Optogenetic control shows that kinetic proofreading regulates the activity of the T cell receptor
Yousefi, O.S. ; Günther, Matthias ; Hörner, Maximilian ; Chalupsky, Julia ; Wess, Maximilian ; Brandl, Simon M. ; Smith, Robert W. ; Fleck, Christian ; Kunkel, Tim ; Zurbriggen, Matias D. ; Höfer, Thomas ; Weber, Wilfried ; Schamel, Wolfgang W.A. - \ 2019
eLife 8 (2019). - ISSN 2050-084X
A. thaliana - dynamics - human - immunology - inflammation - ligand-receptor - optogenetics - signaling - T cells
The immune system distinguishes between self and foreign antigens. The kinetic proofreading (KPR) model proposes that T cells discriminate self from foreign ligands by the different ligand binding half-lives to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is challenging to test KPR as the available experimental systems fall short of only altering the binding half-lives and keeping other parameters of the interaction unchanged. We engineered an optogenetic system using the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B (PhyB) as a ligand to selectively control the dynamics of ligand binding to the TCR by light. This opto-ligand-TCR system was combined with the unique property of PhyB to continuously cycle between the binding and non-binding states under red light, with the light intensity determining the cycling rate and thus the binding duration. Mathematical modeling of our experimental datasets showed that indeed the ligand-TCR interaction half-life is the decisive factor for activating downstream TCR signaling, substantiating KPR.
Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer: A discovery-replication strategy
Geijsen, Anne J.M.R. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka ; Baierl, Andreas ; Bachleitner-Hofmann, Thomas ; Bergmann, Michael M. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Brenner, Hermann ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Gigic, Biljana ; Gumpenberger, Tanja ; Hofer, Philipp ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Karner-Hanusch, Judith ; Kok, Dieuwertje E. ; Leeb, Gernot ; Ulvik, Arve ; Robinot, Nivonirina ; Ose, Jennifer ; Stift, Anton ; Schrotz-King, Petra ; Ulrich, Alexis B. ; Ueland, Per Magne ; Kampman, Ellen ; Scalbert, Augustin ; Habermann, Nina ; Gsur, Andrea ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. - \ 2019
International Journal of Cancer 145 (2019)5. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1221 - 1231.
colorectal cancer - discovery-replication approach - metabolomics - UHPLC-QTOF-MS
Colorectal cancer is known to arise from multiple tumorigenic pathways; however, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely understood. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in assessing biological processes. Previous metabolomics research focusing on colorectal cancer is limited by sample size and did not replicate findings in independent study populations to verify robustness of reported findings. Here, we performed a ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) screening on EDTA plasma from 268 colorectal cancer patients and 353 controls using independent discovery and replication sets from two European cohorts (ColoCare Study: n = 180 patients/n = 153 controls; the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA) n = 88 patients/n = 200 controls), aiming to identify circulating plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer and to improve knowledge regarding colorectal cancer etiology. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the association between disease state and metabolic features. Statistically significant associated features in the discovery set were taken forward and tested in the replication set to assure robustness of our findings. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and smoking status and corrected for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from questionnaires and medical records.
Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
Barban, Nicola ; Jansen, Rick ; Vlaming, Ronald de; Vaez, Ahmad ; Mandemakers, Jornt J. ; Tropf, Felix C. ; Shen, Xia ; Wilson, James F. ; Chasman, Daniel I. ; Nolte, Ilja M. ; Tragante, Vinicius ; Laan, Sander W. van der; Perry, John R.B. ; Kong, Augustine ; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S. ; Albrecht, Eva ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura ; Atzmon, Gil ; Auro, Kirsi ; Ayers, Kristin ; Bakshi, Andrew ; Ben-Avraham, Danny ; Berger, Klaus ; Bergman, Aviv ; Bertram, Lars ; Bielak, Lawrence F. ; Bjornsdottir, Gyda ; Bonder, Marc Jan ; Broer, Linda ; Bui, Minh ; Barbieri, Caterina ; Cavadino, Alana ; Chavarro, Jorge E. ; Turman, Constance ; Concas, Maria Pina ; Cordell, Heather J. ; Davies, Gail ; Eibich, Peter ; Eriksson, Nicholas ; Esko, Tõnu ; Eriksson, Joel ; Falahi, Fahimeh ; Felix, Janine F. ; Fontana, Mark Alan ; Franke, Lude ; Gandin, Ilaria ; Gaskins, Audrey J. ; Gieger, Christian ; Gunderson, Erica P. ; Guo, Xiuqing ; Hayward, Caroline ; He, Chunyan ; Hofer, Edith ; Huang, Hongyan ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Kanoni, Stavroula ; Karlsson, Robert ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Kifley, Annette ; Kluttig, Alexander ; Kraft, Peter ; Lagou, Vasiliki ; Lecoeur, Cecile ; Lahti, Jari ; Li-Gao, Ruifang ; Lind, Penelope A. ; Liu, Tian ; Makalic, Enes ; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto ; Matteson, Lindsay ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; McArdle, Patrick F. ; McMahon, George ; Meddens, S.F.W. ; Mihailov, Evelin ; Miller, Mike ; Missmer, Stacey A. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Most, Peter J. van der; Myhre, Ronny ; Nalls, Mike A. ; Nutile, Teresa ; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota ; Porcu, Eleonora ; Prokopenko, Inga ; Rajan, Kumar B. ; Rich-Edwards, Janet ; Rietveld, Cornelius A. ; Robino, Antonietta ; Rose, Lynda M. ; Rueedi, Rico ; Ryan, Kathleen A. ; Saba, Yasaman ; Schmidt, Daniel ; Smith, Jennifer A. ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth ; Tönjes, Anke ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Ulivi, Sheila ; Wedenoja, Juho ; Wellmann, Juergen ; Willeit, Peter ; Yao, Jie ; Yengo, Loic ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhao, Wei ; Zhernakova, Daria V. ; Amin, Najaf ; Andrews, Howard ; Balkau, Beverley ; Barzilai, Nir ; Bergmann, Sven ; Biino, Ginevra ; Bisgaard, Hans ; Bønnelykke, Klaus ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Buring, Julie E. ; Campbell, Harry ; Cappellani, Stefania ; Ciullo, Marina ; Cox, Simon R. ; Cucca, Francesco ; Toniolo, Daniela ; Davey-Smith, George ; Deary, Ian J. ; Dedoussis, George ; Deloukas, Panos ; Duijn, Cornelia M. van; Geus, Eco J.C. de; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Evans, Denis A. ; Faul, Jessica D. ; Sala, Cinzia Felicita ; Froguel, Philippe ; Gasparini, Paolo ; Girotto, Giorgia ; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen ; Greiser, Karin Halina ; Groenen, Patrick J.F. ; Haan, Hugoline G. de; Haerting, Johannes ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Heath, Andrew C. ; Heikkilä, Kauko ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Holliday, Elizabeth G. ; Hopper, John ; Hyppönen, Elina ; Jacobsson, Bo ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Johannesson, Magnus ; Jugessur, Astanand ; Kähönen, Mika ; Kajantie, Eero ; Kardia, Sharon L.R. ; Keavney, Bernard ; Kolcic, Ivana ; Koponen, Päivikki ; Kovacs, Peter ; Kronenberg, Florian ; Kutalik, Zoltan ; Bianca, Martina la; Lachance, Genevieve ; Iacono, William G. ; Lai, Sandra ; Lehtimäki, Terho ; Liewald, David C. ; Lindgren, Cecilia M. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Luben, Robert ; Lucht, Michael ; Luoto, Riitta ; Magnus, Per ; Magnusson, Patrik K.E. ; Martin, Nicholas G. ; McGue, Matt ; McQuillan, Ruth ; Medland, Sarah E. ; Meisinger, Christa ; Mellström, Dan ; Metspalu, Andres ; Traglia, Michela ; Milani, Lili ; Mitchell, Paul ; Montgomery, Grant W. ; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis ; Mutsert, Renée de; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Olsen, Jørn ; Ong, Ken K. ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Pattie, Alison ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Perola, Markus ; Peyser, Patricia A. ; Pirastu, Mario ; Polasek, Ozren ; Power, Chris ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Raffel, Leslie J. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Raitakari, Olli ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Ring, Susan M. ; Roll, Kathryn ; Rudan, Igor ; Ruggiero, Daniela ; Rujescu, Dan ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Schlessinger, David ; Schmidt, Helena ; Schmidt, Reinhold ; Schupf, Nicole ; Smit, Johannes ; Sorice, Rossella ; Spector, Tim D. ; Starr, John M. ; Stöckl, Doris ; Strauch, Konstantin ; Stumvoll, Michael ; Swertz, Morris A. ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Thurik, A.R. ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Tung, Joyce Y. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Vaccargiu, Simona ; Viikari, Jorma ; Vitart, Veronique ; Völzke, Henry ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Vuckovic, Dragana ; Waage, Johannes ; Wagner, Gert G. ; Wang, Jie Jin ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Weir, David R. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Willeit, Johann ; Wright, Alan F. ; Zondervan, Krina T. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Krueger, Robert F. ; Lee, James J. ; Benjamin, Daniel J. ; Cesarini, David ; Koellinger, Philipp D. ; Hoed, Marcel den; Snieder, Harold ; Mills, Melinda C. - \ 2016
Nature Genetics 48 (2016)12. - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 1462 - 1472.
