Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Brominated flame retardants in animal derived foods in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014
Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Lee, Martijn K. van der; Peters, Ruud J.B. ; Traag, Wim A. ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2019
Chemosphere 234 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 171 - 178.
Eggs - Fish - HBCDD - Meat - Milk - PBDE

Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were monitored in various foods from terrestrial and aquatic animal origin (>850 samples), collected in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014. The terrestrial samples included meat/fat from 7 animal species (including bovines, pigs, broilers and sheep), bovine milk and hen eggs. Dominant PBDE congeners in these samples were BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -183. The meat/fat generally contained the highest ∑PBDE concentrations compared to eggs and milk, with meat from deer, horse and sheep containing the highest concentrations. Generally declining ∑PBDE concentrations were observed between 2009 and 2014, however, this was only significant in pig meat and hen's eggs. The aquatic samples included fillets from 18 species (including herring, haddock and salmon), brown crab parts, shrimp and mussels, and the highest ∑PBDE concentrations were seen in body parts of brown crab, herring, mackerel, salmon and sea bass (on wet weight basis). Patterns generally contained more congeners (i.e., BDE-28, -49 and -66) additional to the aforementioned congeners found in terrestrial samples. Herring, sea bass and brown crab (body parts) contained among the highest PBDE concentrations. TBBPA was only detected in 3 individual samples (bovine and broiler meat and haddock), while α-HBCDD was the dominant diastereomer detected in several terrestrial and aquatic samples. When detected, TBBPA and HBCDD concentrations were generally in the same order as ∑PBDE concentrations in the same sample types.

Determination of genotoxic potencies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in HepaRG cells using the γH2AX assay
Louisse, Jochem ; Rijkers, Deborah ; Stoopen, Geert ; Holleboom, Wendy Jansen ; Delagrange, Mona ; Molthof, Elise ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Audebert, Marc ; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 131 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915
Genotoxicity - HepaRG - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) - Relative potency factor (RPF) - γH2AX assay

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites from plants that have been found in substantial amounts in herbal supplements, infusions and teas. Several PAs cause cancer in animal bioassays, mediated via a genotoxic mode of action, but for the majority of the PAs, carcinogenicity data are lacking. It is assumed in the risk assessment that all PAs have the same potency as riddelliine, which is considered to be one of the most potent carcinogenic PAs in rats. This may overestimate the risks, since many PAs are expected to have lower potencies. In this study we determined the concentration-dependent genotoxicity of 37 PAs representing different chemical classes using the γH2AX in cell western assay in HepaRG human liver cells. Based on these in vitro data, PAs were grouped into different potency classes. The group with the highest potency consists particularly of open diester PAs and cyclic diester PAs (including riddelliine). The group of the least potent or non-active PAs includes the monoester PAs, non-esterified necine bases, PA N-oxides, and the unsaturated PA trachelanthamine. This study reveals differences in in vitro genotoxic potencies of PAs, supporting that the assumption that all PAs have a similar potency as riddelliine is rather conservative.

Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a large number of wild and farmed aquatic animals collected in the Netherlands
Zafeiraki, Effrosyni ; Gebbink, Wouter A. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Kwadijk, Christiaan ; Dassenakis, Emmanouil ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2019
Chemosphere 232 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 415 - 423.
PFOS - PFOA - eel - Fish food safety - EQS
A range of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was analysed in marine fish, farmed fish, crustaceans, bivalves and European eel caught in (mostly) Dutch waters, or purchased at Dutch markets (approximately 250 samples, collected between 2012 and 2018). ΣPFAS levels were highest in eels collected from rivers and lakes (average 43.6 ng/g and max 172 ng/g), followed by shrimps collected near the Dutch coast (average 6.7 and max. 33 ng/g ww), and seabass (average 4.5 and max. 9.4 ng/g ww). Most of the farmed fish (e.g. trout, catfish, turbot, salmon, tilapia, pangasius) were among the lowest contaminated samples in this study (averages ranged from 0.06 to 1.5 ng/g ww). Geographically, levels in marine fish from the northern North Sea (e.g. haddock, whiting, herring) were lower than in the central and southern North Sea (e.g. cod and flatfish). Concerning eel, no substantial geographical differences were found (apart from two distinct locations). The contamination pattern was similar in all species, where PFOS mostly dominated the profile, and other long-chain PFASs being frequently detected. Short-chain PFASs were rarely found. PFOS concentrations in eel varied from 3.3 ng/g (close to the North Sea) to 67 ng/g ww in eel caught from Ghent-Terneuzen canal. The majority of detected PFOS levels in eels (93%) and 1 shrimp sample from Eems-Dollard exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for surface water of 9.1 μg/kg ww. Other samples (e.g. shrimps, bivalves, flounder), subject to the EQS, did not exceed this level.
Quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) of estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies of BPA and BADGE analogues
Punt, Ans ; Aartse, Aafke ; Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Gerssen, Arjen ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M. - \ 2019
Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)7. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 1941 - 1953.
Androgenic - Bisphenol A - BP analogues - Estrogenic - QIVIVE - Relative potencies

The goal of the present study was to obtain an in vivo relevant prioritization method for the endocrine potencies of different polycarbonate monomers, by combining in vitro bioassay data with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling. PBK models were developed for a selection of monomers, including bisphenol A (BPA), two bisphenol F (BPF) isomers and four different bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs), using in vitro input data. With these models, the plasma concentrations of the compounds were simulated, providing means to estimate the dose levels at which the in vitro endocrine effect concentrations are reached. The results revealed that, whereas the in vitro relative potencies of different BADGEs (predominantly anti-androgenic effects) can be up to fourfold higher than BPA, the estimated in vivo potencies based on the oral equivalent doses are one to two orders of magnitude lower than BPA because of fast detoxification of the BADGEs. In contrast, the relative potencies of 2,2-BPF and 4,4-BPF increase when accounting for the in vivo availability. 4,4-BPF is estimated to be fivefold more potent than BPA in humans in vivo in inducing estrogenic effects and both 2,2-BPF and 4,4-BPF are estimated to be, respectively, 7 and 11-fold more potent in inducing anti-androgenic effects. These relative potencies were considered to be first-tier estimates, particularly given that the potential influence of intestinal metabolism on the in vivo availability was not accounted for. Overall, it can be concluded that both 2,2-BPF and 4,4-BPF are priority compounds.

Contaminanten in Chinese wolhandkrab : resultaten van 2018
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Nijrolder, A.W.J.M. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food Safety Research (Wageningen Food Safety Research rapport 2019.004) - 27
In 2018 zijn monsters Chinese wolhandkrab (Eriocheir sinensis) onderzocht van de locaties Hollands Diep, Nieuwe Maas bij Pernis, Volkerak (Volkeraksluizen en Krammersluizen) en het Noordzeekanaal. Op deze locaties is commerciële wolhandkrabvangst verboden (zogenaamd gesloten gebied). Van de locatie Den Oever, liggend in het gebied dat niet gesloten is voor wolhandkrabvangst, kon geen monster verzameld worden omdat onvoldoende krab gevangen werd.De contaminantgehalten in wolhandkrab van deze locaties wordt gemonitord en vergeleken met voorgaande jaren. Naast de dioxine- en polychloorbifenyl (PCB)-gehalten zijn de gehalten aan zware metalen onderzocht. Binnen deze studie is alleen vlees uit het lichaam onderzocht. Van vlees uit poten en scharen is bekend dat dioxine- en PCB-gehalten niet boven de maximum limiet (ML) uitstijgen (mede omdat dit vlees weinig vet bevat). Voor vlees uit het lichaam gelden geen ML’s. In de wolhandkrab die in 2018 is onderzocht varieerden de gehalten van 8.9-30 pg TEQ/g voor de dioxines, 6.3-32 pg TEQ/g voor de dioxineachtige (dl)-PCB’s, 15-60 pg TEQ/g voor de totaal TEQ en 135-1078 ng/g voor het totaal aan niet-dioxineachtige (ndl)-PCB’s. De bijdrage van de dioxines aan de totaal-TEQ varieerde van 50-65%. De locaties Hollands-Diep en Maas (Pernis) zijn het sterkst gecontamineerd, en de gehalten ontlopen elkaar niet veel. De krab van locatie Noordzeekanaal was het minst gecontamineerd. Voor het eerst zijn in dit rapport ook trendgrafieken opgenomen voor de locaties IJsselmeer (Den Oever), Ketelmeer, Maas (Pernis), Hollands-Diep en Volkerak (Volkeraksluizen en Krammersluizen). De trends op beide Volkeraklocaties zijn stabiel (op basis van 3 jaren), terwijl de andere locaties meer variatie laten zien. Dit wordt mogelijk veroorzaakt door het gegeven dat de gevangen krab geen standkrab is, maar trekkende krab, die van verschillende locaties stroomopwaarts afkomstig kan zijn. Dit is een mogelijke oorzaak voor de waargenomen variatie. De wolhandkrabmonsters van 2018 zijn net als in 2017 weer geanalyseerd op perfluoralkylverbindingen (PFAS). De aanwezigheid van meerdere PFAS is aangetoond, namelijk PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTrDA en PFOS. De PFOS gehalten waren het hoogst met 7-14 ng/g. wolhandkrabwolhandkrab uit Volkerak (Volkeraksluizen) bevatte de hoogste PFAS gehalten. Wat betreft de zware metalen gehalten in wolhandkrab varieerden die als volgt: cadmium (0.013-0.28 mg/kg); lood (0.022-0.057 mg/kg) en kwik (0.009-0.027 mg/kg). Het totaal arseengehalte varieerde van 0.88-1.6 mg/kg. Wolhandkrab van de locatie Noordzeekanaal is het minst vervuild (m.u.v. lood).
