Will legal international rhino horn trade save wild rhino populations?
Eikelboom, Jasper A.J. ; Nuijten, Rascha J.M. ; Wang, Yingying X.G. ; Schroder, Bradley ; Heitkönig, Ignas M.A. ; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Langevelde, Frank van; Prins, Herbert H.T. - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Conservation 23 (2020). - ISSN 2351-9894
CITES - Conservation - Socioeconomics - South Africa - Traditional Chinese medicine - Wildlife crime
Wild vertebrate populations all over the globe are in decline, with poaching being the second-most-important cause. The high poaching rate of rhinoceros may drive these species into extinction within the coming decades. Some stakeholders argue to lift the ban on international rhino horn trade to potentially benefit rhino conservation, as current interventions appear to be insufficient. We reviewed scientific and grey literature to scrutinize the validity of reasoning behind the potential benefit of legal horn trade for wild rhino populations. We identified four mechanisms through which legal trade would impact wild rhino populations, of which only the increased revenue for rhino farmers could potentially benefit rhino conservation. Conversely, the global demand for rhino horn is likely to increase to a level that cannot be met solely by legal supply. Moreover, corruption is omnipresent in countries along the trade routes, which has the potential to negatively affect rhino conservation. Finally, programmes aimed at reducing rhino horn demand will be counteracted through trade legalization by removing the stigma on consuming rhino horn. Combining these insights and comparing them with criteria for sustainable wildlife farming, we conclude that legalizing rhino horn trade will likely negatively impact the remaining wild rhino populations. To preserve rhino species, we suggest to prioritize reducing corruption within rhino horn trade, increasing the rhino population within well-protected ’safe havens’ and implementing educational programmes and law enforcement targeted at rhino horn consumers.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for monitoring proteolytic reactions using dry-films treated with trifluoroacetic acid
Kristoffersen, Kenneth Aase ; Amerongen, Aart van; Böcker, Ulrike ; Lindberg, Diana ; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew ; Vogel-van den Bosch, Heleen de; Horn, Svein Jarle ; Afseth, Nils Kristian - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
In this study we explore the potential of using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of trifluoroacetate-protein and peptide complexes for monitoring proteolytic reactions. The idea of treating dry-films of protein hydrolysates with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) prior to FTIR analysis is based on the unique properties of TFA. By adding a large excess of TFA to protein hydrolysate samples, the possible protonation sites of the proteins and peptides will be saturated. In addition, TFA has a low boiling point when protonated as well as complex-forming abilities. When forming TFA-treated dry-films of protein hydrolysates, the excess TFA will evaporate and the deprotonated acid (CF3COO−) will interact as a counter ion with the positive charges on the sample materials. In the study, spectral changes in TFA-treated dry-films of protein hydrolysates from a pure protein and poultry by-products, were compared to the FTIR fingerprints of untreated dry-films. The results show that time-dependent information related to proteolytic reactions and, consequently, on the characteristics of the protein hydrolysates can be obtained. With additional developments, FTIR on dry-films treated with TFA may be regarded as a potential future tool for the analysis of all types of proteolytic reactions in the laboratory as well as in industry.
Potato consumption, by preparation method and meal quality, with blood pressure and body mass index: The INTERMAP study
Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S. ; Pertiwi, Kamalita ; Stamler, Jeremiah ; Chan, Queenie ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Horn, Linda Van; Daviglus, Martha L. ; Elliott, Paul ; Oude Griep, Linda M. - \ 2020
Clinical Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 0261-5614
Blood pressure - BMI - Nutrient quality - Potato
Background and aims: Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2696 participants aged 40–59 y in the US and UK samples of the International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Nutrient quality of individual food items and the overall diet was assessed with the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index. Results: No associations with BP or BMI were found for total potato intake nor for boiled, mashed, or baked potatoes or potato-based mixed dishes. In US women, higher intake of fried potato was associated with 2.29 mmHg (95% CI: 0.55, 3.83) higher systolic BP and with 1.14 mmHg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.17) higher diastolic BP, independent of BMI. Higher fried potato consumption was directly associated with a +0.86 kg/m2 difference in BMI (95% CI: 0.24, 1.58) in US women. These associations were not found in men. Higher intakes of fried potato meals with a lower nutritional quality (NRF index≤ 2) were positively associated with systolic (3.88 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.63, 5.53) and diastolic BP (1.62 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.48, 2.95) in US women. No associations with BP were observed for fried potato meals with a higher nutritional quality (NRF index> 2). Conclusions: Fried potato was directly related to BP and BMI in women, but non-fried potato was not. Poor-nutrient quality meals were associated with intake of fried potatoes and higher BP, suggesting that accompanied dietary choices are key mediators of these associations.
