Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Agronomic evaluation of biochar, compost and biochar-blended compost across different cropping systems: Perspective from the European project FERTIPLUS
    Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A. ; Cayuela, María L. ; Sánchez-García, María ; Vandecasteele, Bart ; D’Hose, Tommy ; López, Guadalupe ; Martínez-Gaitán, Carolina ; Kuikman, Peter J. ; Sinicco, Tania ; Mondini, Claudio - \ 2019
    Agronomy 9 (2019)5. - ISSN 2073-4395
    Composting - Crop yield - Fertilization - Nutrient recycling - Organic waste management - Pyrolysis - Soil fertility - Soil organic matter

    This paper reports the results on the agronomic performance of organic amendments in the EU 7th FP project “FERTIPLUS—reducing mineral fertilizers and agro-chemicals by recycling treated organic waste as compost and bio-char”. Four case studies on field-scale application of biochar, compost and biochar-blended compost were established and studied for three consecutive years in four distinct cropping systems and under different agro-climatic conditions in Europe. These included the following sites: olive groves in Murcia (Spain), greenhouse grown tomatoes in Almeria (Spain), an arable crop rotation in Oost-Vlaanderen (Merelbeke, Belgium), and three vineyards in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy). A slow pyrolysis oak biochar was applied, either alone or in combination with organic residues: compost from olive wastes in Murcia (Spain), sheep manure in Almeria (Spain), and compost from biowaste and green waste in Belgium and Italy. The agronomical benefits were evaluated based on different aspects of soil fertility (soil total organic carbon (TOC), pH, nutrient cycling and microbial activity) and crop nutritional status and productivity. All amendments were effective in increasing soil organic C in all the field trials. On average, the increase with respect to the control was about 11% for compost, 20% for biochar-blended compost, and 36% for biochar. The amendments also raised the pH by 0.15–0.50 units in acidic soils. Only biochar had a negligible fertilization effect. On the contrary, compost and biochar-blended compost were effective in enhancing soil fertility by increasing nutrient cycling (25% mean increase in extractable organic C and 44% increase in extractable N), element availability (26% increase in available K), and soil microbial activity (26% increase in soil respiration and 2–4 fold enhancement of denitrifying activity). In general, the tested amendments did not show any negative effect on crop yield and quality. Furthermore, in vineyards and greenhouse grown tomatoes cropping systems, compost and biochar-blended compost were also effective in enhancing key crop quality parameters (9% increase in grape must acidity and 16% increase in weight, 9% increase in diameter and 8% increase in hardness of tomato fruits) important for the quality and marketability of the crops. The overall results of the project suggest that the application of a mixture of biochar and compost can benefit crops. Therefore, biochar-blended compost can support and maintain soil fertility.

    European long-term field experiments : knowledge gained about alternative management practices
    Sandén, T. ; Spiegel, H. ; Stüger, H.P. ; Schlatter, N. ; Haslmayr, H.P. ; Zavattaro, L. ; Grignani, C. ; Bechini, L. ; D′Hose, T. ; Molendijk, L. ; Pecio, A. ; Jarosz, Z. ; Guzmán, G. ; Vanderlinden, K. ; Giráldez, J.V. ; Mallast, J. ; Berge, H. ten - \ 2018
    Soil Use and Management 34 (2018)2. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 167 - 176.
    alternative management practices - Europe - Long-term experiment - productivity - soil quality

    Alternative management practices such as no-tillage compared to conventional tillage are expected to recover or increase soil quality and productivity, even though all of these aspects are rarely studied together. Long-term field experiments (LTEs) enable analysis of alternative management practices over time. This study investigated a total of 251 European LTEs in which alternative management practices such as crop rotation, catch crops, cover crops/green manure, no-tillage, non-inversion tillage and organic fertilization were applied. Response ratios of indicators for soil quality, climate change and productivity between alternative and reference management practices were derived from a total of 260 publications. Both positive and negative effects of alternative management practices on the different indicators were shown and, as expected, no alternative management practice could comply with all objectives simultaneously. Productivity was hampered by non-inversion tillage, FYM amendments and incorporation of crop residues. SOC contents were increased significantly following organic fertilizers and non-inversion tillage. GHG emissions were increased by slurry application and incorporation of crop residues. Our study showed that alternative management practices beneficial to one group of indicators (e.g. organic fertilizers for biological soil quality indicators) are not necessarily beneficial to other indicators (e.g. increase of crop yields). We conclude that LTEs are valuable for finding ways forward in protecting European soils as well as finding evidence-based alternative management practices for the future; however, experiments should focus more on biological soil quality indicators as well as GHG emissions to enable better evaluation of trade-offs and mutual benefits of management practices.