Dioxines, dioxineachtige- en niet dioxineachtige PCB’s in rode aal en schubvis uit Nederlandse binnenwateren : resultaten van 2018
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Nijrolder, A.W.J.M. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Kotterman, M.J.J. - \ 2019
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport ; 2019.003 ) - 43
Chemische en fysische gevaren in de Nederlandse diervoederketen
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Asselt, E.D. van; Adamse, P. ; Nijkamp, M.N. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Pikkemaat, M. ; Nijs, M. de; Mol, H. ; Raamsdonk, L. van; Hoogenboom, R. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2019
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2019.002) - 85
Global wheat production with 1.5 and 2.0°C above pre‐industrial warming
Liu, B. ; Martre, P. ; Ewert, F. ; Porter, J.R. ; Challinor, A.J. ; Muller, G. ; Ruane, A.C. ; Waha, K. ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Aggarwal, P.K. ; Ahmed, M. ; Balkovic, Juraj ; Basso, B. ; Biernath, C. ; Bindi, M. ; Cammarano, D. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Dumont, B. ; Espadafor, M. ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Garcia-Vila, M. ; Gayler, S. ; Gao, Y. ; Horan, H. ; Hoogenboom, G. ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jones, C.D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, K.C. ; Klein, C. ; Koehler, A.K. ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Minoli, Sara ; Montesino San Martin, M. ; Kumar, S.N. ; Nendel, C. ; O'Leary, G.J. ; Palosuo, T. ; Priesack, E. ; Ripoche, D. ; Rötter, R.P. ; Semenov, M.A. ; Stockle, Claudio ; Streck, T. ; Supit, I. ; Tao, F. ; Velde, M. van der; Wallach, D. ; Wang, E. ; Webber, H. ; Wolf, J. ; Xiao, L. ; Zhang, Z. ; Zhao, Z. ; Zhu, Y. ; Asseng, S. - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1428 - 1444.
Efforts to limit global warming to below 2°C in relation to the pre-industrial level are under way, in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, most impact research on agriculture to date has focused on impacts of warming >2°C on mean crop yields, and many previous studies did not focus sufficiently on extreme events and yield interannual variability. Here, with the latest climate scenarios from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project, we evaluated the impacts of the 2015 Paris Agreement range of global warming (1.5°C and 2.0°C warming above the pre-industrial period) on global wheat production and local yield variability. A multi-crop and multi-climate model ensemble over a global network of sites developed by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) for Wheat was used to represent major rainfed and irrigated wheat cropping systems. Results show that projected global wheat production will change by -2.3% to 7.0% under the 1.5 °C scenario and -2.4% to 10.5% under the 2.0 °C scenario, compared to a baseline of 1980-2010, when considering changes in local temperature, rainfall and global atmospheric CO2 concentration, but no changes in management or wheat cultivars. The projected impact on wheat production varies spatially; a larger increase is projected for temperate high rainfall regions than for moderate hot low rainfall and irrigated regions. Grain yields in warmer regions are more likely to be reduced than in cooler regions. Despite mostly positive impacts on global average grain yields, the frequency of extremely low yields (bottom 5 percentile of baseline distribution) and yield inter-annual variability will increase under both warming scenarios for some of the hot growing locations, including locations from the second largest global wheat producer -India, which supplies more than 14% of global wheat. The projected global impact of warming <2°C on wheat production are therefore not evenly distributed and will affect regional food security across the globe as well as food prices and trade.
