Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Governing Risks of Multi-Use: Seaweed Aquaculture at Offshore Wind Farms
    Burg, Sander W.K. van den; Röckmann, Christine ; Banach, Jennifer L. ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-7745
    multi-use at sea - private standards - public regulation - risk governance - seaweed

    Spatial claims concerning the rapidly growing European offshore wind sector give rise to various ideas for the multi-use application of wind farms. Seaweed is considered a promising feedstock for food and feed that could be produced at offshore wind farms. Concerns about risks resulting in liability claims and insurance premiums are often seen as show-stoppers to multi-use at offshore wind farms. In this study, key environmental risks of seaweed cultivation at offshore wind farms, identified through literature review, are characterized based on stakeholder consultation. The current approach to risk governance is evaluated to assess how it can handle the uncertain, complex, and/or ambiguous risks of multi-use. It is concluded that current risk governance for multi-use is poorly equipped to deal with the systemic nature of risks. Risk governance should be a joint effort of governments and private regulators. It can improve if it is based on an adaptive framework for risk assessment that can deal with complex, systemic risks. Furthermore, it should be flexible and inclusive, i.e., open to new incoming information and stakeholder input, and taking into account and communicate about the different stakes and values of the various parties involved. The importance of communication and inclusion must be recognized, which promotes participation of concerned stakeholders.

    The long road to lameness: considering walking distance as a challenge in pasture-based dairy production
    Crossley, R.E. ; Conneely, Muireann ; Browne, Natasha ; Sugrue, Katie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bokkers, Eddie - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 81 - 81.
    One challenge of pasture-based dairy production systems is that grazing cattle must walk greater distances from the paddock to the parlour to facilitate milking. In Ireland, cows spend an average of 241 days per year at grass, typically brought to the parlour for milking twice per day, resulting in a relatively large portion of their daily time budget spent walking.Longer walking distances, however, may be associated with increased lameness, thus impacting their welfare. To investigate the potential impact of walking distance on lameness and welfare, the first step is establishing a better picture of the typical distances covered by grazing dairy cattle in Ireland. During the grazing season (April-September 2019) 100 farms were visited throughout the primary dairy producing counties of Ireland. Farmers were surveyed regarding their grazing practices and their cows were mobility scored by trained observers using a 4-point scoring system (0 = good, 1 = imperfect, 2 = impaired, 3 = severely impaired mobility). Farms had a mean size of 45.2ha (range= 14-101ha), milking an average of 124 cows (range = 38-253) twice daily. According to farmers’ responses, the average walking distance between the parlour and the furthest grazing paddock had a mean of989m (range = 400-2000m). Cows could be travelling this path 4 times per day, thus cows walk on average up to 4.0km/d. On 51% of farms, cows were collected from paddocks on foot, while 31% of farmers used some type of motorised vehicle. Using vehicles to move cattle has been associated with increased hoof injuries as hurried animals have difficulty avoiding hazards on roadway surfaces, however, this was not reflected in the data from this survey. Mobility scoring indicated that the mean proportion of cows across farms with score 0 was 36% (range = 9-76%), score 1 was 54% (range = 22-76%), score 2 was 9% (range= 1-27%), and score 3 was 1% (range = 0-5%). A relatively low level of cows scored 2/3,however, a high proportion of cows scored 1 which may reflect other underlying issues,such as roadway conditions, another key factor associated with lameness. While this survey illustrates the potential stress imposed on grazing dairy cattle through long walking distances,further study is required to investigate possible associations with lameness and welfare.
    Can multi-use of the sea be safe? A framework for risk assessment of multi-use at sea
    Hoof, L. van; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Banach, J.L. ; Röckmann, C. ; Goossen, M. - \ 2020
    Ocean & Coastal Management 184 (2020). - ISSN 0964-5691
    Multi-use at sea - Risk assessment - Risk governance - Seaweed production - Wind farms