China’s Rosewood Boom: A Cultural Fix to Capital Overaccumulation
Zhu, Annah Lake - \ 2020
Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110 (2020)1. - ISSN 2469-4452 - p. 277 - 296.
Rosewood has become the world’s most trafficked group of endangered species, with global seizure values surpassing that of ivory, rhino horn, and big cats combined. This is almost entirely attributable to growth in demand from China over the past two decades. Since 2000, classical rosewood furniture that dates back to the Ming Dynasty has been revived as a hot cultural commodity. This article explores China’s recent rosewood renaissance, which has brought annual market sales up to nearly $26 billion. In contrast to accounts that attribute Chinese demand for endangered species to the conspicuous consumption of a rising elite, I focus on the speculative aspect of the demand. I argue that China’s rosewood boom is largely the result of speculative investment that functions as a “cultural fix” to the country’s growing problem of capital overaccumulation. As with Harvey’s spatial fix, a cultural fix pioneers new productive outlets for the accumulation of surplus value. Unlike Harvey’s spatial fix, however, a cultural fix seeks these new productive outlets in cultural realms—specifically, through the mutual convertibility of cultural and economic capital, as defined by Bourdieu. Given the oversaturation of more conventional investment avenues, Chinese investors have increasingly turned to rosewood and other culturally important endangered resources, such as ivory, rhino horn, and tiger parts, as a new outlet for the accumulation of surplus value. More than conspicuous consumption, China’s rosewood boom is the result of rampant financial speculation resulting from a cultural fix. Key Words: China, cultural capital, endangered species, overaccumulation, spatial fix.
|Первая находка тонкоклювого буревестника В западном секторе российской арктики
Golovnyuk, V.V. ; Popovkina, A.B. ; Horn, Job Ten; Kuhn, S. - \ 2019
Ornithologia 43 (2019). - ISSN 0474-7313 - p. 110 - 111.
А dead male Short-tailed Shearwater was found on 25 June 2019 on the tundra 4 km away from the coast of the Knipovich Bay, northern Taimyr Peninsula (76°05′18″ N, 98°26′29″ E). It is the first record of this species
in the western sector of the Russian Arctic.
Changes in the waterbird community of the Parc National du Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania, 1980–2017
Oudman, Thomas ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Kidee, Amadou ; Roomen, Marc Van; Camara, Mohamed ; Smit, Cor ; Horn, Job Ten; Piersma, Theunis ; El-Hacen, El-Hacen Mohamed - \ 2019
Bird Conservation International (2019). - ISSN 0959-2709 - p. 1 - 16.
banc-darguin - bird census - global change - east atlantic flyways - NMDS - population decline - shorebirds - waterbird community
The Parc National du Banc d’Arguin in Mauritania hosts the largest concentrations of coastal waterbirds along the East Atlantic Flyway. In spite of this importance, a review of the changes in the numbers of waterbirds in the area is lacking since the first complete count in 1980. Here we analysed the seven complete waterbird counts made since then, and the additional yearly counts made in one subunit (Iwik region) since 2003.We present evidence for changes in the community composition of waterbirds over the past four decades. Total waterbird numbers showed a decrease between 1980 and 2017, with only Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus showing a significant
increase in numbers. Five species showed significant declines: Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus, Red Knot Calidris canutus, Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, and Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. In the remaining species, the variation in numbers between counts was too large, and the number of complete counts too small, for trends to be detected. The yearly counts at Iwik region also showed sharp decreases in the numbers of Red Knot, Bar-tailed Godwit, and Marsh Harrier, but not of Long-tailed Cormorant and Eurasian Curlew. A multivariate analysis revealed a significant effect of year on species composition, which was caused mainly by changes in the species depending on the intertidal mudflats for feeding (generally in decline) vs. the species depending on fish and crustaceans in the sublittoral and offshore zones (often showing increases).
Will incense snuff it?
Bongers, F. - \ 2019
The production of resin from Boswellia trees, a.k.a. frankincense, is under threat. The frankincense trees in the Horn of Africa are rapidly dying out. Rescuing them is simple in theory but less so in practice.