    Responses of soil biota to non-inversion tillage and organic amendments : An analysis on European multiyear field experiments
    Hose, Tommy D'; Molendijk, Leendert ; Vooren, Laura Van; Berg, Wim van den; Hoek, Hans ; Runia, Willemien ; Evert, Frits van; Berge, Hein ten; Spiegel, Heide ; Sandèn, Taru ; Grignani, Carlo ; Ruysschaert, Greet - \ 2018
    Pedobiologia 66 (2018). - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 18 - 28.
    Earthworms - Microbial biomass - Multiyear field experiments - Nematodes - Non-inversion tillage - Organic amendments
    Over the last two decades, there has been growing interest on the effects of agricultural practices on soil biology in Europe. As soil biota are known to fluctuate throughout the season and as agro-environmental conditions may influence the effect of agricultural practices on soil organisms, conclusions cannot be drawn from a single study. Therefore, integrating the results of many studies in order to identify general trends is required. The main objective of this study was to investigate how soil biota are affected by repeated applications of organic amendments (i.e. compost, farmyard manure and slurry) or reduced tillage (i.e. non-inversion tillage and no till) under European conditions, as measured in multiyear field experiments. Moreover, we investigated to what extent the effects on soil biota are controlled by soil texture, sampling depth, climate and duration of agricultural practice. Experimental data on earthworm and nematode abundance, microbial biomass carbon and bacterial and fungal communities from more than 60 European multiyear field experiments, comprising different climatic zones and soil texture classes, were extracted from literature. From our survey, we can conclude that adopting no tillage or non-inversion tillage practices and increasing organic matter inputs by organic fertilization were accompanied by larger earthworm numbers (an increase between 56 and 125% and between 63 and 151% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively) and biomass (an increase between 108 and 416% and between 66 and 196% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively), a higher microbial biomass carbon content (an increase between 10 and 30% and between 25 and 31% for tillage and organic amendments, respectively), a marked increase in bacterivorous nematodes (an increase between 19 and 282% for organic amendment) and bacterial phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA; an increase between 31 and 38% for organic amendment). Results were rarely influenced by soil texture, climate and duration of practice.
    The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure : Description and illustrative analysis
    Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Burchill, William ; Bussink, Wim ; Chantigny, Martin ; Carozzi, Marco ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Hunt, Derek ; Kupper, Thomas ; Lanigan, Gary ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Meisinger, John J. ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Pedersen, Simon V. ; Sintermann, Jörg ; Thompson, Rodney B. ; Vermeulen, Bert ; Voylokov, Polina ; Williams, John R. ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2018
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 66 - 79.
    Ammonia - Cattle - Emission - Manure - Pig - Slurry
    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has been measured in many studies over the past few decades. In this work, we facilitate the use of these data by collecting and organizing them in the ALFAM2 database. In this paper we describe the development of the database and summarise its contents, quantify effects of application methods and other variables on emission using a data subset, and discuss challenges for data analysis and model development. The database contains measurements of emission, manure and soil properties, weather, application technique, and other variables for 1895 plots from 22 research institutes in 12 countries. Data on five manure types (cattle, pig, mink, poultry, mixed, as well as sludge and "other") applied to three types of crops (grass, small grains, maize, as well as stubble and bare soil) are included. Application methods represented in the database include broadcast, trailing hose, trailing shoe (narrow band application), and open slot injection. Cattle manure application to grassland was the most common combination, and analysis of this subset (with dry matter (DM) limited to <15%) was carried out using mixed- and fixed-effects models in order to quantify effects of management and environment on ammonia emission, and to highlight challenges for use of the database. Measured emission in this subset ranged from <1% to 130% of applied ammonia after 48 h. Results showed clear, albeit variable, reductions in NH3 emission due to trailing hose, trailing shoe, and open slot injection of slurry compared to broadcast application. There was evidence of positive effects of air temperature and wind speed on NH3 emission, and limited evidence of effects of slurry DM. However, random-effects coefficients for differences among research institutes were among the largest model coefficients, and showed a deviation from the mean response by more than 100% in some cases. The source of these institute differences could not be determined with certainty, but there is some evidence that they are related to differences in soils, or differences in application or measurement methods. The ALFAM2 database should be useful for development and evaluation of both emission factors and emission models, but users need to recognize the limitations caused by confounding variables, imbalance in the dataset, and dependence among observations from the same institute. Variation among measurements and in reported variables highlights the importance of international agreement on how NH3 emission should be measured, along with necessary types of supporting data and standard protocols for their measurement. Both are needed in order to produce more accurate and useful ammonia emission measurements. Expansion of the ALFAM2 database will continue, and readers are invited to contact the corresponding author for information on data submission. The latest version of the database is available at http://www.alfam.dk.
