Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Microbes and asthma : Opportunities for intervention
    Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Hiemstra, Pieter S. ; Prazeres Da Costa, Clarissa ; Ege, Markus ; Edwards, Michael ; Garn, Holger ; Howarth, Peter H. ; Jartti, Tuomas ; Jong, Esther C. De; Maizels, Rick M. ; Marsland, Ben J. ; McSorley, Henry J. ; Müller, Anne ; Pfefferle, Petra I. ; Savelkoul, Huub ; Schwarze, Jürgen ; Unger, Wendy W.J. ; Mutius, Erika Von; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria ; Taube, Christian - \ 2016
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 137 (2016)3. - ISSN 0091-6749 - p. 690 - 697.
    asthma - helminths - Hygiene hypothesis - immune regulation - microbes - microbiome - sensitization - viruses

    The worldwide incidence and prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is now understood as an umbrella term for different phenotypes or endotypes, which arise through different pathophysiologic pathways. Understanding the many factors contributing to development of the disease is important for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes. The hygiene hypothesis has been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence of allergic disease, including asthma. This hypothesis postulates that decreased exposure at a young age to certain infectious agents as a result of improved hygiene, increased antibiotic use and vaccination, and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits is associated with changes in the immune system, which predispose subjects to allergy. Many microbes, during their coevolution with human subjects, developed mechanisms to manipulate the human immune system and to increase their chances of survival. Improving models of asthma, as well as choosing adequate end points in clinical trials, will lead to a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms, thus providing an opportunity to devise primary and secondary interventions at the same time as identifying new molecular targets for treatment. This article reports the discussion and conclusion of a workshop under the auspices of the Netherlands Lung Foundation to extend our understanding of how modulation of the immune system by bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections might affect the development of asthma and to map out future lines of investigation.

    Nitrogen retention in rivers : model development and application to watersheds in the northeastern U.S.A.
    Seitzinger, S. ; Styles, R.V. ; Boyer, E.W. ; Alexander, R.B. ; Billen, G. ; Howarth, R.W. ; Mayer, B. ; Breemen, N. van - \ 2002
    Biogeochemistry 57-58 (2002). - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 199 - 237.
    A regression model (RivR-N) was developed that predicts the proportion of N removed from streams and reservoirs as an inverse function of the water displacement time of the water body (ratio of water body depth to water time of travel). When applied to 16 drainage networks in the eastern U.S., the RivR-N model predicted that 37% to 76% of N input to these rivers is removed during transport through the river networks. Approximately half of that is removed in 1st through 4th order streams which account for 90% of the total stream length. The other half is removed in 5th order and higher rivers which account for only about 10% of the total stream length. Most N removed in these higher orders is predicted to originate from watershed loading to small and intermediate sized streams. The proportion of N removed from all streams in the watersheds (37-76%) is considerably higher than the proportion of N input to an individual reach that is removed in that reach (generally 20%) because of the cumulative effect of continued nitrogen removal along the entire flow path in downstream reaches. This generally has not been recognized in previous studies, but is critical to an evaluation of the total amount of N removed within a river network. At the river network scale, reservoirs were predicted to have a minimal effect on N removal. A fairly modest decrease (10 percentage points) in the N removed at the river network scale was predicted when a third of the direct watershed loading was to the two highest orders compared to a uniform loading.
    Sources of nitrate in rivers draining sixteen watersheds in the northeastern U.S. : Isotopic constraints
    Mayer, B. ; Boyer, E.W. ; Goodale, C. ; Jaworski, N.A. ; Breemen, N. van; Howarth, R.W. ; Seitzinger, S. ; Billen, G. ; Lajtha, K. ; Nadelhoffer, K. ; Dam, D. van; Hetling, L.J. ; Nosal, M. ; Paustian, K. - \ 2002
    Biogeochemistry 57-58 (2002). - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 171 - 197.
    The feasibility of using nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3 -) for elucidating sources and transformations of riverine nitrate was evaluated in a comparative study of 16 watersheds in the northeastern U.S.A. Stream water was sampled repeatedly at the outlets of the watersheds between January and December 1999 for determining concentrations, δ15N values, and δ18 values of riverine nitrate. In conjunction with information about land use and nitrogen fluxes, δ15Nnitrate and δ18Onitrate values provided mainly information about sources of riverine nitrate. In predominantly forested watersheds, riverine nitrate had mean concentrations of less than 0.4 mg NO3 --N L-1, δ15Nnitrate value s of less than +5‰, and δ18Onitrate values between +12 and + 19‰. This indicates that riverine nitrate was almost exclusively derived from soil nitrification processes with potentially minor nitrate contributions from atmospheric deposition in some catchments. In watersheds with significant agricultural and urban land use, concentrations of riverine nitrate were as high as 2.6 mg NO3 --N L-1 with δ15Nnitrate values between +5 and +8‰ and δ18Onitrate values generally below +15‰. Correlations between nitrate concentrations, δ15Nnitrate values, and N fluxes suggest that nitrate in waste water constituted a major and nitrate in manure a minor additional source of riverine nitrate. Atmospheric nitrate deposition or nitrate-containing fertilizers were not a significant source of riverine nitrate in watersheds with significant agricultural and urban land use. Although complementary studies indicate that in-stream denitrification was significant in all rivers, the isotopic composition of riverine nitrate sampled at the outlet of the 16 watersheds did not provide evidence for denitrification in the form of elevated δ15Nnitrate and δ18Onitrate values. Relatively low isotopic enrichment factors for nitrogen and oxygen during in-stream denitrification and continuous admixture of nitrate from the above-described sources are thought to be responsible for this finding.
    Where did all the nitrogen go? Fate of nitrogen inputs to large watersheds in the northeastern U.S.A.
    Breemen, N. van; Boyer, E.W. ; Goodale, C.L. ; Jaworski, N.A. ; Paustian, K. ; Seitzinger, S.P. ; Lajtha, K. ; Mayer, B. ; Dam, D. van; Howarth, R.W. ; Nadelhoffer, K.J. ; Eve, M. ; Billen, G. - \ 2002
    Biogeochemistry 57/58 (2002). - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 267 - 293.
    Harvesting Safely from Biodiversity: Natural Enemies as Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly Solutions for Pest Control
    Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2001
    In: Balancing Nature: Assessing the Impact of Importing Non-native Biological Control Agents (an International Perspective) / Lockwood, J.A., Howarth, F.G., Purcell, M.F., Thomas Say Publications in Entomology - ISBN 9780938522935 - p. 15 - 30.
    Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic ocean: natural and human influences.
    Howarth, R.W. ; Berendse, F. - \ 1996
    Biogeochemistry 35 (1996). - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 75 - 139.
    Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of the North Atlantic Ocean and its watershed.
    Galloway, J.N. ; Howarth, R.W. ; Michaels, A.F. ; Nixon, S.W. ; Prospero, J.M. ; Dentener, F.J. - \ 1996
    Biogeochemistry 35 (1996). - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 3 - 25.
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