The Jewel Wasp Standard Brain: Average shape atlas and morphology of the female Nasonia vitripennis brain
Groothuis, J. ; Pfeiffer, K. ; Jundi, B. el; Smid, Hans M. - \ 2019
Arthropod Structure & Development 51 (2019). - ISSN 1467-8039 - p. 41 - 51.
Confocal laser scanning microscopy - Iterative shape averaging - Nasonia vitripennis - Parasitic wasp - Standard brain
Nasonia, a genus of parasitoid wasps, is a promising model system in the study of developmental and evolutionary genetics, as well as complex traits such as learning. Of these “jewel wasps”, the species Nasonia vitripennis is widely spread and widely studied. To accelerate neuroscientific research in this model species, fundamental knowledge of its nervous system is needed. To this end, we present an average standard brain of recently eclosed naïve female N. vitripennis wasps obtained by the iterative shape averaging method. This “Jewel Wasp Standard Brain” includes the optic lobe (excluding the lamina), the anterior optic tubercle, the antennal lobe, the lateral horn, the mushroom body, the central complex, and the remaining unclassified neuropils in the central brain. Furthermore, we briefly describe these well-defined neuropils and their subregions in the N. vitripennis brain. A volumetric analysis of these neuropils is discussed in the context of brains of other insect species. The Jewel Wasp Standard Brain will provide a framework to integrate and consolidate the results of future neurobiological studies in N. vitripennis. In addition, the volumetric analysis provides a baseline for future work on age- and experience-dependent brain plasticity.
Semiochemical tools for a new generation of livestock pest control
Brugman, Victor A. ; Smallegange, Renate C. ; Logan, James G. - \ 2018
In: Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry / Garros, C., Bouyer, J., Takken, W., Smallegage, R.C., Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases ) - ISBN 9789086863150 - p. 389 - 434.
Arthropod - Attractants - Behaviour - Ectoparasite - Haematophagous - Livestock - Repellents - Surveillance
Arthropod-borne diseases and ectoparasite infestation of livestock remain a serious veterinary and economic problem worldwide. Furthermore, nuisance biting by haematophagous arthropods can result in a significant disruption to livestock behaviour and production. Existing tools for managing pest arthropods have so far not been successful in providing elimination or effective control of many pest arthropod species. The rapid emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and the on-going burden of those currently circulating mean that the need to develop new tools and interventions for pest management is urgent. A vast array of host-derived, arthropod-derived and environmental semiochemicals regulate the behaviour of pest arthropods and, therefore, many of these present promising targets for control interventions. This chapter details the principles of semiochemical-based approaches to arthropod surveillance and control and the major arthropod behavioural targets (host-seeking, sugar-feeding and oviposition/larviposition behaviour) that need to be understood to enable successful interventions to take place. The chapter then reviews current progress towards semiochemical-based approaches for the surveillance and control of major arthropod pests: tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae), black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), horn flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae), and ticks (Ixodida: Ixodoidea).
Country profile Senegal
Baltissen, G. ; Brouwer, J.H. ; Peters, Bram ; Plataroti, Lavinia - \ 2018
Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation - 9 p.
Country profile: This country profile is part of a series of 12 countries in the Sahel, Horn of A frica, and MENA regions, covering per country the themes of Food & Nutrition Security, Water, Climate and Renewable Energy. Commissioned by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Department of Inclusive Green Growth, IGG), and implemented by Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI), as part of the Support Facility of Food & Nutrition Security.
Comparison of dimensionality assessment methods in Principal Component Analysis based on permutation tests
Vitale, Raffaele ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2018
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 181 (2018). - ISSN 0169-7439 - p. 79 - 94.
Deflation - Eigenanalysis - Monte Carlo simulations - Parallel Analysis (PA) - Rank approximation
We compare the performance of several data permutation methods for assessing dimensionality in Principal Component Analysis. We consider the classical Horn's Parallel Analysis, Dray's approach based on the similarity between the data matrix under study and its lower rank approximation and Vitale et al.’s method based on sequential deflation and rank reduction. Their potential is assessed on a large array of simulated data sets accounting for different data correlation structures, data distributions and homo- and heteroscedastic noise, and on 15 experimental data sets from different disciplines, such as metabolomics, proteomics, chemometrics and sensory analysis. In both the simulated and real life case-studies we report differential behaviours of the concerned techniques for which we propose theoretical explanations. The paper also discusses their limits of applicability and some guidelines are offered to practitioners.
