Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Ecological engineering with oysters for coastal resilience : Habitat suitability, bioenergetics, and ecosystem services
Chowdhury, Mohammed Shah Nawaz - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.C. Smaal; T. Ysebaert, co-promotor(en): S. Hossain. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433938 - 193
Oyster breakwater reefs promote adjacent mudflat stability and salt marsh growth in a monsoon dominated subtropical coast
Chowdhury, Mohammed Shah Nawaz ; Walles, Brenda ; Sharifuzzaman, Sm ; Shahadat Hossain, M. ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Oyster reefs have the potential as eco-engineers to improve coastal protection. A field experiment was undertaken to assess the benefit of oyster breakwater reefs to mitigate shoreline erosion in a monsoon-dominated subtropical system. Three breakwater reefs with recruited oysters were deployed on an eroding intertidal mudflat at Kutubdia Island, the southeast Bangladesh coast. Data were collected on wave dissipation by the reef structures, changes in shoreline profile, erosion-accretion patterns, and lateral saltmarsh movement and related growth. This was done over four seasons, including the rainy monsoon period. The observed wave heights in the study area ranged 0.1–0.5 m. The reefs were able to dissipate wave energy and act as breakwaters for tidal water levels between 0.5–1.0 m. Waves were totally blocked by the vertical relief of the reefs at water levels <0.5 m. On the lee side of the reefs, there was accretion of 29 cm clayey sediments with erosion reduction of 54% as compared to control sites. The changes caused by the deployed reefs also facilitated seaward expansion of the salt marsh. This study showed that breakwater oyster reefs can reduce erosion, trap suspended sediment, and support seaward saltmarsh expansion demonstrating the potential as a nature-based solution for protecting the subtropical coastlines.

A verified habitat suitability model for the intertidal rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata
Chowdhury, Mohammed Shah Nawaz ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
There is growing interest to restore oyster populations and develop oyster reefs for their role in ecosystem health and delivery of ecosystem services. Successful and sustainable oyster restoration efforts largely depend on the availability and selection of suitable sites that can support long-term growth and survival of oysters. Hence, in the present study a habitat suitability index (HSI) model was developed for the intertidal rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata), with special attention: (1) to the role of the monsoon in the suitability of oyster habitats, and (2) to identify potential suitable sites along the south-eastern Bangladesh coast. Seven habitat factors were used as input variables for the HSI model: (1) water temperature; (2) salinity; (3) dissolved oxygen; (4) particulate inorganic matter (PIM); (5) pH; (6) Chlorophyll-a; and (7) water flow velocity. Seven field surveys were conducted at 80 locations to collect geospatial environmental data, which were then used to determine HSI scores using habitat suitability functions. The model results showed that the areas suitable (HSI >0.50) for oyster settlement and growth were characterized by relatively high salinities, Chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen and pH values. In contrast, freshwater dominated estuaries and nearby coastal areas with high suspended sediment were found less suitable (HSI <0.50) for oysters. HSI model results were validated with observed oyster distribution data. There was strong correlation between the HSI calculated by the model and observed oyster densities (r = 0.87; n = 53), shell height (r = 0.95; n = 53) and their condition index (r = 0.98; n = 53). The good correspondence with field data enhances the applicability of the HSI model as a quantitative tool for evaluating the quality of a site for oyster restoration and culture.
Growth potential of rock oyster (Sacosstrea cucullata) exposed to dynamic environmental conditions simulated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model
Chowdhury, Mohammed Shah Nawaz ; Wijsman, Johannes W.M. ; Shahadat Hossain, M. ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 147 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 19 - 27.
DEB model - Food - Monsoon - Saccostrea cucullata - Spatial and temporal variation
A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model for the intertidal rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) is presented and applied for three different sites (Sonadia, Kutubdia and Inani) located in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh, covering a distinct environmental gradient. At the three sites, field observations of oyster growth, temperature, total particulate matter (TPM) and food availability (Chlorophyll-a and Particulate Organic Matter-POM) were carried out during a period from September 2014 to August 2017. DEB model simulations produced temporal, as well as spatial variation in oyster growth as a function of the prevailing environmental conditions. Growth rates of oysters were highest (shell increment: 3 cm yr) at Sonadia Island due to the high food concentrations. Growth rates were relatively low (shell increment: 1.94 cm yr−1) at Kutubdia and none of oysters survived in Inani during the monsoon period. At this site TPM concentrations were quite high (889 ± 101 mg l−1), but Chlorophyll-a was quite low (1.86 ± 0.16 μg l −1) during monsoon period. Temporal variation is largely monsoon driven. The period between November to May was the main growing season for oysters along the Bangladesh coast. In contrast, growth slowed down significantly during the monsoon months (June–September). DEB model simulations for S. cucullata showed good fit (Goodness of fit score > 8.54 out of 10 and low mean relative error, MRE <0.18) with observed growth data for all three locations throughout the seasons. Therefore, the model can be used to evaluate potential sites for oyster development either for aquaculture, restoration or coastal protection to enhance coastal resilience.
Optimized rotation of an optically trapped particle for micro mixing
Hosseinzadeh, Mahmoud ; Hajizadeh, Faegheh ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Milani Moghaddam, Hossain ; Reihani, S.N.S. - \ 2018
Applied physics letters 113 (2018)22. - ISSN 0003-6951