The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
Strategies for structuring interdisciplinary education in Systems Biology: an European perspective
Cvijovic, Marija ; Höfer, Thomas ; Acimovic, Jure ; Alberghina, Lilia ; Almaas, Eivind ; Besozzi, Daniela ; Blomberg, Anders ; Bretschneider, Till ; Cascante, Marta ; Collin, Olivier ; Atauri, Pedro de; Depner, Cornelia ; Dickinson, Robert ; Dobrzynski, Maciej ; Fleck, C. ; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi ; Gonze, Didier ; Hahn, Jens ; Hess, Heide Marie ; Hollmann, Susanne ; Krantz, Marcus ; Kummer, Ursula ; Lundh, Torbjörn ; Martial, Gifta ; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P. ; Mauer-Oberthür, Angela ; Regierer, Babette ; Skene, Barbara ; Stalidzans, Egils ; Stelling, Jörg ; Teusink, Bas ; Workman, Christopher T. ; Hohmann, Stefan - \ 2016
npj Systems Biology and Applications 2 (2016). - ISSN 2056-7189 - 7 p.
Systems Biology is an approach to biology and medicine that has the potential to lead to a better understanding of how biological properties emerge from the interaction of genes, proteins, molecules, cells and organisms. The approach aims at elucidating how these interactions govern biological function by employing experimental data, mathematical models and computational simulations. As Systems Biology is inherently multidisciplinary, education within this field meets numerous hurdles including departmental barriers, availability of all required expertise locally, appropriate teaching material and example curricula. As university education at the Bachelor’s level is traditionally built upon disciplinary degrees, we believe that the most effective way to implement education in Systems Biology would be at the Master’s level, as it offers a more flexible framework. Our team of experts and active performers of Systems Biology education suggest here (i) a definition of the skills that students should acquire within a Master’s programme in Systems Biology, (ii) a possible basic educational curriculum with flexibility to adjust to different application areas and local research strengths, (iii) a description of possible career paths for students who undergo such an education, (iv) conditions that should improve the recruitment of students to such programmes and (v) mechanisms for collaboration and excellence spreading among education professionals. With the growing interest of industry in applying Systems Biology approaches in their fields, a concerted action between academia and industry is needed to build this expertise. Here we present a reflection of the European situation and expertise, where most of the challenges we discuss are universal, anticipating that our suggestions will be useful internationally. We believe that one of the overriding goals of any Systems Biology education should be a student’s ability to phrase and communicate research questions in such a manner that they can be solved by the integration of experiments and modelling, as well as to communicate and collaborate productively across different experimental and theoretical disciplines in research and development.
Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis FlowersW
Ginglinger, J.F. ; Boachon, B. ; Hofer, R. ; Paetz, C. ; Kollner, T.G. ; Miesch, L. ; Lugan, R. ; Baltenweck, R. ; Mutterer, J. ; Ullman, P. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. - \ 2013
The Plant Cell 25 (2013)11. - ISSN 1040-4651 - p. 4640 - 4657.
cytochrome-p450 limonene hydroxylases - avocado persea-americana - functional expression - endoplasmic-reticulum - terpene synthases - mint mentha - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - beta-glucuronidase - essential oil - floral scent
The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (-)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined.