Development and analysis of the Soil Water Infiltration Global database
Rahmati, Mehdi ; Weihermüller, Lutz ; Vanderborght, Jan ; Pachepsky, Yakov A. ; Mao, Lili ; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza ; Moosavi, Niloofar ; Kheirfam, Hossein ; Montzka, Carsten ; Looy, Kris Van; Toth, Brigitta ; Hazbavi, Zeinab ; Yamani, Wafa Al; Albalasmeh, Ammar A. ; Alghzawi, M.Z. ; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael ; Antonino, Antônio Celso Dantas ; Arampatzis, George ; Armindo, Robson André ; Asadi, Hossein ; Bamutaze, Yazidhi ; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi ; Béchet, Béatrice ; Becker, Fabian ; Blöschl, Günter ; Bohne, Klaus ; Braud, Isabelle ; Castellano, Clara ; Cerdà, Artemi ; Chalhoub, Maha ; Cichota, Rogerio ; Císlerová, Milena ; Clothier, Brent ; Coquet, Yves ; Cornelis, Wim ; Corradini, Corrado ; Coutinho, Artur Paiva ; Oliveira, Muriel Bastista De; Macedo, José Ronaldo De; Durães, Matheus Fonseca ; Emami, Hojat ; Eskandari, Iraj ; Farajnia, Asghar ; Flammini, Alessia ; Fodor, Nándor ; Gharaibeh, Mamoun ; Ghavimipanah, Mohamad Hossein ; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A. ; Giertz, Simone ; Hatzigiannakis, Evangelos G. ; Horn, Rainer ; Jiménez, Juan José ; Jacques, Diederik ; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah ; Kelishadi, Hamid ; Kiani-Harchegani, Mahboobeh ; Kouselou, Mehdi ; Jha, Madan Kumar ; Lassabatere, Laurent ; Li, Xiaoyan ; Liebig, Mark A. ; Lichner, Lubomír ; López, María Victoria ; Machiwal, Deepesh ; Mallants, Dirk ; Mallmann, Micael Stolben ; Oliveira Marques, Jean Dalmo De; Marshall, Miles R. ; Mertens, Jan ; Meunier, Félicien ; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein ; Mohanty, Binayak P. ; Pulido-Moncada, Mansonia ; Montenegro, Suzana ; Morbidelli, Renato ; Moret-Fernández, David ; Moosavi, Ali Akbar ; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza ; Mousavi, Seyed Bahman ; Mozaffari, Hasan ; Nabiollahi, Kamal ; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza ; Ottoni, Marta Vasconcelos ; Ottoni Filho, Theophilo Benedicto ; Pahlavan-Rad, Mohammad Reza ; Panagopoulos, Andreas ; Peth, Stephan ; Peyneau, Pierre Emmanuel ; Picciafuoco, Tommaso ; Poesen, Jean ; Pulido, Manuel ; Reinert, Dalvan José ; Reinsch, Sabine ; Rezaei, Meisam ; Roberts, Francis Parry ; Robinson, David ; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesüs ; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa ; Saito, Tadaomi ; Suganuma, Hideki ; Saltalippi, Carla ; Sándor, Renáta ; Schütt, Brigitta ; Seeger, Manuel ; Sepehrnia, Nasrollah ; Sharifi Moghaddam, Ehsan ; Shukla, Manoj ; Shutaro, Shiraki ; Sorando, Ricardo ; Stanley, Ajayi Asishana ; Strauss, Peter ; Su, Zhongbo ; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah ; Taguas, Encarnación ; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes ; Vaezi, Ali Reza ; Vafakhah, Mehdi ; Vogel, Tomas ; Vogeler, Iris ; Votrubova, Jana ; Werner, Steffen ; Winarski, Thierry ; Yilmaz, Deniz ; Young, Michael H. ; Zacharias, Steffen ; Zeng, Yijian ; Zhao, Ying ; Zhao, Hong ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 1237 - 1263.