The angular momentum transferred by circularly polarized photons is able to rotate an optically trapped microparticle. Here, the optically rotating particle is introduced as an active micromixer to reduce the mixing time in a microfluidic system. To optimize the system for microfluidic application, the effect of several optical parameters such as spherical aberration and the numerical aperture of the objective on the rotation rate of a trapped particle is investigated. The results show that the optimized depth for the rotation of a particle is located close to the coverslip and can be changed by a fine adjustment of the refractive index of the immersion oil. By applying the obtained optimized optical parameters on a trapped particle at the interface of two fluids in a microchannel, the mixing length is reduced by a factor of ∼2.

Adaptation pathways to cope with salinization in south-west coastal region of Bangladesh
Hossain, Peerzadi Rumana ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Leemans, Rik - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1708-3087
Adaptation pathway - Coastal systems - Salinization

Salinization in coastal regions of Bangladesh challenges sustainable development of different sectors like agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock, and health. Particularly its southwest region largely faces increased salinity risks because of its geographical location and environmental settings. This study analyzes the causes of salinity increase, their cascading impacts on different coastal systems, and their livelihood implications, and assesses potential coping measures through innovative adaptation pathways for the most affected coastal systems. These pathways integrate bottom-up and top-down perceptions in adaptation planning through a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework, multicriteria analysis, and adaptation turning point approaches. We surveyed 200 households and interviewed 20 key informants. We observed that household-level respondents’ perceptions are more closely related to socioeconomic aspects than to the biophysical environmental aspects and focus on issue-based action. However, the key informants focus more on the biophysical changes and the large-scale measures. The developed framework shows that salinity increase is an interconnected process of climatic-social-ecological-economic systems in the coastal environment. It also shows that responses already taken, i.e., polders and shrimp farming, to cope with salinization have later become pressures, i.e., riverbed siltation, waterlogging, and intensive salinization, on the systems. In total, we identified six interconnected causes of salinity increase and 24 potential measures to address them. Also we distinguished three coastal systems, i.e., crop-agriculture, drinking water sources, and the Sundarbans mangrove, most affected by salinity increase. Finally we proposed 16 adaptation pathways for these coastal systems based on the multicriteria analysis and adaptation turning points of the potential measures.