Geraniol hydroxylase and hydroxygeraniol oxidase activities of the CYP76 family of cytochrome P450 enzymes and potential for engineering the early steps of the (seco)iridoid pathway
Hofer, R. ; Dong, L. ; Andre, F. ; Ginglinger, J.F. ; Lugan, R. ; Gavira, C. ; Grec, S. ; Lang, G. ; Memelink, J. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Werck-Reichhart, D. - \ 2013
Metabolic Engineering 20 (2013). - ISSN 1096-7176 - p. 221 - 232.
indole alkaloid biosynthesis - catharanthus-roseus - madagascar periwinkle - expression - 10-hydroxylase - metabolomics - organization - arabidopsis - iridoids - cloning
The geraniol-derived (seco)iridoid skeleton is a precursor for a large group of bioactive compounds with diverse therapeutic applications, including the widely used anticancer molecule vinblastine. Despite of this economic prospect, the pathway leading to iridoid biosynthesis from geraniol is still unclear. The first geraniol hydroxylation step has been reported to be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP76B6 from Catharanthus roseus and CYP76C1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, an extended functional analysis of CYP76 family members was carried-out to identify the most effective enzyme to be used for pathway reconstruction. This disproved CYP76C1 activity and led to the characterization of CYP76C4 from A. thaliana as a geraniol 9- or 8-hydroxylase. CYP76B6 emerged as a highly specialized multifunctional enzyme catalyzing two sequential oxidation steps leading to the formation of 8-oxogeraniol from geraniol. This dual function was confirmed in planta using a leaf-disc assay. The first step, geraniol hydroxylation, was very efficient and fast enough to outcompete geraniol conjugation in plant tissues. When the enzyme was expressed in leaf tissues, 8-oxogeraniol was converted into further oxidized and/or reduced compounds in the absence of the next enzyme of the iridoid pathway
Use of topographic variability for assessing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes
Hofer, G. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Edwards, P.J. ; Szerencsits, E. ; Wagner, H.H. ; Herzog, F. - \ 2011
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 142 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 144 - 148.
species richness - environmental heterogeneity - patterns - determinants - prediction - alps
The relationship between plant diversity and topographic variability in agricultural landscapes was investigated, with the aim of determining whether sampling landscape units of 1 km(2) (LUs) across a gradient of topographic variability is more efficient than a random design for assessing the range of biodiversity in climatically and biogeographically homogenous areas called sub-regions. Representative plant species data from the Swiss biodiversity monitoring programme were analyzed covering a broad environmental gradient of four altitudinal belts and seven biogeographic regions. The focus of the study laid on agricultural areas but the whole dataset was as well analyzed to put the agricultural LUs in a general context. Plant species lists of LUs were used to calculate two diversity components: ECOrichness, the number of ecological plant types per LU (as a measure of beta diversity) and AGROrichness, the number of species of conservation importance for agriculture. Mixed regression models were used to analyse the effects of topographic variability on the two plant diversity components, including sub-regions (areas with the same combination of altitudinal belt and biogeographic region) as random factor. These analyses were performed for the whole dataset (419 LUs within 22 sub-regions) and for the focal subset of 187 agricultural LUs within 13 sub-regions. ECOrichness increased significantly with topographic variability for both the general and the agricultural dataset. The partial correlations within the sub-regions revealed consistent trends for the agricultural LUs but some inconsistencies for the whole dataset. For the monitoring of agricultural LUs the sampling along a gradient of topographic variability is therefore suggested as an efficient means for assessing the range of plant species diversity within sub-regions. Compared to other measures of landscape heterogeneity like habitat heterogeneity, sampling LUs along topographic variability is cheap and easily applied and it was demonstrated to work over large environmental gradients.
A standardized procedure for surveillance and monitoring European habitats and provision of spatial data
Bunce, R.G.H. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Brandt, J. ; Blust, G. de; Elena-Rossello, R. ; Groom, G.B. ; Halada, L. ; Hofer, G. ; Howard, D.C. ; Kovár, P. ; Mücher, C.A. ; Padoa-Schioppa, E. ; Paelinx, D. ; Palo, A. ; Pérez-Soba, M. ; Ramos, I.L. ; Roche, P. ; Skånes, H. ; Wrbka, T. - \ 2008
Landscape Ecology 23 (2008)1. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 11 - 25.
strategic ecological survey - land-cover - stratification - classification - biodiversity - principles - britain
Both science and policy require a practical, transmissible, and reproducible procedure for surveillance and monitoring of European habitats, which can produce statistics integrated at the landscape level. Over the last 30 years, landscape ecology has developed rapidly, and many studies now require spatial data on habitats. Without rigorous rules, changes from baseline records cannot be separated reliably from background noise. A procedure is described that satisfies these requirements and can provide consistent data for Europe, to support a range of policy initiatives and scientific projects. The methodology is based on classical plant life forms, used in biogeography since the nineteenth century, and on their statistical correlation with the primary environmental gradient. Further categories can therefore be identified for other continents to assist large scale comparisons and modelling. The model has been validated statistically and the recording procedure tested in the field throughout Europe. A total of 130 General Habitat Categories (GHCs) is defined. These are enhanced by recording environmental, site and management qualifiers to enable flexible database interrogation. The same categories are applied to areal, linear and point features to assist recording and subsequent interpretation at the landscape level. The distribution and change of landscape ecological parameters, such as connectivity and fragmentation, can then be derived and their significance interpreted.
