Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Disparities in cancer-related healthcare among people with intellectual disabilities:A population-based cohort study with health insurance claims data
    Cuypers, Maarten ; Tobi, Hilde ; Huijsmans, Cornelis A.A. ; Gerwen, Lieke van; Hove, Michiel ten; Weel, Chris van; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M. ; Naaldenberg, Jenneken ; Leusink, Geraline L. - \ 2020
    Cancer Medicine (2020). - ISSN 2045-7634
    early detection of cancer - healthcare disparities - hospital - intellectual disability - neoplasms - oncology service

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the accessibility and quality of cancer-related care for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). However, there is limited insight into cancer incidence and the utilization of cancer care at the ID population level to inform targeted cancer control strategies. Therefore, we aimed to examine differences in the utilization of cancer-related care between people with and without ID, identified through diagnostic codes on health insurance claims. Methods: In a population-based cohort study, Dutch individuals of all ages who received residential care through the Chronic Care Act due to an ID (n = 65 183) and an age and sex-matched sample of persons without ID (1:2 ratio), who were cancer-free at enrollment in 2013 were followed through 2015. Incidence rates (IRs) of newly started cancer care and IR ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare groups. Separate analyses were performed per cancer type. Results: Individuals with ID received less cancer-related care than individuals without (IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.62-0.66). Differences increased with age and were larger for females than for males. Utilization of care for cancers within the national screening program (female breast, cervical, and colon cancer) was lower for people with ID compared to people without ID. Conclusion: Cancer may be underdiagnosed and/or undertreated in people with ID, or cancer is truly less prevalent in this population. In particular, the differences detected between males and females with ID, and the potential underutilization of national screening programs, require urgent follow-up investigations.

    Probabilistic risk assessment for watercourses exposed to spray drift in fruit growing in the Netherlands
    Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Wipfler, E.L. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2020
    In: Aspects of Applied Biology. - Brighton : Association of Applied Biologists, 2020 (Aspects of Applied Biology ) - p. 255 - 262.
    This is the pre-edited version of the following article: Holterman, H. J., van de Zande, J. C., Wipfler, E. L., Boesten, J. J. T. I., & Huijsmans, J. F. M. (2019). Probabilistic risk assessment for watercourses exposed to spray drift in fruit growing in the Netherlands. In Aspects of Applied Biology: International Advances in Pesticide Application (144 ed., pp. 255-262). (Aspects of Applied Biology; Vol. 144). Brighton: Association of Applied Biologists, 2020., which has been published in final form at https://www.aab.org.uk/aspects-of-applied-biology Deposition of spray drift onto surface waters is a major cause for the risk of exposure to pesticides for aquatic organisms. This risk is particularly high for surface waters alongside pome fruit orchards, where pesticide sprays are applied in a sideways or an upward direction. Recently a spray drift model has been developed to estimate pesticide deposits onto downwind off-target areas next to fruit orchards. Using this spray drift model, an exposure assessment model has been developed to estimate risk of exposure to pesticides for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field watercourses next to pome fruit orchards in the Netherlands. For arable crops, typically, the risk of exposure is much less, considering pesticide concentrations in the edge-of-field watercourse. However, the total area for arable crops is much higher than that for fruit orchards. This paper describes the probabilistic processes concerning the countrywide risk assessment using a exposure model for one field and one ditch. Spatial and temporal variables are distinguished. Spatial variables include regional distributions of orchards and different types of watercourses, various water levels and continuously varying growth stages during the year. Temporal variables include frequency distributions of wind speed and direction and ambient temperature. 90% risk levels of predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) in surface water can be determined for various spray application schemes including multiple spray applications during a year. In an extensive simulation study the PECs in the watercourses were computed for all possible spatial configurations. A spatio-temporal statistical analysis on these simulations resulted in a quantitative risk assessment for a representative set of spray application schemes. Various model features (including drift mitigation, crop-free zones) result in a versatile exposure assessment model with a high level of realism. The spray drift deposits onto the water surface can be used as input for models describing the fate of pesticides in the watercourses. In this way, a realistic simulation study on the exposure to and fate of pesticides in surface waters can be performed to quantify exposure risk levels for aquatic organisms. The countrywide exposure risk model supports higher-tier assessment studies for the authorization of plant protection products.
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw,1990-2018 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 178) - 224
    In the Netherlands, agricultural activities are a major source of gaseous emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), CO2 from lime fertilisers and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). In 2018, NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertiliser and other sources on farms and hobby farms, from private use and from manure application in terrestrial ecosystems amounted to 118.0 million kg NH3, 2.2 million kg less than in 2017. This decrease was due mainly to the reduction in the size of the dairy herd. Emissions of N2O in 2018 were 20.5 million kg, 0.5 million kg less than in 2017. NO emissions in 2018 amounted to 22.3 million kg, 0.6 million kg less than in 2017. CH4 emissions decreased from 503 to 484 million kg due to the smaller dairy herd. Emissions of NMVOC amounted to 93 million kg in 2018, down from 98 million kg in 2017. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 decreased in 2018 from 6.2 to 5.9 million kg. PM2.5 emissions remained constant at 0.6 million kg. Based on new data for several factors which are described in this report, emission figures have been updated for a number of years in the time series since 1990. NH3 emissions from livestock manure have fallen by two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates of livestock and the introduction of low-emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO decreased over this period by 40% and 33% respectively, less markedly than the NH3 reduction because of higher emissions from manure injection (compared with surface spreading manure) and a shift from excretion on pasture to excretion in animal houses. CH4 emissions decreased by 18% between 1990 and 2018 due to a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed use efficiency of dairy cattle. PM10 emissions increased by 19% in the same period due to laying poultry farms switching from housing systems with liquid manure to systems with solid manure.
    Tackling the nitrogen problem in five stages
    Hermans, Tia ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Smits, Nina ; Groenestein, Karin ; Ogink, Nico ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Velthof, Gerard ; Jongschaap, Raymond ; Geerdink, Peter ; Munniks, Sandra ; Jongeneel, Roel ; Ravesloot, Marc - \ 2020