DEB parameter estimation for Saccostrea cucullata (Born), an intertidal rock oyster in the Northern Bay of Bengal
Chowdhury, Shah ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2018
Journal of Sea Research 142 (2018). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 180 - 190.
DEB model - saccostrea-cuccullata - Parameter estimation - monsoon
Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models describe the energy flow in organisms focusing on food assimilation and utilization for maintenance, growth and reproduction. In this paper, specific DEB parameters were obtained for
the intertidal rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata, which has culture potential and important ecological functions in estuarine and coastal ecosystems along the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Oyster samples were collected from natural oyster beds and used in a starvation experiment for 20 weeks in the laboratory. A sub-sample of starved oyster was used to record respiration rates and depletion of reserves was recorded by fortnightly measurements of flesh weight. Simultaneously, a group of oysters was used for physiological experiments and growth measurements, required for DEB parameter estimation. Consequently, Arrhenius temperature related parameters (i.e. TA, TL, TH, TAL, and TAH), shape coefficient (δM), volume specific maintenance rate ([PM]) and volume specific cost for structure ([EG]) were estimated using data from the respiration and starvation experiments. An iterative co-variation method was used to estimate the specific DEB parameters using the results of the physiological experiments, field observations and additional literature information. Estimated Arrhenius temperature was 5640 K, which applies between 297 and 305 K. Shape coefficient (δM=0.159) was low, compared to other oyster species that characterized the morphology of the oyster. Volume specific maintenance rate ([PM]) was equivalent to 17.99 J cm−3 day−1, while 2377 J cm−3 was estimated as the volume specific cost for structure ([EG]). These efforts provide opportunities to apply the DEB model for better understanding the energetics
of bivalves under sub-tropical conditions. It is concluded that the hydrometeorological aspects, i.e. a monsoon regime and high turbidity levels, are quite different from temperate regions and drives the physiological traits of shellfish organisms.
Elements of fishing community resilience to climate change in the coastal zone of Bangladesh
Sharifuzzaman, S.M. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman ; Sarker, Subrata ; Chowdhury, M.S.N. ; Chowdhury, M.Z.R. - \ 2018
Journal of Coastal Conservation 22 (2018)6. - ISSN 1400-0350 - p. 1167 - 1176.
Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) - Fishing community - Hatiya Island - Livelihood assets - Resilience

Resilience has been conceptualized in various ways by anthropologists, ecologists, systems scientists and engineers; the boundaries of resilience are subjective and context dependent. Consequently, choosing the standards and metrics for assessing resilience remains key challenges for policy makers. In this study, using multicriteria evaluation of 40 basic criteria of human, physical, financial, natural and social assets, we have identified several elements, such as experienced fishermen, natural abundance of hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), ability to assert decision on fish selling, nets and boats ownership, social harmony and capacity of buying food as essential livelihood assets for the fishermen at Hatiya Island, Bangladesh. These assets may enhance the relative resilience of the fishing community of the island to climate change by as much as 20–40%. The results of this study will improve our understanding of the elements that lead to resilience at the community level.