    Agronomic effects of bovine manure : A review of long-term European field experiments
    Zavattaro, Laura ; Bechini, Luca ; Grignani, Carlo ; Evert, Frits K. van; Mallast, Janine ; Spiegel, Heide ; Sandén, Taru ; Pecio, Alicja ; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente ; Guzmán, Gema ; Vanderlinden, Karl ; Hose, Tommy D'; Ruysschaert, Greet ; Berge, Hein F.M. ten - \ 2017
    European Journal of Agronomy 90 (2017). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 127 - 138.
    Efficiency - Farmyard manure - Nitrogen - Response ratio - Slurry - Soil organic carbon

    To evaluate the agronomic value of animal manure, we quantified the effects of pedo-climatic, crop and management factors on crop productivity, N use efficiency, and soil organic matter, described with simple indicators that compare manures with mineral fertilizers. We selected 80 European long-term field experiments that used bovine farmyard manure or bovine liquid slurry, alone (FYM and SLU) or combined with mineral fertilizers (FYMm and SLUm), and compared them to mineral fertilizer only reference treatments. We collected 5570 measurements from 107 papers. FYM produced slightly lower crop yields (−9.5%) when used alone and higher (+11.3%) yields when used in combination with N fertilizer (FYMm), compared to those obtained using mineral fertilizers only. Conditions promoting manure-N mineralization (lighter soil texture, warmer temperature, longer growing season, and shallower incorporation depth) significantly increased the effect of FYM/FYMm on crop yield and yield N. The production efficiency of FYM (yield:N applied ratio) was slightly lower than that of mineral fertilizers (-1.6%). The apparent N recoveries of FYM and FYMm were 59.3% and 78.7%, respectively, of mineral fertilizers. Manured soils had significantly higher C (+32.9% on average for FYM and FYMm) and N (+21.5%) concentrations. Compared to mineral fertilizers, yield was reduced by 9.1% with SLU, but not with SLUm. Influencing factors were similar to those of FYM/FYMm. Efficiency indicators indicated SLU (but not SLUm) was less effective than mineral fertilizers. Slurry significantly increased SOC (on average for SLU and SLUm by +17.4%) and soil N (+15.7%) concentrations. In conclusion, compared to mineral N fertilizers, bovine farmyard manure and slurry were slightly less effective on the crop, but determined marked increases to SOC and soil N, and thus, to long-term soil fertility maintenance.

    Vochtgedrag schermsystemen : een zoektocht naar de oorzaak van toenemende problemen met druipend condensvocht in kassen met dubbele schermen
    Weel, P.A. van; Vanthoor, B.H.E. - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1436) - 34
    kastechniek - kasgewassen - kassen - afschermingsmateriaal - condenseren - greenhouse technology - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - screens - condensation
    Het Nieuwe Telen (The New Growing) results in applying more screen layers that stay completely closed. In practise this causes problems with drip. In this research the impact of 2 screen layers and using screen gaps on the amount of drip from the screens or the greenhouse cover is investigated. Solutions to reduce the problems related to drip were proposed and tested in the greenhouse. During spring and winter 2016, measurements were performed at a tomato greenhouse with artificial lighting, blackout screen, energy screen and a Ventilationjet system. The daily amount of the condensation water that drips from the greenhouse ridge, gutter and the Ventilationjet was determined. In contrast to the general expectations, the drip does not come from the screens but from the greenhouse cover and from the Ventilationjets. Condensation occurred at the screens but this did not result in drip from these screens. Only 0.2% of the condensation against the greenhouse cover drips into the greenhouse. If this drip would be re evaporated, the energy costs for heating would increase with 0.0008 m3 gas /m2/week. Investments to reduce drip can thus only be paid back by a better crop quality and not by energy savings. The use of the inlet ventilator of the Ventilationjet system or the use of a screen gap increases the amount of condensation on a cold greenhouse cover. Drip from the greenhouse gutter was solved by applying a condensation gutter and the drip from the duct of the Ventilationjet was solved by applying a collecting tray with drain hose.
    Adapter les pratiques agricoles aux différentes conditions pédoclimatiques : un outil pour agriculteurs et conseillers
    Turpin, N. ; Perret, E. ; Berge, H.F.M. ten; Hose, T. D'; Evert, F.K. van - \ 2016
    Sciences Eaux & Territoires Hors-série (2016)30. - ISSN 2109-3016 - 7 p.
