Effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides on microbial characteristics of ileal chyme and faeces in weaner pigs
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Hartemink, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Bosch, M.W. - \ 2002
Archives of Animal Nutrition 56 (2002)4. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 297 - 307.
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), were included at 10 and 40 g/kg in an NDO--free control diet at the expense of purified cellulose. Each of the 5 diets was fed to 4 weaner pigs and microbial characteristics of their ileal chyme and faeces were assessed. The NDO-pigs had lower ileal pH than the control pigs. Dietary NDO did not affect the ileal volatile fatty acid concentration, though FOS-pigs had a higher concentration of lactic acid and relatively more iso-valeric acid and less acetic acid than TOS-pigs. The NDO-pigs had lower ileal aerobic bacterial counts than the control pigs, whilst the FOS-pigs had a larger ileal anaerobic bacterial counts than the TOS-pigs. The NDO-pigs had an higher faecal pH and their faecal volatile fatty acid pool contained relatively more iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric acid than the control pigs. The TOS-pigs tended to have higher faecal anaerobic bacterial counts and had a smaller concentration of faecal volatile fatty acid than the FOS-pigs. We concluded that whilst effects at the faecal level may have been partly due to a reduced intake of cellulose, dietary NDO can exert precaecal prebiotic effects in weaner pigs.
Dietary fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides can affect fermentation characteristics in gut contents and portal plasma of growing pigs
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Laere, K.J.M. van - \ 2002
Livestock Production Science 73 (2002)2-3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 175 - 184.
We studied whether dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) affected pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in gastrointestinal contents and in portal plasma of young pigs. Five groups of five 57-day-old pigs received for 44 days either a corn-based control diet or this diet with 7.5 or 15 g/kg fructooligosaccharides (FOSs, Raftilose P95?) or the control diet with 10 or 20 g/kg transgalactooligosaccharides (TOSs, Oligostroop?). The pigs weighed on average 45.5±1.3 kg during dissection, which took place 3 h after feeding. Dietary NDOs tended to lower the pH of the stomach content from 4.5 to 4.2 (P=0.06). Pigs fed the high TOS diet had more caecal VFAs than the control pigs (30.4 vs. 15.6 mmol, P<0.05). Compared to TOS-fed pigs, FOS-fed pigs had a higher proximal colon pH (6.5 vs. 6.2, P<0.01), lower proximal colon VFA concentration (131 vs. 166 mmol/l, P<0.01) and lower portal VFA concentration (0.9 vs. 1.6 mmol/l, P<0.05), with the control pigs being intermediate. However, the amount of colonic VFAs was similar across diets (~40 mmol). The results support the view that dietary FOSs and TOSs may have different effects on fermentation characteristics of gut contents of pigs.
|Over ologosaccharides in de diervoeding
Houdijk, J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Dier en arts 16 (2001). - ISSN 0920-2412 - p. 393 - 398.
Apparent ileal and total tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary non digestibility oligosaccharides
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Tamminga, S. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Berenpas, E.B. ; Knoop, H. - \ 2000
Journal of Animal Science 77 (2000). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 148 - 158.
The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9 /-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4 /-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected.
Fructo-oligosachariden geen geschikte groeibevorderaars
Peet-Schwering, C. van der; Houdijk, J. ; Binnendijk, G. - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)3. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 25 - 27.
biggen - varkensvoeding - groei - toevoegingen - voedersupplementen - fructose - oligosacchariden - piglets - pig feeding - growth - additives - feed supplements - fructose - oligosaccharides
Fructo-oligosachariden (FOS) zijn geen geschikt alternatief voor anti-microbiële groeibevorderaars in eiwitrijk speenvoer voor biggen. Biggen die FOS in eiwitrijk voer verstrekt krijgen nemen de eerste veertien dagen van de opfokperiode minder voer open groeien langzamer dan biggen die avilamycine in het voer verstrekt krijgen
|Effects of NDO in diets for weaner pigs on in vitro fermentation. BSAS.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Williams, B.A. ; Tamminga, S. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1998
In: Proc. British Society of Animal Science, 23-25 March, Scarborough, UK - p. 30 - 30.
Effects of dietary oligosaccharides on the growth performance and faecal characteristics of young growing pigs.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Berenpas, H.J. - \ 1998
Animal Feed Science and Technology 71 (1998). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 35 - 48.
Effects of non-digestible oligosaccharides in young pig diets
Houdijk, J. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; M.W. Bosch; B.A. Williams. - S.l. : Houdijk - ISBN 9789054859789 - 184
varkens - biggen - diervoedering - diervoeding - diëten - oligosacchariden - voedertoevoegingen - spijsvertering - fermentatie - in vitro - prestatieniveau - groei - pigs - piglets - animal feeding - animal nutrition - diets - oligosaccharides - feed additives - digestion - fermentation - in vitro - performance - growth
Some carbohydrates in young pig diets escape enzymatic digestion and form substrates for the gastrointestinal microflora. These include the non-digestible oligosaccharides ( NDO ), which are found in e.g. cereals and legumes. Certain NDO may selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of favourable bacterial species, and as such beneficially affect (gut) health of the host. They are referred to as prebiotics. A series of studies was carried out to elucidate the role of dietary NDO as feedstuff components and their potential as prebiotic feed additives in young pig diets.