Impacts of climate change on coastal ecosystems of Bangladesh
Hossain, Peerzadi Rumana - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R. Leemans, co-promotor(en): F. Ludwig. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437653 - 152
Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?
Timsina, J. ; Wolf, J. ; Guilpart, N. ; Bussel, L.G.J. van; Grassini, P. ; Wart, J. van; Hossain, A. ; Rashid, H. ; Islam, S. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 163 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 36 - 44.
Cropland area - Food security - Land use change scenarios - Self-sufficiency ratio - Yield gap - Yield potential
Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and wheat production by the years 2030 and 2050 by closing the existing gap (Yg) between yield potential (Yp) and actual farm yield (Ya), accounting for possible changes in cropland area. Yield potential and yield gaps were calculated for the three crops using well-validated crop models and site-specific weather, management and soil data, and upscaled to the whole country. We assessed potential grain production in the years 2030 and 2050 for six land use change scenarios (general decrease in arable land; declining ground water tables in the north; cropping of fallow areas in the south; effect of sea level rise; increased cropping intensity; and larger share of cash crops) and three levels of Yg closure (1: no yield increase; 2: Yg closure at a level equivalent to 50% (50% Yg closure); 3: Yg closure to a level of 85% of Yp (irrigated crops) and 80% of water-limited yield potential or Yw (rainfed crops) (full Yg closure)). In addition, changes in demand with low and high population growth rates, and substitution of rice by maize in future diets were also examined. Total aggregated demand of the three cereals (in milled rice equivalents) in 2030 and 2050, based on the UN median population variant, is projected to be 21 and 24% higher than in 2010. Current Yg represent 50% (irrigated rice), 48-63% (rainfed rice), 49% (irrigated wheat), 40% (rainfed wheat), 46% (irrigated maize), and 44% (rainfed maize) of their Yp or Yw. With 50% Yg closure and for various land use changes, self-sufficiency ratio will be >. 1 for rice in 2030 and about one in 2050 but well below one for maize and wheat in both 2030 and 2050. With full Yg closure, self-sufficiency ratios will be well above one for rice and all three cereals jointly but below one for maize and wheat for all scenarios, except for the scenario with drastic decrease in boro rice area to allow for area expansion for cash crops. Full Yg closure of all cereals is needed to compensate for area decreases and demand increases, and then even some maize and large amounts of wheat imports will be required to satisfy demand in future. The results of this analysis have important implications for Bangladesh and other countries with high population growth rate, shrinking arable land due to rapid urbanization, and highly vulnerable to climate change.
Use of an Individual-based Model to Control Transmission Pathways of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle Herds
Mamun Hossain, Shaikh Abdullah Al; Smith, R.L. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Gröhn, Y.T. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 14 p.

Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic enteric disease in cattle caused by Mycobacterium avian subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Eradicating JD is a difficult task due to the long incubation period of MAP, inefficient diagnostic tests, and delayed clinical signs. Effective control strategies can help farmers to reduce prevalence, but those most acceptable to farmers combine specific information about lactation performance and testing results, which existing models do not provide. This paper presents an individual-based model of MAP infection dynamics and assesses the relative performance of the applied alternative control strategies. The base dairy herd model included the daily life events of a dairy cow and reflects several current dairy management processes. We then integrated MAP infection dynamics into the model. The model adopted four different test-based control strategies based on risk-based culling decisions and three hygiene scenarios. The model tracked the source of each infection and quantified the efficacy of each control strategy in reducing the risks of different transmission routes. The results suggest that risk-based culling can reduce prevalence compared with no control, but cannot eliminate the infection. Overall, this work provides not only a valuable tool to investigate MAP transmission dynamics but also offers adaptability to model similar infectious diseases.

First Record of Porpita porpita (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the coral reef ecosystem, Bangladesh
Shah Nawaz Chowdhury, M. ; Sharifuzzaman, S.M. ; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman ; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md ; Hossain, M.S. - \ 2016
Ocean Science Journal 51 (2016)2. - ISSN 1738-5261 - p. 293 - 297.
Bangladesh - Bay of Bengal - Hydrozoa - Porpita - Saint Martin’s Island

The occurrence of Porpita porpita is reported, for the first time, in the coral island of St. Martin’s located in the southeastern coastal region of Bangladesh. P. porpita was found to occur in the lower littoral zone and beach rock pools, together with molluscan species, and collected during the pre-monsoon season when both water temperature (> 30°C) and salinity (> 30‰) tend to reach a maximum. This study recounts some details on the discovery and description of the species, and thus extends the global distribution and range limits of the genus Porpita.

Eco-engineered coastal defense integrated with sustainable aquatic food production in Bangladesh (ECOBAS)
Tangelder, M. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Chowdhury, Shah ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Doorn, F. ; Hossain, M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2015
IMARES (Report / IMARES C048/15) - 39 p.
coastal areas - coastal management - food production - bangladesh - kustgebieden - kustbeheer - voedselproductie
The objective of the ECOBAS project is to provide the coastal people of Bangladesh with an alternative approach for adaptation to coastal erosion and flooding. By using the concept of “eco-engineering” the natural resistance of shellfish reefs against hydrodynamic forces reduces human vulnerability to coastal erosion and flooding, and delivers a source of aquatic food. ECOBAS stands for ECO-engineered Coastal Defence Integrated with Sustainable Aquatic Food Production in BAngladeSh, and was executed by a multidisciplinary team of Dutch and Bangladesh research institutes. This report summarizes the outcomes of this study. It is not an in-depth report where scientific outcomes are discussed, but a summary for the funding agencies. The ECOBAS project was funded by Partners for Water. Also the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands financed extra monitoring activities in the second phase of the project which enabled generation of more data and a broader understanding of the research.
Educating and training a workforce for nutrition in a post-2015 world
Fanzo, Jessica C. ; Graziose, Matthew M. ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Gillespie, Stuart ; Johnston, Jessica L. ; Pee, Saskia de; Monterrosa, Eva ; Badham, Jane ; Bloem, Martin W. ; Dangour, Alan D. ; Deckelbaum, Richard ; Dobermann, Achim ; Fracassi, Patrizia ; Hossain, S.M.M. ; Ingram, John ; Jerling, Johann C. ; Jones, C.J. ; Jap, Stefanus Indrayana ; Kiess, Lynnda ; Marshall, Quinn ; Martin, Keith ; Narayan, Anuradha ; Amuyunzu-Nayamongo, Mary ; Pepping, Fré ; West, Keith P. - \ 2015
Advances in Nutrition 6 (2015). - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 639 - 647.
Capacity development - Malnutrition - Sustainable development goals - Training - Workforce

Nearly all countries in the world today are burdened with malnutrition, manifesting as undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and/or overweight and obesity. Despite some progress, efforts to alleviate malnutrition are hampered by a shortage in number, skills, and geographic coverage, of a workforce for nutrition. Here, we report the findings of the Castel Gandolfo workshop, a convening of experts from diverse fields in March 2014 to consider how to develop the capacity of a global cadre of nutrition professionals for the post-2015 development era. Workshop participants identified several requirements for developing a workforce for nutrition, including an ability to work as part of a multisectoral team; communication, advocacy, and leadership skills to engage decision makers; and a set of technical skills to address future challenges for nutrition. Other opportunities were highlighted that could immediately contribute to capacity development, including the creation of a consortium to link global North and South universities, online training modules for middle managers, and practical, hands-on experiences for frontline nutrition workers. Institutional and organizational support is needed to enable workshop recommendations on education and training to be effectively implemented and sustained. The findings from the Castel Gandolfo workshop can contribute to the delivery of successful nutrition-relevant actions in the face of mounting external pressures and informing and attaining the forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals.

Production of Biochar for Soil Application : A Comparative Study of Three Kiln Models
Mia, Shamim ; Uddin, Nijam ; Mamun Hossain, Shaikh Abdullah Al; Amin, Ruhul ; Mete, Fatima Z. ; Hiemstra, Tjisse - \ 2015
Pedosphere 25 (2015)5. - ISSN 1002-0160 - p. 696 - 702.
Biomass - Farmer scale - Feedstock - Fuel wood requirement - O2 limitation - Pyrolysis time - Syngas circulation - Thermogravimetric index

Biochar has potentials for soil fertility improvement, climate change mitigation and environmental reclamation, and charred biomass can be deliberately incorporated into soil for long-term carbon stabilization and soil amendment. Many different methods have been used for biochar production ranging from laboratory to industrial scales. However, in countryside of developing countries, biomass is generally used for cooking but not charred. Biochar production techniques at farmer scale have remained poorly developed. We developed and tested biochar production kilns for farmers with a dimension of 50.8 cm × 38.1 cm (height × diameter), using three different setups for optimizing oxygen (O2) limitation and syngas circulation: airtight with no syngas circulation (Model I), semi-airtight with external syngas circulation (Model II) and semi-airtight with internal syngas circulation (Model III). A comparative assessment of these biochar production kiln models was made considering biochar pyrolysis time, fuel to biomass ratio, biochar to feedstock ratio and thermogravimetric index (TGI). Among the models, the best quality biochar (TGI = 0.15) was obtained from Model I kiln taking the longest time for pyrolysis (12.5 h) and the highest amount of fuel wood (1.22 kg kg-1 biomass). Model III kiln produced comparatively good quality biochar (TGI = 0.11), but with less fuel wood requirement (0.33 kg kg-1 biomass) and shorter pyrolysis time (8.5 h). We also tested Model III kiln in a three times larger size under two situations (steel kiln and pit kiln). The biochar to feedstock ratio (0.38) and quality (TGI = 0.14) increased slightly for the larger kilns. Quality of biochar was found to be mainly related to pyrolysis time. The costs for the biochar stove and pit kiln were US$ 65-77, while it was US$ 154 for the large size steel kiln. Model III kiln can potentially be used for both cooking and biochar production at farmer scale.