In this paper, we present and analyze a novel global database of soil infiltration measurements, the Soil Water Infiltration Global (SWIG) database. In total, 5023 infiltration curves were collected across all continents in the SWIG database. These data were either provided and quality checked by the scientists who performed the experiments or they were digitized from published articles. Data from 54 different countries were included in the database with major contributions from Iran, China, and the USA. In addition to its extensive geographical coverage, the collected infiltration curves cover research from 1976 to late 2017. Basic information on measurement location and method, soil properties, and land use was gathered along with the infiltration data, making the database valuable for the development of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating soil hydraulic properties, for the evaluation of infiltration measurement methods, and for developing and validating infiltration models. Soil textural information (clay, silt, and sand content) is available for 3842 out of 5023 infiltration measurements (∼76%) covering nearly all soil USDA textural classes except for the sandy clay and silt classes. Information on land use is available for 76ĝ€% of the experimental sites with agricultural land use as the dominant type (∼40%). We are convinced that the SWIG database will allow for a better parameterization of the infiltration process in land surface models and for testing infiltration models. All collected data and related soil characteristics are provided online in ∗.xlsx and ∗.csv formats for reference, and we add a disclaimer that the database is for public domain use only and can be copied freely by referencing it. Supplementary data are available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.885492 (Rahmati et al., 2018). Data quality assessment is strongly advised prior to any use of this database. Finally, we would like to encourage scientists to extend and update the SWIG database by uploading new data to it.
Effects of mechanical loads on the deformation and health status of claws in dairy cows
Ouweltjes, Wijbrand - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.L. van Leeuwen, co-promotor(en): S.W.S. Gussekloo; C.W. Spoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438711 - 158
Locomotion problems are identified as major welfare problem for dairy cattle. The majority of locomotion problems is caused by claw disorders, either infectious or non-infectious. Although severe claw disorders usually are manifested by lameness, clinical lameness can be regarded as the top of the iceberg of claw and locomotion problems. The so-called subclinical claw disorders do influence behaviour of the affected cows, but the changes are subtle and therefore difficult to observe. Improvement of claw health seems feasible in practice, but in general, improvement has not been realised in the last 25 years. In this thesis, only non- infectious claw disorders are considered. In general, this category of claw disorders is assumed to be caused by similar mechanism. Housing and management have a large influence on claw health, and particularly flooring in the walking areas and provisions for lying are elements of housing that are related with claw health. The main objective of this thesis is to improve understanding of the aetiology of non-infectious claw lesions, and in particular the effects of mechanical load on claw tissues.
For this study, two experiments were carried out at Waiboerhoeve research farm, Lelystad, the Netherlands. In the first experiment, effects of an alternative trimming technique were determined for mid-lactation cows kept in barns with either concrete or rubber topped slatted alley flooring. In the second experiment, effects of nocturnal restrictions in access to the cubicles with supposed maleficent effects on claw tissues were determined for heifers in the first three months of their first lactation. These experiments aimed to provide knowledge regarding the impact of claw shape, hard vs. soft flooring and restrictions of lying conditions on claw health and behaviour. To better understand the effects of lying and standing and of claw shape on claw health., a methodology was developed and applied to accurately measure load induced spatial deformation of lower hind limbs of cattle. The results enabled us to estimate the load induced compressive strain in the soft tissues between the sole horn layer and the distal phalanges, and to compare the strain distribution with the location of sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers.
From the experiments, it can be concluded that concave hoof trimming is not beneficial for dairy cows kept on concrete flooring, although sole concavity can help to prevent overloading in the bulb area. Rubber flooring reduces the prevalence and seriousness of haemorrhages and results in reduced growth and wear of the horn shoe. Reduced access to the cubicles does not necessarily impair claw health, but it is likely that long standing, particularly on hard flooring, is detrimental for claw health because of compressive strain that occurs in the soft tissues between the distal phalanges and the sole horn during standing. There is a similarity between the location of high mechanical strain and the location of sole horn lesions.
The role of nitrifier denitrification in the production of nitrous oxide revisited
Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole ; Horn, Marcus A. ; Well, Reinhard ; Müller, Christoph ; Velthof, Gerard ; Oenema, Oene - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 123 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. A3 - A16.