    By 2050 the world population is expected to reach 10 billion people. This population needs food, water and energy. Increasingly, opportunities are sought out at sea to accommodate these needs. As there is already competition for space, especially in the near-shore, opportunities for multi-use, including the combination of, for example, food and energy production in a single location, are sought. One issue that needs to be addressed to allow for multi-use at sea is safety. Existing frameworks for (marine) risk assessment tend to be rather sector specific and, although existing models and frameworks for risk analysis provide useful elements for an integrated analysis, none of the approaches fully caters for the need of having a framework based on a cyclical process of stakeholder input in all steps of the process of risk identification, risk management and risk evaluation and communication, identifying actions to be taken and providing tools useful in each of the steps, while integrating the three perspectives of maritime safety, food (and feed) safety, and environmental impact assessment and the different perspectives of the actors involved. This study developed a common framework for the risk assessment of multi-use at sea, consisting of six steps (Exploring, Understanding, Appraising, Deciding, Implementing and Evaluating & Communication). The framework encompasses and integrates an analysis of food and feed safety aspects, the safety of people and equipment, and environmental safety aspects. For each step, actions are defined, tools that can be of help to stakeholders are presented, and stakeholder participation measures are described. The framework is iterative and dynamic in its nature; with constant communication and evaluation of progress, decisions can be taken to either take a step forward or back. The framework is developed to assist operators and producers, policymakers, and other stakeholders in assessing and managing risks of multi-use at sea.

    Microsphere-based multiplex technology for the simultaneous detection of food allergens
    Smits, N.G.E. ; Hoof, R.A. van; Peters, J. ; Koops, A.J. ; Bovee, T.F.H. ; Ginkel, L.A. van - \ 2019
    Innovative lateral flow devices for the detection of pesticides harmful to bees
    Xu, Mang ; Hoof, R.A. van; Hamers, A.R.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Guo, Yirong ; Bovee, T.F.H. ; Peters, J. - \ 2019
    Conventional instrumental detection of pesticides is complex and time-consuming, and is not realistic at the Point Of Need. In the B-GOOD project, we applied a dual channel lateral flow device (LFD) that is able to detect six out of eight neonicotinoids based on monoclonal antibody interaction and found that these LFDs have strong potential for field application. Additionally, WFSR has developed a LFD prototype that detects fipronil, a pesticide which was responsible for the recent death of hundred-thousands of honey bees in the Netherlands. Other LFDs, for the detection of bee-harming pesticides are also under development. In the near future, B-GOOD is interested in applying the developed LFDs at the point of need.
    Associating body condition score and parity with sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A.H. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 798 - 802.
    Body condition - Claw disorder - Grass-based system - Lameness - Parity

    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows can be broadly defined as abnormal gait which causes a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Sub-optimal mobility is also associated with significant economic and environmental consequences, which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified in pasture-based systems. However, to quantify sub-optimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, and indeed to aid in the development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a cow with sub-optimal mobility is required. So far, automated detection sensors have been successful for detecting moderate to severe forms of sub-optimal mobility. However, there is a need for a better understanding of the cow-level traits associated with all forms of sub-optimal mobility, including mild forms, to incorporate this into future development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the associations between hoof disorders (both type and presence), body condition score, and all levels of sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows using data from a large sample of Irish dairy farms. Mobility scores, body condition scores (BCS), claw disorder (presence and severity), and parity records were available for 6,927 dairy cows from 52 pasture-based herds. Binomial logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the associations between claw disorder (presence and severity), BCS, parity and sub-optimal mobility. The output variable was sub-optimal mobility (mobility score ≥ 1) and the predictor variables were specific claw disorders and their severities, BCS, and parity. Our results indicate that all severities of claw disorders, low BCS, and higher parity cows are all associated with an increased risk for sub-optimal mobility.