    interview met Tia Hermans en Jan Dijstra en Nina Smits

    Estimating ammonia emission after field application of manure by the integrated horizontal flux method: a comparison of concentration and wind speed profiles
    Goedhart, Paul W. ; Mosquera, Julio ; Huijsmans, Jan F.M. - \ 2020
    Soil Use and Management 36 (2020)2. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 338 - 350.
    displacement height - exponential concentration model - gamma measurement errors - grassland - log wind profile - statistics

    The integrated horizontal flux method is commonly used to estimate ammonia emission from field-applied manure. The method involves measuring the wind speed and ammonia concentration at various heights on a post in the middle of a manured plot. Wind speed and concentration profiles are subsequently fitted to these measurements. The product of the profiles represents the amount of ammonia displaced by the wind, and the calculated ammonia emission is based on integrating the product of the profiles along the height. A crucial step is the functional form of the profiles, and linear relationships employing the logarithm of the height are generally used. In this study, 160 Dutch emission experiments on grassland were re-analysed to evaluate alternative profiles for the concentration and wind speed. It is shown that an exponential concentration model usually provides a better fit than the commonly used profile and that the measurement error for the concentration should be modelled by means of a gamma distribution. Based on the re-analysis, this new model reduces the calculated ammonia emission by around 10%. It is further shown that adding a displacement parameter to the wind speed model only has a minor effect on the calculated emission. Finally, a simulation study reveals that misspecification of the concentration profile may lead to a relative bias of up to 27%, that the precision of the estimated emission can be improved by increasing the number of concentration measurements near the ground and that wind speed measurements at three heights could suffice.