Denitritation - Isotopomers - Modelling - Molecular methods - NO - Nitrite - Stable isotopes
Nitrifier denitrification is the reduction of nitrite (NO2 −) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. This process may account for up to 100% of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from ammonium (NH4 +) in soils and is more significant than classical denitrification under some conditions. Investigations of nitrifier denitrification have expanded in the last decade but many aspects are still not understood. In this review, we revisit our 2001 paper, present a comprehensive summary of current knowledge concerning nitrifier denitrification, and identify the many research needs. Nitrifier denitrification can be distinguished from other routes of N2O production using isotopic methods: either isotopomer techniques or a combination of 15N and 18O tracers. Our understanding of the regulation and conditions favouring nitrifier denitrification has improved over the last decade as a result of adopting molecular and modelling approaches. Environments low in oxygen, and especially those with fluctuating aerobic-anaerobic conditions, promote N2O production by nitrifier denitrification. Also, large NO2 − concentrations, which often arise following inputs of ammonium or urea, may be linked to changes in aerobicity and high pH and favour nitrifier denitrification. The effects of temperature and carbon contents on nitrifier denitrification are incompletely understood and future research needs include: the study of pathways similar to nitrifier denitrification in archaea and nitrite oxidizers; the effects of interactions among microorganisms and between microorganism and plants; and the regulation and importance of the enzymes involved. A comparison and evaluation of the methods used for differentiating the sources of N2O is urgently needed. Furthermore, results from studies of freshwater and marine environments as well as wastewater treatment, where nitrifier denitrification is also known as nitrous aerobic denitritation (up to N2O) or aerobic denitritation (up to N2), will further advance our understanding.
Performance of human observers and an automatic 3-dimensional computer-vision-based locomotion scoring method to detect lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows
Schlageter-Tello, Andrés ; Hertem, Tom Van; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Viazzi, Stefano ; Bahr, Claudia ; Lokhorst, Kees - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6322 - 6335.
automatic detection - cattle - hoof lesion - lameness - locomotion score
The objective of this study was to determine if a 3-dimensional computer vision automatic locomotion scoring (3D-ALS) method was able to outperform human observers for classifying cows as lame or nonlame and for detecting cows affected and nonaffected by specific type(s) of hoof lesion. Data collection was carried out in 2 experimental sessions (5 mo apart). In every session all cows were assessed for (1) locomotion by 2 observers (Obs1 and Obs2) and by a 3D-ALS; and (2) identification of different types of hoof lesions during hoof trimming (i.e., skin and horn lesions and combinations of skin/horn lesions and skin/hyperplasia). Performances of observers and 3D-ALS for classifying cows as lame or nonlame and for detecting cows affected or nonaffected by types of lesion were estimated using the percentage of agreement (PA), kappa coefficient (κ), sensitivity (SEN), and specificity (SPE). Observers and 3D-ALS showed similar SENlame values for classifying lame cows as lame (SENlame comparison Obs1-Obs2 = 74.2%; comparison observers-3D-ALS = 73.9–71.8%). Specificity values for classifying nonlame cows as nonlame were lower for 3D-ALS when compared with observers (SPEnonlame comparison Obs1-Obs2 = 88.5%; comparison observers-3D-ALS = 65.3–67.8%). Accordingly, overall performance of 3D-ALS for classifying cows as lame and nonlame was lower than observers (Obs1-Obs2 comparison PAlame/nonlame = 84.2% and κlame/nonlame = 0.63; observers-3D-ALS comparisons PAlame/nonlame = 67.7–69.2% and κlame/nonlame = 0.33–0.36). Similarly, observers and 3D-ALS had comparable and moderate SENlesion values for detecting horn (SENlesion Obs1 = 68.6%; Obs2 = 71.4%; 3D-ALS = 75.0%) and combinations of skin/horn lesions (SENlesion Obs1 = 51.1%; Obs2 = 64.5%; 3D-ALS = 53.3%). The SPEnonlesion values for detecting cows without lesions when classified as nonlame were lower for 3D-ALS than for observers (SPEnonlesion Obs1 = 83.9%; Obs2 = 80.2%; 3D-ALS = 60.2%). This was translated into a poor overall performance of 3D-ALS for detecting cows affected and nonaffected by horn lesions (PAlesion/nonlesion Obs1 = 80.6%; Obs2 = 78.3%; 3D-ALS = 63.5% and κlesion/nonlesion Obs1 = 0.48; Obs2 = 0.44; 3D-ALS = 0.25) and skin/horn lesions (PAlesion/nonlesion Obs1 = 75.1%; Obs2 = 75.9%; 3D-ALS = 58.6% and κlesion/nonlesion Obs1 = 0.35; Obs2 = 0.42; 3D-ALS = 0.10), when compared with observers. Performance of observers and 3D-ALS for detecting skin lesions was poor (SENlesion for Obs1, Obs2, and 3D-ALS <40%). Comparable SENlame and SENlesion values for observers and 3D-ALS are explained by an overestimation of lameness by 3D-ALS when compared with observers. Thus, comparable SENlame and SENlesion were reached at the expense high number of false positives and low SPEnonlame and SPEnonlesion. Considering that observers and 3D-ALS showed similar performance for classifying cows as lame and for detecting horn and combinations of skin/horn lesions, the 3D-ALS could be a useful tool for supporting dairy farmers in their hoof health management.
Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows : Impact on zinc status biomarkers and performance
Riet, Miriam M.J. Van; Bos, Emilie Julie ; Ampe, Bart ; Bikker, Paul ; Vanhauteghem, Donna ; Bockstaele, Filip Van; Cornillie, Pieter ; Broeck, Wim Van Den; Laing, Gijs Du; Maes, Dominiek ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. ; Millet, Sam - \ 2018
Journal of Swine Health and Production 26 (2018)2. - ISSN 1537-209X - p. 79 - 94.
Dietary zinc concentration - Performance - Rubber top layer flooring - Swine - Zinc status biomarkers
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on performance and Zn status biomarkers in sows and on whether this possible impact depends on housing conditions. Materials and methods: Six groups of sows were allotted to group housing on two different floor types during gestation. Within each group, sows were randomly allocated to one of three diets varying in the amount of Zn supplemented (0, 50, or 100 mg added Zn per kg diet; 50% ZnO: 50% organic Zn) to a basal diet containing 46.6 and 128.9 mg Zn per kg during gestation and lactation, respectively. Blood was collected at days 0, 50, 108, and 143 of every cycle and analyzed for plasma Zn and copper and serum metallothionein (MT) concentrations. After slaughter, mineral concentrations of metacarpals, liver, and abaxial horn wall were determined. Results: Dietary Zn supplementation beyond basal dietary Zn concentrations did not influence serum MT concentrations (P = .77) and Zn concentrations in blood plasma (P = .13), liver (P = .54), bone (P = .26), and horn wall (P = .39). The 100-mg Zn per kg supplemented sows had lower bodyweight, body condition score, and backfat thickness (P < .001). The lack of impact of Zn supplementation may have been (partly) attributed to the unexpected high supply of Zn through premix in the lactation diet. Implications: Under these study conditions, commercially grown sows might not need Zn supplementation during gestation when their basal diet contains Zn with phytase.
Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows : Impact on claw quality
Riet, Miriam M.J. Van; Bos, Emilie Julie ; Ampe, Bart ; Bikker, Paul ; Vanhauteghem, Donna ; Bockstaele, Filip Van; Cornillie, Pieter ; Broeck, Wim Van Den; Laing, Gijs Du; Maes, Dominiek ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. ; Millet, Sam - \ 2018
Journal of Swine Health and Production 26 (2018)1. - ISSN 1537-209X - p. 10 - 24.
Claw conformation - Claw lesion - Dietary zinc concentration - Rubber top layer - Swine
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on claw lesions, claw conformation, and histological and mechanical claw characteristics of sows housed in groups on rubber top layer or concrete floors during gestation. Materials and methods: Six groups of 21 ± 4 sows were allotted to group housing on different floor types for 80 days during gestation. Within each group, sows were randomly allocated to one of three diets supplementing a basal diet (46.6 and 128.9 mg Zn per kg during gestation and lactation, respectively) with 0, 50, or 100 mg Zn per kg. Claw lesion scoring, claw conformation, and horn growth and wear measurements were performed at days 50 and 140 of every cycle. Histological and mechanical characteristics were evaluated on claw samples of 36 sows after slaughter. Results: Dietary Zn supplementation affected heel horn erosion score (P = .01): sows supplemented with100 mg Zn per kg diet had better scores. Distances between dermal papillae of the sagittal heel horn were larger (P = .004). Heel height was lower for sows supplemented with 0 and 100 mg Zn per kg than for 50 mg per kg (P = .01). Horn growth and wear were lower for sows housed on rubber at day 50 (P < .001, both variables), but not at day 140. Dermal papillae distance was shorter for sows on rubber (P = .04). Implications: Unlike floor type and phase within the reproductive cycle, and under the conditions of this study, dietary zinc supplementation minimally influences claw quality.
Rosewood occidentalism and orientalism in Madagascar
Zhu, Annah - \ 2017
Geoforum 86 (2017). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 1 - 12.