    Cow characteristics and sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    - p. 798 - 802.
    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows can be broadly defined as abnormal gait which causes a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Sub-optimal mobility is also associated with significant economic and environmental consequences, which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified in pasture-based systems. However, to quantify sub-optimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, and indeed to aid in the development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a cow with sub-optimal mobility is required. So far, automated detection sensors have been successful for detecting moderate to severe forms of sub-optimal mobility. However, there is a need for a better understanding of the cow-level traits associated with all forms of sub-optimal mobility, including mild forms, to incorporate this into future development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the associations between hoof disorders (both type and presence), body condition score, and all levels of sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows using data from a large sample of Irish dairy farms. Mobility scores, body condition scores (BCS), claw disorder (presence and severity), and parity records were available for 6,927 dairy cows from 52 pasture-based herds. Binomial logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the associations between claw disorder (presence and severity), BCS, parity and sub-optimal mobility. The output variable was sub-optimal mobility (mobility score ≥ 1) and the predictor variables were specific claw disorders and their severities, BCS, and parity. Our results indicate that all severities of claw disorders, low BCS, and higher parity cows are all associated with an increased risk for sub-optimal mobility.
    We zijn beter in staat om suiker alternatieven te ontwikkelen die alle functionaliteiten nabootsen
    Renzetti, S. - \ 2019
    Hoe benutten we de zee in 2050?
    Hoof, L.J.W. van - \ 2019
    Food from the ocean; towards a research agenda for sustainable use of our oceans’ natural resources
    Hoof, Luc Van; Fabi, Gianna ; Johansen, Vegar ; Steenbergen, Josien ; Irigoien, Xabier ; Smith, Sarah ; Lisbjerg, Dennis ; Kraus, Gerd - \ 2019
    Marine Policy 105 (2019). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 44 - 51.
    Food from our oceans - Fisheries - Aquaculture - Seafood processing - Research
    By 2050 it is expected that food, clean drinking water and sustainable energy has to be produced for world population of closeto10 billion people. Ourseasandoceansrepresent71%ofearth'ssurface,yetitsspaceandresources today are not sustainably utilised to their full extent. The importance of the use of the marine environment is within the EU widely acknowledged and reflected in such agendas as the EU Blue Growth strategy, the Food 2030 agenda and the Food from our Oceans vision. In order to substantiate the vision to increasingly feed the world population from our oceans, a foresight exercise was implemented to construct an agenda of the science needed in the realm of fisheries, aquaculture and seafood. This resulted in a research agenda that is logically argued and based on an analysis made by stakeholders and experts which led to the identification of priorities having a scientific analytical basis as well as a societal reference. The process and the results of this foresight exercise are presented and are put int he wider context of Europe's research agenda towards 2050. In order to bring about the required Blue Revolution, substantial effort should be rendered to the science and innovation needed to support this development.
    Muddying the waters of the landing obligation: how Multi-level governance structures can obscure policy implementation
    Hoof, L.J.W. van; Kraan, M.L. ; Visser, N.M. ; Avoyan, Emma ; Batsleer, J. ; Trapman, B.K. - \ 2019
    In: The European Landing Oligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., Springer Nature - ISBN 9783030033071 - p. 179 - 196.
    The 2013 reform of the European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) included an increased drive for regionalisation of the policy implementation and the introduction of the Landing Obligation (LO). The process of implementing the LO takes place at multiple levels of governance within the EU. We use the case of the implementation of the LO in the Netherlands, where policymakers and the fishing industry cooperate towards a workable policy implementation. In this paper, we argue that the EU’s complex and unconsolidated implementation structure hampers a fair and clear implementation process. Three main causes can be distinguished: first, a lack of a shared understanding of the goal of the Landing Obligation within and between the different governance levels that are involved in the implementation process. Second, no meaningful discussions are taking place between concurrent resource users, resource managers and supporters of the LO regarding the need and usefulness of the measure, as there is no arena in the governance system for them to meet. With the introduction of the Regional Advisory Councils in the 2002 CFP reform, a platform for discussion between fishers and NGOs was created, but this platform has only an advisory role and does not include the Member States. Third, the relationship between different decision-making bodies is unclear, as is the manner in which stakeholder input will be included in decision-making about implementing the LO. The result of this implementation process has been a diluted policy where the goal, its execution and its effectiveness remain unclear.
    Preparation for the evaluation of the list of mandatory research surveys at sea
    Sampson, David ; Alvarez, P. ; Armesto, Angeles ; Casey, J. ; Natale, A. Di; Hansson, Maria ; Karp, W.A. ; Mannini, A. ; Panayotova, Marina ; Renaud, F. ; Somarakis, Stylianos ; Spedicato, M.T. ; Stransky, C. ; Verver, S.W. ; Worsoe Clausen, L.A. ; Hoof, L.J.W. van - \ 2018
    Luxembourg : Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) (Publications Office of the european Union EWG-18-04) - ISBN 9789279793875 - 51 p.
    Associating hoof disorders with sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows in pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    This analysis confirms an association between MS and HD. The results indicate that any form of HD presence is a relevant predictor of MS. From the results, it is clear that more severe type HD, for example; ulcers and digital dermatitis have a significantly greater impact on MS. Based on HD presence, the results also indicate the thresholds wherein MS is likely to be suboptimal (MS>0) thus causing a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow.
    Making multi-use at sea safe : A Summary of the SOMOS Project
    Goossen, C.M. ; Banach, J.L. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Rockmann, C. ; Vredeveld, L. - \ 2018
    SOMOS - 16 p.
    SOMOS : Technical Standards for Safe Production of Food and Feed from marine plants and Safe Use of Ocean Space
    Hoof, L.J.W. van; Goossen, C.M. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research
    Associating types of hoof disorders with mobility score of dairy cows in pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, Aisling ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    In: Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 24) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 242 - 242.

    Associating cow characteristics with sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows in Irish pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, Aisling ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    In: Sustainable meat and milk production from grasslands. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Grassland Science in Europe ) - ISBN 9781841706436 - p. 765 - 768.
    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows has significant economic and environmental consequences which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified for pasture-based systems. While traditionally lameness was defined by a requirement to treat individual cows, sub-optimal mobility is now being used to identify lameness in pasture-based systems. Compared to cows in confinement systems, cows in pasture-based systems are exposed to different types of mobility issues. While cows in confinement systems are at risk to infectious hoof disorders such as mortellaro, cows in pasture-based systems are vulnerable to noninfectious hoof disorders, such as overgrown claws and whiteline disease. To precisely quantify suboptimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a sub-optimal mobility cow is required. Mobility score (MS), hoof disorders prevalence
    and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for 7,649 dairy cows and were examined in this study in order to characterise a cow with sub-optimal mobility. Cows with more severe type hoof disorders were significantly more at risk to having sub-optimal mobility; this study shows that both hoof disorders and
    BCS are useful indicators of sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows.
    NGS-based amplicon sequencing approach; towards a new era in GMO screening and detection
    Arulandhu, Alfred J. ; Dijk, Jeroen van; Staats, Martijn ; Hagelaar, Rico ; Voorhuijzen, Marleen ; Molenaar, Bonnie ; Hoof, Richard van; Li, Rong ; Yang, Litao ; Shi, Jianxin ; Scholtens, Ingrid ; Kok, Esther - \ 2018
    Food Control 93 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 201 - 210.
    Amplicon sequencing - Bioinformatics - Genetically modified products - Illumina HiSeq - NGS - qPCR - Unauthorized GMOs

    The development and commercialization of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and its related products have been increasing in the last two decades. This challenges the currently applied time-consuming and expensive qPCR screening procedure from a practical perspective, due to the necessity to develop and validate additional targets at a regular pace and the increasing number of targets included in a single screening. In this study we developed a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based GMO screening approach covering 96 GMO targets and compared it to the two-step qPCR GMO screening approach; the two approaches were evaluated with five feed samples known to contain GMOs. The amplicons obtained from the feed samples were analyzed using 150-bp Paired-End sequencing, Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform. A dedicated data analysis pipeline was developed, which allows automated identification of GMOs and associated genetic elements and constructs. The result of the NGS-based screening were compared with the qPCR approach, indicating that 92% of the targets were commonly identified between the qPCR and NGS-based screening. The remaining 8% of the targets had discrepancies in detection between the two methods. This was mainly observed for targets that were detected in qPCR with high Cq values (above 36), which could not be detected in NGS-based screening. Additionally, due to the more extensive screening in the NGS-based strategy, in total 43 additional GMOs and related targets were identified compared to the standard qPCR screening. From the commonly identified targets in both approaches, 8 targets could not be associated with the detected GMOs. These targets had late Cq values (above 36) and could indicate traces of unknown GMOs in the samples. The current study shows the applicability of NGS as a novel, broad and reliable screening strategy for GMOs and its potential to improve current screening methods.

    Effects of mechanical loads on the deformation and health status of claws in dairy cows
    Ouweltjes, Wijbrand - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.L. van Leeuwen, co-promotor(en): S.W.S. Gussekloo; C.W. Spoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438711 - 158

    Locomotion problems are identified as major welfare problem for dairy cattle. The majority of locomotion problems is caused by claw disorders, either infectious or non-infectious. Although severe claw disorders usually are manifested by lameness, clinical lameness can be regarded as the top of the iceberg of claw and locomotion problems. The so-called subclinical claw disorders do influence behaviour of the affected cows, but the changes are subtle and therefore difficult to observe. Improvement of claw health seems feasible in practice, but in general, improvement has not been realised in the last 25 years. In this thesis, only non- infectious claw disorders are considered. In general, this category of claw disorders is assumed to be caused by similar mechanism. Housing and management have a large influence on claw health, and particularly flooring in the walking areas and provisions for lying are elements of housing that are related with claw health. The main objective of this thesis is to improve understanding of the aetiology of non-infectious claw lesions, and in particular the effects of mechanical load on claw tissues.

    For this study, two experiments were carried out at Waiboerhoeve research farm, Lelystad, the Netherlands. In the first experiment, effects of an alternative trimming technique were determined for mid-lactation cows kept in barns with either concrete or rubber topped slatted alley flooring. In the second experiment, effects of nocturnal restrictions in access to the cubicles with supposed maleficent effects on claw tissues were determined for heifers in the first three months of their first lactation. These experiments aimed to provide knowledge regarding the impact of claw shape, hard vs. soft flooring and restrictions of lying conditions on claw health and behaviour. To better understand the effects of lying and standing and of claw shape on claw health., a methodology was developed and applied to accurately measure load induced spatial deformation of lower hind limbs of cattle. The results enabled us to estimate the load induced compressive strain in the soft tissues between the sole horn layer and the distal phalanges, and to compare the strain distribution with the location of sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers.

    From the experiments, it can be concluded that concave hoof trimming is not beneficial for dairy cows kept on concrete flooring, although sole concavity can help to prevent overloading in the bulb area. Rubber flooring reduces the prevalence and seriousness of haemorrhages and results in reduced growth and wear of the horn shoe. Reduced access to the cubicles does not necessarily impair claw health, but it is likely that long standing, particularly on hard flooring, is detrimental for claw health because of compressive strain that occurs in the soft tissues between the distal phalanges and the sole horn during standing. There is a similarity between the location of high mechanical strain and the location of sole horn lesions.

    The politics of adaptive climate management : Scientific recipes and lived reality
    Warner, Jeroen F. ; Wesselink, Anna J. ; Geldof, Govert D. - \ 2018
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 9 (2018)3. - ISSN 1757-7780
    adaptive management - consent - ethics - experimentation - phronesis - political economy
    While excited about the ground-breaking work coming out of the epistemic community promoting adaptive (climate) management (AM), we worry about its tendency to ignore normative implications originating in the implicit worldviews underlying AM literature. Generally, AM has a “green” ideology and focuses on the bioregion as the only sensible level for analysis and action. This tendency for systemic functionalism of AM-as-(green)-policy-prescription depoliticizes an issue (“what to do about climate change”) that is political through and through. For example, those who stand to lose their livelihood as a result of AM plans or simply cannot adapt so fast may resist AM propositions. Implementing AM in practice thereby often leads to social and institutional engineering to overcome resistance. AM in academia seems quite far removed from the “real worlds” of social deliberation and praxis where policy is made and implemented, and where other values and interests than those implicit in AM prevail. We therefore highlight the importance of practices on the ground, claiming AM is not achieved by bioregional policies, but developed “on the hoof” at locally appropriate scales. Everyday professional work is characterized by “organized improvisation” where tacit professional and experiential knowledge are of prime importance. This article is categorized under: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change > Institutions for Adaptation.
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