    Les pratiques agricoles qui réduisent la quantité de carbone dans le sol peuvent perturber son activité microbienne, modifier sa structure, et sa capacité à fournir eau et nutriments aux cultures. Elles peuvent aussi limiter la capacité des sols agricoles à lutter contre le changement climatique. Le projet de recherche européen Catch-C s’est interrogé sur la capacité des pratiques agricoles
    alternatives à limiter ou contrebalancer ces problèmes. À partir des premiers résultats de l'analyse des effets de différentes pratiques en Europe, cet article nous présente la conception d'un outil d'aide à la décision pour les acteurs du monde agricole qui résume les avantages et inconvénients de ces modèles alternatifs, propose des recommandations validées scientifiquement, pour tendre
    vers une gestion durable des sols agricoles, sur lesquelles de futures politiques pourront se reposer
    Consumption of unprocessed cow's milk protects infants from common respiratory infections
    Loss, G. ; Depner, M. ; Ulfman, L.H. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Hose, A.J. ; Genuneit, J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 135 (2015)1. - ISSN 0091-6749 - p. 56 - 62.
    1st year - atopic sensitization - childhood asthma - viral-infections - birth-cohort - life - children - inflammation - prevention - proteins
    Background: Breast-feeding is protective against respiratory infections in early life. Given the co-evolutionary adaptations of humans and cattle, bovine milk might exert similar anti-infective effects in human infants. Objective: To study effects of consumption of raw and processed cow's milk on common infections in infants. Methods: The PASTURE birth cohort followed 983 infants from rural areas in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland, for the first year of life, covering 37,306 person-weeks. Consumption of different types of cow's milk and occurrence of rhinitis, respiratory tract infections, otitis, and fever were assessed by weekly health diaries. C-reactive protein levels were assessed using blood samples taken at 12 months. Results: When contrasted with ultra-heat treated milk, raw milk consumption was inversely associated with occurrence of rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio from longitudinal models [95% CI]: 0.71 [0.54-0.94]), respiratory tract infections (0.77 [0.59-0.99]), otitis (0.14 [0.05-0.42]), and fever (0.69 [0.47-1.01]). Boiled farm milk showed similar but weaker associations. Industrially processed pasteurized milk was inversely associated with fever. Raw farm milk consumption was inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels at 12 months (geometric means ratio [95% CI]: 0.66 [0.45-0.98]). Conclusions: Early life consumption of raw cow's milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30%. If the health hazards of raw milk could be overcome, the public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs.
    Prevention and treatment of tail biting in weaned piglets
    Zonderland, J.J. ; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2008
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 110 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 269 - 281.
    growing pigs - environmental enrichment - fattening pigs - behavior - straw - age
    The aims of this study were to evaluate four preventive measures and two curative treatments of tail biting. The preventive measures were: chain, rubber hose, straw rack (5 g/pig/day) and the provision of straw on the floor twice daily by hand (2 × 10 g/pig/day). The two curative treatments, which were applied following the onset of tail biting in a pen were: straw twice daily (as in the fourth preventive measure) and the removal of the biter. In total, 960 undocked weaned piglets (10 piglets per pen) were observed during 5 weeks. Tail lesions (none, bite marks and wounds) were recorded daily. The incidence of pens with wounded pig tails was significantly lower when straw was provided twice daily (8% of pens) compared to the chain (58% of pens) and rubber hose (54% of pens) treatment, but did not differ significantly from the straw rack treatment (29% of pens). Tails with bite marks were significantly less common in pens with twice daily straw (16% of pens) compared to chain (88% of pens), rubber hose (79% of pens) and straw rack (75% of pens). No significant difference was found between the curative treatments. Both treatments showed a reduced incidence of red fresh blood on the tails at days 1¿9 following curative treatment, compared to day 0. However, neither curative treatment eliminated tail biting entirely. In conclusion, this study indicates that tail biting is best prevented with a small amount of straw, provided twice daily, and to a lesser extent with a straw rack, compared to providing a chain or a rubber hose. Once tail biting has occurred, providing a small amount of straw twice daily and removing the biter appears to be equally effective.