Assemblage - Conservation - Deforestation - Globalization - Madagascar - Rosewood
As both a lucrative timber commodity and endangered species, rosewood ties the forests of Madagascar to the far ends of the globe. While the United States and Europe fund rosewood conservation, logging exports to China fuel a growing demand for classical furniture dating back to the Ming Dynasty. Conflicting demands for rosewood are often portrayed in terms of an East-West tension. Indeed, accounts of many global conservation resources, including ivory, rhino horn, tiger parts, and shark fin, fit this portrayal. In breaking with these accounts, I analyze global demands for rosewood in terms of two overlapping conservation and commodity assemblages. Both global assemblages have reterritorialized the forest of northeastern Madagascar. Via NGO offices in the United States, the conservation assemblage delineates vast tracts of forest for protection and identifies the communities that are to be its managers. Via rosewood importers in China, the commodity assemblage drives thousands of loggers into these protected forests in search of rosewood. Yet, rather than representing irreconcilable vantages, these global assemblages demonstrate a fundamental congruence. Both conservation and commodity assemblages blur global rationalities with situated cultural elements, creating the illusion of either a universal science uncorrupted by culture, or a cultural eminence uncorrupted by capitalism. Analyzing rosewood in terms of assemblage reveals not the stark contrast of an increasingly bifurcating global order, but rather an emergent space of global connectivity that complicates binary understandings of East and West, while simultaneously speaking to the reality of these geopolitical imaginaries.
Multi-century tree-ring precipitation record reveals increasing frequency of extreme dry events in the upper Blue Nile River catchment
Mokria, Mulugeta ; Gebrekirstos, Aster ; Abiyu, Abrham ; Noordwijk, Meine Van; Bräuning, Achim - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 5436 - 5454.
Climate variability - Dendroclimatology - East Africa - El Niño-Southern Oscillation - Extreme events - Famine and flooding - Indian ocean dipole - Little Ice Age
Climate-related environmental and humanitarian crisis are important challenges in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). In the absence of long-term past climate records in the region, tree-rings are valuable climate proxies, reflecting past climate variations and complementing climate records prior to the instrumental era. We established annually resolved multi-century tree-ring chronology from Juniperus procera trees in northern Ethiopia, the longest series yet for the GHA. The chronology correlates significantly with wet-season (r = .64, p < .01) and annual (r = .68, p < .01) regional rainfall. Reconstructed rainfall since A.D. 1811 revealed significant interannual variations between 2.2 and 3.8 year periodicity, with significant decadal and multidecadal variations during 1855-1900 and 1960-1990. The duration of negative and positive rainfall anomalies varied between 1-7 years and 1-8 years. Approximately 78.4% (95%) of reconstructed dry (extreme dry) and 85.4% (95%) of wet (extreme wet) events lasted for 1 year only and corresponded to historical records of famine and flooding, suggesting that future climate change studies should be both trend and extreme event focused. The average return periods for dry (extreme dry) and wet (extreme wet) events were 4.1 (8.8) years and 4.1 (9.5) years. Extreme-dry conditions during the 19th century were concurrent with drought episodes in equatorial eastern Africa that occurred at the end of the Little Ice Age. El Niño and La Niña events matched with 38.5% and 50% of extreme-dry and extreme-wet events. Equivalent matches for positive and negative Indian Ocean Dipole events were weaker, reaching 23.1 and 25%, respectively. Spatial correlations revealed that reconstructed rainfall represents wet-season rainfall variations over northern Ethiopia and large parts of the Sahel belt. The data presented are useful for backcasting climate and hydrological models and for developing regional strategic plans to manage scarce and contested water resources. Historical perspectives on long-term regional rainfall variability improve the interpretation of recent climate trends.
Land use change impacts on floods at the catchment scale : Challenges and opportunities for future research
Rogger, M. ; Agnoletti, M. ; Alaoui, A. ; Bathurst, J.C. ; Bodner, G. ; Borga, M. ; Chaplot, Vincent ; Gallart, F. ; Glatzel, G. ; Hall, J. ; Holden, J. ; Holko, L. ; Horn, R. ; Kiss, A. ; Kohnová, S. ; Leitinger, G. ; Lennartz, B. ; Parajka, J. ; Perdigão, R. ; Peth, S. ; Plavcová, L. ; Quinton, John N. ; Robinson, Matthew R. ; Salinas, J.L. ; Santoro, A. ; Szolgay, J. ; Tron, S. ; Akker, J.J.H. van den; Viglione, A. ; Blöschl, G. - \ 2017
Water Resources Research 53 (2017)7. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 5209 - 5219.
Catchment scale - Floods - Land use change
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology.