The number of publications on environmental footprint indicators has been growing rapidly, but with limited efforts to integrate different footprints into a coherent framework. Such integration is important for comprehensive understanding of environmental issues, policy formulation and assessment of trade-offs between different environmental concerns. Here, we systematize published footprint studies and define a family of footprints that can be used for the assessment of environmental sustainability. We identify overlaps between different footprints and analyse how they relate to the nine planetary boundaries and visualize the crucial information they provide for local and planetary sustainability. In addition, we assess how the footprint family delivers on measuring progress towards Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), considering its ability to quantify environmental pressures along the supply chain and relating them to the water-energy-food-ecosystem (WEFE) nexus and ecosystem services. We argue that the footprint family is a flexible framework where particular members can be included or excluded according to the context or area of concern. Our paper is based upon a recent workshop bringing together global leading experts on existing environmental footprint indicators.
    The effect of Kurzrasen and strip-grazing on grassland performance and soil quality of a Peat Meadow
    Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Reenen, Kees van; Houwelingen, Karel van; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)22. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grazing systems - Load bearing capacity - Nutritional value - Root density - Swards

    Due to the increased herd size in the Netherlands, there is need to assess the performance of different grazing systems at high stocking densities. The objective of the current experiment was to assess the effect of two extreme grazing systems, kurzrasen (continuous grazing at 3-5 cm sward height) and strip-grazing at a high stocking rate, on grass production and quality, grass morphology and sward density, root development and load bearing capacity on peat soil. To this end, a two-year grazing trial with four herds of 15 cows on 2 ha each was conducted. Kurzrasen showed 18% lower herbage dry matter production on average compared to strip-grazing. The yield penalty of using a shorter regrowth period under kurzrasen was limited due to the strong response in grass morphology, resulting in a dense and lamina-rich sward. There was a small decline in root density at 10 cm soil depth, but no evidence of a lower root density at 20 cm soil depth for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing. Sward density was higher for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing, which had a positive impact on load bearing capacity. This is an important feature on peat soils, where load bearing capacity is often limited.

    WP3 Bodem, teelt en plantbodem-management interacties grasland
    Boer, Herman de; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Schoot, Jan Rinze van der; Janssen, Pedro ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Weidegang en draagkracht
    Hoekstra, Nienke ; Eekeren, Nick van; Schoot, J.R. van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 5) - 1 p.
    Korte keten kan impulsen gebruiken
    Schans, Jan Willem van der - \ 2019
    Diepere beworteling grasland voor droogtetolerantie
    Schoot, J.R. van der; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 6) - 1 p.
    Grasklavermengsels in akkerbouwrotaties
    Schoot, J.R. van der; Hoekstra, Nyncke - \ 2019
    Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 11) - 2 p.
    Amazing grazing: A public and private partnership to stimulate grazing practices in intensive dairy systems
    Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Zom, Ronald ; Hoving, Idse ; Reenen, Kees van; Stienezen, Marcia ; Klootwijk, Cindy ; Werf, Joop van der; Sebek, Léon ; Eekeren, Nick van; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)20. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Agricultural innovation system - Dairy sector - Grassland - Interdisciplinary research - Stakeholders

    In many intensive dairy regions in northwest Europe, a decline in grazing is observed. In the Netherlands, the proportion of dairy cows with access to pasture is declining, as well as the time spent grazing per cow. The decline in grazing is seen as an unwanted trend by many stakeholders and is, thus, under debate amongst dairy farmers, the dairy chain, and society. Therefore, a public-private partnership was initiated to encourage grazing by providing farmers with usable means of improving their grazing systems. The partnership involved stakeholders from the dairy farming community, dairy and feed industry, agrotechnical industries, advisory services, and research. The objective of this partnership was to develop and stimulate technological innovations and management measures that increase fresh grass intake at pasture. The innovation network combined an integrated research approach with farmer working groups and broader stakeholder interactive meetings. The project started with a comprehensive grass intake framework, which was the foundation for exploration of innovations. The framework consisted of six interlinked components: soil, grass growth, grass supply, grass intake, feed supplementation, and cow behavior. In a continuous interactive cycle, strategic choices were made to focus on potentially effective innovations. The use of a public-private partnership to develop usable innovations that encourage grazing practices proven to be a good approach to develop a shared vision among stakeholders. It provided a basis to work together toward innovative practices and to disseminate the outcomes to the foreseen users. The approach succeeded in design concepts for two specific innovations, i.e., weekly grass growth predictions and daily fresh grass intake tracking. We demonstrated that meaningful grazing and fresh grass intake are possible in intensive dairy systems with high stocking rates and high levels of supplementary feeding.

    Ruimtelijke spreiding pulsvisserij binnen 12-mijlszones
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-096) - 6 p.
    Verwerking van Noordzeegarnalen
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-079e) - 8 p.
    Visverwerkende industrie en visgroothandel in Nederland
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-079f) - 13 p.
    Tongvangsten binnen de 12-mijlzones (2011-2017)
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-097) - 7 p.
    Rond- en platvisindustrie
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-079d) - 15 p.
    Schaal- en schelpdierindustrie
    Hoekstra, F.F. - \ 2019
    Wageningen Economic Research (Factsheet Wageningen Economic Research 2019-079c) - 11 p.
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