Climate change impact and adaptation for wheat protein
Asseng, Senthold ; Martre, Pierre ; Maiorano, Andrea ; Rötter, Reimund P. ; O’Leary, Garry J. ; Fitzgerald, Glenn J. ; Girousse, Christine ; Motzo, Rosella ; Giunta, Francesco ; Babar, M.A. ; Reynolds, Matthew P. ; Kheir, Ahmed M.S. ; Thorburn, Peter J. ; Waha, Katharina ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Aggarwal, Pramod K. ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Balkovič, Juraj ; Basso, Bruno ; Biernath, Christian ; Bindi, Marco ; Cammarano, Davide ; Challinor, Andrew J. ; Sanctis, Giacomo De; Dumont, Benjamin ; Eyshi Rezaei, Ehsan ; Fereres, Elias ; Ferrise, Roberto ; Garcia-Vila, Margarita ; Gayler, Sebastian ; Gao, Yujing ; Horan, Heidi ; Hoogenboom, Gerrit ; Izaurralde, R.C. ; Jabloun, Mohamed ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Kassie, Belay T. ; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian ; Klein, Christian ; Koehler, Ann Kristin ; Liu, Bing ; Minoli, Sara ; Montesino San Martin, Manuel ; Müller, Christoph ; Naresh Kumar, Soora ; Supit, Iwan ; Tao, Fulu ; Wolf, Joost ; Zhang, Zhao ; Ewert, Frank - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 155 - 173.
climate change adaptation - climate change impact - food security - grain protein - wheat

Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32-multi-model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration by 2050 on global wheat grain and protein yield are likely to be negated by impacts from rising temperature and changes in rainfall, but with considerable disparities between regions. Grain and protein yields are expected to be lower and more variable in most low-rainfall regions, with nitrogen availability limiting growth stimulus from elevated CO2. Introducing genotypes adapted to warmer temperatures (and also considering changes in CO2 and rainfall) could boost global wheat yield by 7% and protein yield by 2%, but grain protein concentration would be reduced by −1.1 percentage points, representing a relative change of −8.6%. Climate change adaptations that benefit grain yield are not always positive for grain quality, putting additional pressure on global wheat production.

BPA, BADGE and analogues : A new multi-analyte LC-ESI-MS/MS method for their determination and their in vitro (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic properties
Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van; Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Awchi, Mohamad ; Klijnstra, Mirjam D. ; Hamers, Astrid R.M. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. ; Portier, Liza ; Gerssen, Arjen - \ 2019
Chemosphere 221 (2019). - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 246 - 253.
Androgenic - BADGE - BP-analogues - BPA - Estrogenic - In vitro - LC-MS/MS - Multimethod

Information on the occurrence and endocrine potencies of analogues of bisphenol A (BPA) and diglycidyl ester derivatives (BDGEs) of BPA and BPF is limited. Such information is, however, important as the current debate on BPA and the lowered BPA migration limit in Europe may provide an incentive for application of structural analogues. A new sensitive multi-analyte LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed to measure 17 bisphenols (BPs) and 6 BDGEs in food, beverages and drinkware. Yeast based bioassays were used to determine the in vitro (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic properties of these and 7 additional BPs and BDGEs. Drinkware of polycarbonate and other materials were analysed for BPs and BDGEs. Only BPA and BPS and both at trace levels were found in a few containers. A limited number of (canned) foods and beverages were also analysed. BPA was the most frequently detected BP (ranged from 0.03 ng mL−1 in a beverage sample to 68 ng g−1 in food). Other BPs detected were BPS, 2,2-BPF and 4,4-BPF. In addition BADGE, BADGE.HCl, BADGE.H2O and BADGE.2H2O were detected from 0.08 ng mL−1 in a beverage sample to 3.3 ng g−1 in food. In vitro testing showed that most BPs exhibited an equal or higher estrogenic potency than BPA and most of them also showed a higher anti-androgenic potency, i.e. BPB, BPCl, BPC, BPE, 4,4-BPF, BPP, BPAF, and BPTMC. Some BPs and BDGEs were not estrogenic, but showed an anti-estrogenic effect and were anti-androgenic too. BPS was only weakly estrogenic and BADGE.2H2O and BFDGE.2H2O showed no in vitro activity. The present data show that in addition to BPA, other BPs and BDGEs can be present in food and drinks, some displaying in vitro endocrine activities.