|European mountain zones
Metzger, M.J. ; Bunce, R.G.H. ; Hofer, G. ; Wrbka, T. - \ 2007
In: The 7th World congress of IALE: "25 years Landscape Ecology: Scientific Principles in Practice, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 8 - 12 July, 2007. - Wageningen : IALE - p. 708 - 709.
HYPER-I-NET: European research network on hyperspectral imaging
Plaza, A.J. ; Muller, A. ; Richter, R. ; Skauli, T. ; Malenovsky, Z. ; Bioucas, J. ; Hofer, S. ; Chanussot, J. ; Jutten, C. ; Carrere, V. ; Baarstad, I. ; Kaspersen, P. ; Nieke, J. ; Itten, K. ; Hyvarinen, T. ; Gamba, P. ; Dell'Acqua, F. ; Benediktsson, J.A. ; Schaepman, M.E. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Zagajewski, B. - \ 2007
In: Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2007. IGARSS 2007, 23 - 27 July, 2007, Barcelona, Spain. - Barcelona (Sp) : IEEE - p. 4790 - 4793.
|Sugar beet pulp silage as dietary fermentable carbohydrate source for group-housed sows : effects on physical activity and energy metabolism
Rijnen, M.M.J.A. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Haaksma, J. - \ 1999
In: Book of abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of European Association for Animal Production / ed. J.A.M. van Arendonk, A. Hofer, Y. van der Honing, F. Madec, M. Bonneau,D. Pullar, M. Schneeberger, J. Fernandez and E.W. Bruns. - Wageningen : Wageningen Press, 1999 - p. 371 - 371.
|Individual feed intake and performance of group-housed weanling pigs
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Schrama, J.W. ; Hartog, L.A. den - \ 1999
In: Book of abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (ed. J.A.M. van Arendonk, A. Hofer, Y. van der Honing, F. Madec, M. Bonneau, D. Pullar, M. Schneeberger, J. Fernandez and E.W. Bruns - p. 326 - 326.
|Prediction of rates of inbreeding in selected populations
Bijma, P. ; Woolliams, J.A. - \ 1999
In: Book of Abstracts of the 50th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (Eds. J.A.M. Van Arendonk, A. Hofer, et al.).Wageningen: Wageningen Pers, 1999 - p. 34 - 34.
|Joint environmental policy-making (JEP) : New interactive approaches in the EU and selected member states. Final report
Liefferink, J.D. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Lauber, V. ; Hofer, K. ; Enevoldsen, M. ; Andersen, M.S. - \ 1998
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (Environmental Sociology Series 11) - 102 p.
|Ethological requirements for conserving behaviour in captivity - or what do animals do with their spare time?
Koene, P. - \ 1998
In: Contributions to the 2nd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Hofer et al. (eds.), Berlin, Germany. Advances in Ethology 33 - p. 22 - 22.
|Bears and wolves living apart together, imperfect harmony?
Koene, P. - \ 1998
In: Contributions to the 2nd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Hofer et al. (eds.), Berlin, Germany. Advances in Ethology 33 (1998) 21
|Ecological requirements: a necessity for conserving behaviour in captivity.
Dijk, J.J. van; Koene, P. - \ 1998
In: Contributions to the 2nd International Symposium on Physiology and Ethology of Wild and Zoo Animals, Hofer et al. (eds.), Berlin, Germany. Advances in Ethology 33 - p. 29 - 29.
|A monoclonal antibody against the alkaline extracellular beta-glucosidase from Trichoderma reesei.
Hofer, F. ; Weissinger, E. ; Mischak, H. ; Messner, R. ; Meixner-Monori, B. ; Blaas, D. ; Visser, J. ; Kubicek, C.P. - \ 1989
Biochimica et biophysica acta-protein structure and molecular enzymology 992 (1989). - ISSN 0167-4838 - p. 298 - 306.