    Expert judgement on enrichment materials for pigs validates preliminary RICHPIG model
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Zonderland, J.J. ; Bleumer, E.J.B. - \ 2007
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 104 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 1 - 13.
    decision-support-system
    EC directive 2001/93/EC states that pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities. This directive requires further interpretation. In order to facilitate the further implementation of the directive into national, Dutch legislation a preliminary model was constructed to assess the value of different enrichment materials for pigs. Using an e-mail questionnaire expert opinion was elicited in order to 'validate' the preliminary model. In total nine senior pig welfare experts assessed 64 enrichment materials ordered according to the preliminary model. Kendall's coefficient of concordance of the experts was 0.87 (P <0.001). Materials that generated the lowest scores (on a scale from 0, low, to 10, high) included a mirror (attached to the wall), a concrete block, a rubber mat, straw at an absolute minimum, a mineral block, a heavy plastic ball, a chain, a rubber hose cross, a free toy (sow neck tether), a hanging car tire and a bucket (all median expert scores <1.5). Materials that generated the highest scores included whole straw with chopped beet roots, with maize silage or with additional feed, a bale of straw, long straw with fir branches and straw with forest bark and branches (all median expert scores > 8.0). The experts suggested a score of 5.0 as the minimum of what they considered acceptable enrichment. Materials with a median expert score of 5.0 included compost from a dispenser, straw pellets (loose or from a plastic dispenser) and straw in a metal basket. A high correlation was found between the preliminary model scores and the expert medians (0.97, P <0.05), and this finding was confirmed in a workshop at an international conference, suggesting that there may be considerable scope for modelling to support ethical and political decision-making in the area of environmental enrichment for pigs. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Confirming the species-sensitivity distribution concept for endosulfan using laboratory, mesocosm, and field data
    Hose, G.C. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2004
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 47 (2004)4. - ISSN 0090-4341 - p. 511 - 520.
    ecological risk-assessment - namoi river - toxicity - water - fish - pesticides - australia - sediment
    In Australia, water-quality trigger values for toxicants are derived using protective concentration values based on species-sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves. SSD curves are generally derived from laboratory data with an emphasis on using local or site-specific data. In this study, Australian and non-Australian laboratory-species based SSD curves were compared and the concept of species protection confirmed by comparison of laboratory-based SSD curves with local mesocosm experiments and field monitoring data. Acute LC50 data for the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan were used for these comparisons; SSD curves were fitted using the Burr type III distribution. SSD curves indicated that the sensitivities of Australian fish and arthropods were not significantly different from those of corresponding non-Australian taxa. Arthropod taxa in the mesocosm were less sensitive than taxa in laboratory tests, which suggests that laboratory-generated single-species data may be used to predict concentrations protective of semifield (mesocosm) systems. SSDs based on laboratory data were also protective of field populations.
    Costs of emission-reducing manure application
    Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Verwijs, B. ; Rodhe, L. ; Smith, K. - \ 2004
    Bioresource Technology 93 (2004)1.. - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 11 - 19.
    slurry
    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study the costs of application techniques designed to reduce ammonia losses were assessed and compared with the costs of conventional broadcast spreading across a range of farm characteristics. A model was developed to calculate the costs and time requirements of manure application. Data on factors affecting the costs were used from different countries in Europe. The calculations showed that for a range of farm characteristics with a manure production of 1000-3000 m(3) y(-1), the costs of manure application by trailing hose, trailing foot, shallow injector and arable land injector were approximate to 2 Euro m(-3) higher than for broadcast spreading. The cost difference between broadcast spreading and the other application techniques decreased with farm size. The average additional costs of manure application by a trailing foot or a shallow injector decreased by 15% on small extensive farms to more than 50% on intensive farms, when the fertiliser value of the nitrogen was taken into account. The field application itself took less than 50% of the operating time in the process of the manure handling and application. With an increasing application rate, the relative contribution of the time for field application decreased. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure
    Derikx, P.J.L. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Hoeksma, P. - \ 1997
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 45 (1997). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. p - 79.
    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from the hose or from the transport vehicle after loading. Most methods were unbiased. New sampling methods for slurry from the hose were substantially more reproducible than existing methods. For practical reasons, the mechanization of sampling is desirable, and to minimize the influence of human activity on sample quality, the automation of sampling is advisable.
    Merkenonderzoek motorbeveiligingsapparatuur = Series test of safety devices for engines of hose reel installations
    Werkhoven, C. - \ 1981
    Wageningen : I.M.A.G. (Publikatie / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen no. 151) - 34
    regulatie - sprinklers - besturen - technologie - procesbewaking - machines - regulation - sprinklers - steering - technology - process control - machines
    Merkenonderzoek haspelinstallaties = Series test of hose reel installations
    Anonymous, - \ 1978
    Wageningen : IMAG (Publikatie / Instituut voor Mechanisatie, Arbeid en Gebouwen no. 113) - 104
    componenten - irrigatie - beregening met sproeiers - sprinklers - components - irrigation - sprinkler irrigation - sprinklers
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