Food and feed safety : Cases and approaches to identify the responsible toxins and toxicants
Gerssen, Arjen ; Bovee, Toine H.F. ; Ginkel, Leendert A. van; Iersel, Marlou L.P.S. van; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2019
Food Control 98 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 9 - 18.
Effect directed analysis - Feed and food safety - Identification strategy - In-vitro bioassays - Intoxications

There are food and feed safety monitoring programs to protect consumers. These programs however, are strongly focused on known and regulated substances. New or unexpected substances that might be of risk for consumers will thus escape routine controls. These risks are therefore mainly discovered by human or animal intoxications. All kind of analytical chemical methods, in-vitro bioassays, tracking, and chain analysis are then used to reveal the substance(s) responsible for the intoxication. Only in a few occasions (new) risks were revealed in time by analytical chemical methods or cell based in-vitro bioassays. This paper describes some relevant food and feed safety cases and how the causative substances were identified. This overview strongly indicates that more intense monitoring, including the use of cell based effect bioassays, can reduce the number of intoxications. Moreover, registration and follow-up actions should be arranged in a better way, for example by sharing information within the scientific communities or by establishing a national contact point. In addition, a strategy based on broad screening and bioassay directed identification with liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry is proposed to prevent intoxications and identify toxin and toxicants relevant for food and feed safety.

Exploitation of ToxCast data in the safety risk assessment of food chemicals
Punt, A. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. - \ 2018
Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of moniliformin in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Eskola, Mari ; Manen, Mathijs van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
Moniliformin (MON) is a mycotoxin with low molecular weight primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following a request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk of MON to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. The limited information available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals indicated haematotoxicity and cardiotoxicity as major adverse health effects of MON. MON causes chromosome aberrations in vitro but no in vivo genotoxicity data and no carcinogenicity data were identified. Due to the limitations in the available toxicity data, human acute or chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) could not be established. The margin of exposure (MOE) between the no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cardiotoxicity from a subacute study in rats and the acute upper bound (UB) dietary exposure estimates ranged between 4,000 and 73,000. The MOE between the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (for a 5% response ‐ BMDL05) of 0.20 mg MON/kg bw per day for haematological hazards from a 28‐day study in pigs and the chronic dietary human exposure estimates ranged between 370 and 5,000,000 for chronic dietary exposures. These MOEs indicate a low risk for human health but were associated with high uncertainty. The toxicity data available for poultry, pigs, and mink indicated a low or even negligible risk for these animals from exposure to MON in feed at the estimated exposure levels under current feeding practices. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity as for pigs, the CONTAM Panel considered a low or even negligible risk for the other animal species for which no toxicity data suitable for hazard characterisation were identified. Additional toxicity studies are needed and depending on their outcome, the collection of more occurrence data on MON in food and feed is recommended to enable a comprehensive human risk assessment.
Update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Benford, Diane ; Calò, Girolamo ; Dahan, Albert ; Dusemund, Birgit ; Mulder, Patrick ; Németh‐zámboriné, Éva ; Arcella, Davide ; Baert, Katleen ; Cascio, Claudia ; Levorato, Sara ; Schutte, Marijke ; Vleminckx, Christiane - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)5. - ISSN 1831-4732
Poppy seeds are obtained from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). They are used as food and to produce edible oil. The opium poppy plant contains narcotic alkaloids such as morphine and codeine. Poppy seeds do not contain the opium alkaloids, but can become contaminated with alkaloids as a result of pest damage and during harvesting. The European Commission asked EFSA to provide an update of the Scientific Opinion on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds. The assessment is based on data on morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, noscapine and papaverine in poppy seed samples. The CONTAM Panel confirms the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 10 μg morphine/kg body weight (bw) and concluded that the concentration of codeine in the poppy seed samples should be taken into account by converting codeine to morphine equivalents, using a factor of 0.2. The ARfD is therefore a group ARfD for morphine and codeine, expressed in morphine equivalents. Mean and high levels of dietary exposure to morphine equivalents from poppy seeds considered to have high levels of opium alkaloids (i.e. poppy seeds from varieties primarily grown for pharmaceutical use) exceed the ARfD in most age groups. For poppy seeds considered to have relatively low concentrations of opium alkaloids (i.e. primarily varieties for food use), some exceedance of the ARfD is also seen at high levels of dietary exposure in most surveys. For noscapine and papaverine, the available data do not allow making a hazard characterisation. However, comparison of the dietary exposure to the recommended therapeutical doses does not suggest a health concern for these alkaloids. For thebaine and oripavine, no risk characterisation was done due to insufficient data. However, for thebaine, limited evidence indicates a higher acute lethality than for morphine and the estimated exposure could present a health risk.
Risk to human and animal health related to the presence of 4,15‐diacetoxyscirpenol in food and feed
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Levorato, Sara ; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
4,15‐Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. As requested by the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) assessed the risk of DAS to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. Very limited information was available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals. Due to the limitations in the available data set, human acute and chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) were established based on data obtained in clinical trials of DAS as an anticancer agent (anguidine) after intravenous administration to cancer patients. The CONTAM Panel considered these data as informative for the hazard characterisation of DAS after oral exposure. The main adverse effects after acute and repeated exposure were emesis, with a no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 32 μg DAS/kg body weight (bw), and haematotoxicity, with a NOAEL of 65 μg DAS/kg bw, respectively. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 3.2 μg DAS/kg bw and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.65 μg DAS/kg bw were established. Based on over 15,000 occurrence data, the highest acute and chronic dietary exposures were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.49 μg DAS/kg bw per day, respectively, and were not of health concern for humans. The limited information for poultry, pigs and dogs indicated a low risk for these animals at the estimated DAS exposure levels under current feeding practices, with the possible exception of fattening chicken. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity than for poultry, the risk was considered overall low for other farm and companion animal species for which no toxicity data were available. In consideration of the similarities of several trichothecenes and the likelihood of co‐exposure via food and feed, it could be appropriate to perform a cumulative risk assessment for this group of substances.
Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in feed and food
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Håkansson, Helen ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Pohjanvirta, Raimo ; Rylander, Lars ; Smith, Andrew ; Loveren, Henk van; Waalkens‐Berendsen, Ine ; Zeilmaker, Marco ; Binaglia, Marco ; Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Christoph, Eugen ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL‐PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre‐ and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005‐TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F‐TEQs. No association was observed when including DL‐PCB‐TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F‐TEQ only was on average 2.4‐ and 2.7‐fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.
Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by replacement of fish oil
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process of fish meal. It consisted of extraction of the fish oil, filtration and adsorption with activated carbon, and replacement with decontaminated fish oil in order to reduce the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)), and dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. Data provided by the feed business operator were assessed for efficacy of the process and to demonstrate that the process did not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. The process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs (97%) and DL‐ and NDL‐PCBs (93%). The fish meal produced complied with EU regulations for these contaminants. The Panel considered that the reference to information available in published literature was a pragmatic approach to demonstrate that the replacement of fish oil and the use of activated carbon to adsorb these contaminants does not lead to any detrimental changes in the nature of the fish meal. However, it was noted that the process could deplete some beneficial constituents (e.g. oil‐soluble vitamins). Information was provided to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from the fish meal by oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil, was compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by hexane extraction and replacement of fish oil
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for fish meal. This process entails solvent (hexane) extraction of fish oil from fish meal to remove dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) as well as dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil. All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process, absence of solvent residues, and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the nature and characteristics of the product. According to data provided, the process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs by approximately 70% and NDL‐PCBs by about 60%. The data showed that it is possible to meet the current EU requirements with respect to these contaminants, provided that the level of contamination of untreated fish meal is within the range of the tested batches. It is unlikely that hazardous substances (i.e. hexane) remain in the final product. The Panel considered that there is no evidence that fish oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil leads to detrimental changes in the nutritional composition of the fish meal, although some beneficial constituents (e.g. lipophilic vitamins) might be depleted. The feed business operator submitted information to demonstrate safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from fish meal by means of solvent extraction and fish oil replacement was assessed to be compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
Risks for animal health related to the presence of fumonisins, their modified forms and hidden forms in feed
Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'Asta, Chiara ; Eriksen, Gunnar-Sundstøl ; Taranu, Ionelia ; Altieri, Andrea ; Roldán‐Torres, Ruth ; Oswald, Isabelle P. - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)5. - ISSN 1831-4732
Fumonisins, mycotoxins primarily produced by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, occur predominantly in cereal grains, especially in maize. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to fumonisins and their modified and hidden forms in feed. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 are the most common forms of fumonisins in feedstuffs and thus were included in the assessment. FB1, FB2 and FB3 have the same mode of action and were considered as having similar toxicological profile and potencies. For fumonisins, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) identified no‐observed‐adverse‐effect levels (NOAELs) for cattle, pig, poultry (chicken, ducks and turkeys), horse, and lowest‐observed‐adverse‐effect levels (LOAELs) for fish (extrapolated from carp) and rabbits. No reference points could be identified for sheep, goats, dogs, cats and mink. The dietary exposure was estimated on 18,140 feed samples on FB1–3 representing most of the feed commodities with potential presence of fumonisins. Samples were collected between 2003 and 2016 from 19 different European countries, but most of them from four Member States. To take into account the possible occurrence of hidden forms, an additional factor of 1.6, derived from the literature, was applied to the occurrence data. Modified forms of fumonisins, for which no data were identified concerning both the occurrence and the toxicity, were not included in the assessment. Based on mean exposure estimates, the risk of adverse health effects of feeds containing FB1–3 was considered very low for ruminants, low for poultry, horse, rabbits, fish and of potential concern for pigs. The same conclusions apply to the sum of FB1–3 and their hidden forms, except for pigs for which the risk of adverse health effect was considered of concern.
Effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level for ‘aflatoxin total’ from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs
Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Baert, Katleen ; Cortiñas Abrahantes, José ; Dujardin, Bruno ; Ferrini, Krizia ; Petersen, Annette - \ 2018
EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion regarding the effect on public health of a possible increase of the maximum level (ML) for ‘aflatoxin total’ (AFT; sum of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2) from 4 to 10 μg/kg in peanuts and processed products thereof. Aflatoxins are genotoxic and cause hepatocellular carcinomas in humans. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) evaluated 8,085 samples of peanuts and 472 samples of peanut butter, with > 60% left‐censored. The mean concentration of AFT in peanuts was 2.65/3.56 μg/kg (lower bound (LB)/upper bound (UB)) with a maximum of 1,429 μg/kg. The mean concentration in peanut butter was 1.47/1.92 μg/kg (LB/UB) with a maximum of 407 μg/kg. Peanut oil was not included since all data were left‐censored and the ML does not apply for oil. Exposure was calculated for a ‘Current ML’ and ‘Increased ML’ scenario, and mean chronic exposure estimates for consumers only, amounted to 0.04–2.74 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day and 0.07–4.28 ng/kg bw per day, respectively. The highest exposures were calculated for adolescents and other children. The CONTAM Panel used the cancer potencies estimated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for the risk characterisation. Under the scenario of the current ML, the cancer risk was estimated to range between 0.001 and 0.213 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Under the scenario of the increased ML, it ranged between 0.001 and 0.333 aflatoxin‐induced cancers per 100,000 person years. Comparing these data calculated under the current ML scenario with the yearly excess cancer risk of 0.014 shows a higher risk for consumers of peanuts and peanut butter in some surveys. The calculated cancer risks indicate that an increase of the ML would further increase the risk by a factor of 1.6–1.8.
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