Climate change impact on the discharge of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) River Basin and Bangladesh
Hossain, M.M. ; Zaman, A.M. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2015
Oyster reefs: opportunities for coastal protection and aquatic food production
Chowdhury, M.S.N. ; Hossain, M.S. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2014
Ecosystem services in natural, restored and converted mangrove systems in Java, Indonesia
Oudenhoven, A.P.E. van - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of the NRG BESS, 2014. - Southampton, UK : NRG BESS - p. 22 - 22.
Mangroves in Indonesia are increasingly degraded and converted, due to development of aquaculture, urban areas and agriculture. Because managers and decision makers are often ill-informed, we aimed to assess the consequences of management decisions in Java’s mangroves by studying the effect of different management regimes on ecosystem services. We developed a novel typology of mangrove management regimes, which distinguishes natural, low intensity use and high intensity use mangroves, and mangroves converted to aquaculture or abandoned aquaculture. The regimes considered legislation and were further characterized by local management indicators and quantified ecological characteristics. We furthermore compiled drivers, ecosystem properties, and state and performance indicators for the provision of seven key ecosystem services, such as coastal protection, nursery and carbon storage. By relating management regimes’ characteristics and ecosystem services indicators, we identified service provision per regime. These qualitative and quantitative outcomes were incorporated into a scoring system. Our results indicate that natural mangroves provide the most and highest amount of ecosystem services, whereas aquaculture artificially provides high amounts of fish and shrimp but at the cost of all other ecosystem services. Rehabilitation of aquaculture systems reverses this loss of ecosystem services, while still providing shrimp or raw materials. The management regimes represent clear management goals and are currently considered by decision makers. Interestingly, although decision makers had originally requested solely economic data, they later admitted that our ecology-grounded information proved more appropriate for developing sustainable management plans.
Preparations for the Bangladesh Delta Plan
Choudhury, G.A. ; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. ; Bergh, L.M.J. van den; Chowdhury, F. ; Heer, J. de; Hossain, M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2300)
ruimtelijke ordening - regionale planning - waterbeheer - klimaatverandering - delta - bangladesh - physical planning - regional planning - water management - climatic change - deltas
Land use/land cover changes and climate: modeling analysis and observational evidence
Pielke sr., R.A. ; Pitman, A. ; Niyogi, D. ; Mahmood, R. ; McAlpine, C. ; Hossain, F. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2011
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2 (2011). - ISSN 1757-7780 - p. 828 - 850.
thermally forced circulations - convective boundary-layer - large-eddy simulations - northern great-plains - us corn-belt - united-states - atmosphere interaction - landscape variability - stomatal conductance - research priorities
Agreat deal of attention is devoted to changes in atmospheric composition and the associated regional responses. Less attention is given to the direct influence by human activity on regional climate caused by modification of the atmosphere’s lower boundary—the Earth’s surface. Land use/land cover change (LULCC), as discussed in this article, concerns human-caused changes that affect the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the terrestrial surface and its affect on the atmosphere.1–3 Vast areas of the Earth’s terrestrial surface have undergone LULCC.4,5 LULCC effects on climate include direct alterations in surface solar and longwave radiation and in atmospheric turbulence which result in changes
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