The two types of NDO studied, fructooligosaccharides ( FOS ) and transgalactooligosaccharides ( TOS ), were included in NDO-free diets up to 40 g/kg. The NDO were also used as substrates for in vitro fermentation, using young pigs' digesta and faeces as inoculum. Dietary NDO hardly affected pig performance and apparent ileal and faecal nutrient digestion. More than 90% of the FOS was degraded pre-caecally; this was 30% for TOS (estimated by others). Pre-caecal saccharolytic activity enhanced for both types of dietary NDO, resulting in prebiotic effects at the ileal level (reduced pH, reduced concentration of aerobes). However, the FOS- and TOS diets differed in terms of ileal volatile fatty acid composition and concentration of anaerobes (including lactobacilli). These may have been related to differences in rate of fermentation (FOS>TOS) and types of volatile fatty acids produced, as observed during in vitro fermentation. The observed prebiotic effects at the ileal level were not maintained throughout the total large intestine, due to the fast rate of fermentation of FOS and TOS. As a result, some of the stimulated microflora probably started to use proteins as a source of energy, resulting in the increased proteolytic activity observed at the faecal level (increased pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids of protein origin).
It was discussed that cereal- and legume-based diets may exert a certain level of prebiotic activity. Therefore, the use of FOS and TOS as prebiotic feed additives in such diets may be limited. However, prebiotic carbohydrates which can be fermented throughout the gastrointestinal tract, rather than only in the small intestine and/or the proximal colon, may result in prolonged prebiotic effects and prove useful as feed additive in young pig diets.
|Fructooligosaccharides and transgalactooligosaccharides in weaner pigs' diet.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Hartemink, R. ; Laere, K.M.J. van; Williams, B.A. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 1997
In: International Symposium 'Non-digestible oligosaccharides: healthy food for the colon?', Wageningen, NL - p. 69 - 78.
|Differences in potential fermentative capabilities of four sections of porcine digestive tract.
Williams, B.A. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Houdijk, J. ; Camp, Y. van de - \ 1997
In: Book of abstracts 48th Annual Meeting of the EAAP, Vienna / van Arendonk, J.A.M., - p. 133 - 133.
|Dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides affect ileal microflora in young pigs.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Hartemink, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1997
In: Book of abstracts 48th EAAP Meeting Vienna, 25-28 august 1997 / van Arendonk, J.A.M., - p. 87 - 87.
|Bacterial concentrations in porcine ileal chyme, caecal contents, and faeces as affected by dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Hartemink, R. ; Hoving, J. ; Hogenes, Y. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1997
In: Abstracts Symp. Gastro-intestinal Disorders in Juveniles, 15-16 september 1997, ID-DLO, Lelystad, The Netherlands - p. 28 - 28.
|Type and level of dietary oligosaccharides change volatile fatty acid composition in ileal chyme of young pigs.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 1997
In: Proc. VIIth Int. Symp. Digestive Physiology in Pigs, J.-P. Laplace et al. (eds.). Saint Malo, France. EAAP Publ.no. 88 - p. 475 - 478.
|Relation between in vivo and in vitro fermentation of oligosaccharides in piglets.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Williams, B.A. ; Tamminga, S. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1997
In: Annual Meeting of the British Society of Animal Science - p. 59 - 59.
|The cumulative gas production technique as indicator of differences between ileal, caecal, and faecal microbial ecology in young pigs.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Williams, B.A. ; Olivier, F. ; Knoop, H. ; End, M. van 't - \ 1997
In: Proc. 22e Studiedag der Nederlandstalige voedingsonderzoekers, 4 april 1997, Merelbeke, Belgium - p. 16 - 17.
|Nutrient partitioning in relation to health in pigs.
Schrama, J.W. ; Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Williams, B.A. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 1997
In: Book of abstracts 48th Annual Meeting of EAAP, Vienna / van Arendonk, J.A.M., - p. 108 - 108.
|De cumulatieve gasproduktie techniek als indicator voor een verandering in de caecum ecologie bij jonge biggen.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Williams, B.A. ; Olivier, F. ; Knoop, H. ; End, M. van 't - \ 1996
In: Proc. 21e Studiedag Nederlandstalige Voedingsonderzoekers, Lelystad, The Netherlands - p. 18 - 19.
|Het effect van fructo-oligosachariden en transgalacto-oligosachariden op groei- en verteringskenmerken van biggen.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Berenpas, E.B. - \ 1995
In: Verslag 20e Studiedag voor Nederlandstalige Voedingsonderzoekers, Leuven - p. 18 - 19.
|Non digestible oligosaccharides in foods and feeds. Digestive-physiological aspects of non digestible oligosaccharides in young pigs; an introduction to the project.
Houdijk, J.G.M. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Tamminga, S. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1995
In: Proc. 1st ORAFTI Research Conference, M. Roberfroid (ed.) - p. 244 - 248.
Kwaliteit van stek in de boomteelt : een inventarisatie van kwaliteitsbepalende kenmerken
Houdijk, F.A.M. ; Kunneman, B.P.A.M. - \ 1994
Boskoop : Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek (Rapport / Boomteeltpraktijkonderzoek 30) - 27
stekken - nederland - houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenvermeerdering - cuttings - netherlands - ornamental woody plants - propagation