    Agricultural ammonia emissions 10 per cent less in fields: new model for calculating emissions
    Goedhart, Paul ; Mosquera Losada, Julio ; Huijsmans, Jan - \ 2020
    Referentieraming van emissies naar de lucht uit landbouw en landgebruik tot 2030 : Achtergronddocument bij de Klimaat-en Energieverkenning 2019, met ramingen van emissies van methaan, lachgas, ammoniak, stikstofoxide, fijnstof en NMVOS uit de landbouw en kooldioxide en lachgas door landgebruik
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Arets, E. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2970) - ISBN 9789463952156 - 113
    In het kader van de Klimaat- en Energieverkenning (KEV) zijn ramingen gemaakt voor 2020, 2025 en 2030 van i) niet aan energie gerelateerde emissies uit de landbouw naar de lucht, in de vorm van methaan (CH4), lachgas (N2O), ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NOx), fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5) en NMVOS (niet-methaan vluchtige organische stoffen) en ii) emissies van kooldioxide (CO2) en N2O door landgebruik, landgebruiksveranderingen en bosbouw (LULUCF). Het jaar 2017 is het basisjaar in de ramingen. De ramingen gaan uit van vastgesteld beleid en van naleving van onderliggende wet- en regelgeving. De peildatum voor het vastgestelde beleid in de raming is 1 mei 2019. De onzekerheden zijn in beeld gebracht voor de factoren met een groot effect op de emissies in 2030. In de raming is de CH4-emissie in 2030 met ruim 32 miljoen kg CH4 afgenomen ten opzichte van 2017 (6,4%). Deze afname wordt veroorzaakt door een afname van het aantal melkkoeien en jongvee. De geraamde N2O-emissie in 2030 is bijna 1 miljoen kg lager (4,5%) dan die in 2017. De grootste afname in N2O- emissie is zichtbaar bij bemesting met kunstmest en bij beweiding. De ammoniakemissie uit de landbouw neemt af van 114 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 109 miljoen kg in 2020 en 101 miljoen kg in 2030. Deze daling hangt samen met meer emissiearme stallen en minder melkkoeien, jongvee en varkens. De NOx-emissie (uitgedrukt in NO) is in 2030 0,7 miljoen kg lager dan in 2017. De emissie van fijnstof (PM10) neemt af van 6,2 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 5,1 miljoen kg in 2030 en die van de fijnere fractie van fijnstof (PM2,5) neemt af van 0,60 miljoen kg in 2017 naar 0,52 miljoen kg in 2030. De totale geraamde emissies uit de LULUCF-sector liggen in de periode 2020-2030 tussen de 5339 miljoen kg en 5707 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten. Toepassing van de regels uit de LULUCF-verordening van de EU, om de prestaties van lidstaten te beoordelen op de emissies en verwijderingen van CO2 voor de tijdreeks 2020-2030, resulteert in een nettotekort van 316 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten in 2025 en 258 miljoen kg CO2-equivalenten in 2030. Als prestaties voor de vijfjarige periodes 2021-2025 en 2026-2030 in het kader van LULUCF afgerekend worden, komt dat op een nettotekort van 1500 miljoen kg CO2-equivalent in de eerste periode en van 1200 miljoen kg CO2 equivalent in de tweede periode.
    Spray drift for the assessment of exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : Part 2: Sideways and upward sprayed fruit and tree crops
    Zande, J.C. van de; Holterman, H.J. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Wenneker, M. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Report / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems Research WPR-564) - 85
    As part of the Dutch authorisation procedure for pesticides an assessment of the effects on aquatic organisms in surface water adjacent to agricultural fields is required. This in turn requires an exposure assessment for these surface waters. So far, in the current Dutch authorisation procedure spray drift is the only source of exposure. For this reason, a new exposure scenario was developed, which includes also input by drainage and atmospheric deposition. The endpoint of the exposure assessment is the 90th percentile of the annual maximum concentration in all field ditches alongside fruit and avenue nursery-tree fields. In this report, the state-of-the-art of the spray drift data is described for orchard spraying and avenuenursery-tree spraying. The methodology of using a matrix structure is discussed for the assessment of spray drift deposition combining classes of Drift Reducing Technology (DRT) and width of crop free zones for sideways and upward sprayed crops (fruit crops and avenue nursery-trees). Key words: spray drift, air -blast sprayer, Drift Reduction Technology, ISO22866, surface water, crop free zone, orchard spraying, avenue nursery tree spraying.
    PAS Update aanvullende reservemaatregelen Landbouw
    Groenestein, K. ; Ogink, N. ; Ellen, H. ; Šebek, L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Huijsmans, J. ; Vermeij, I. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1214) - 32
    In many Natura 2000 area’s, the nitrogen deposition is higher than wished for. This led to a deadlock in economic development of,among others,livestock husbandry. For the three sector groups Traffic and Transportation, Industry and Energy, and Agriculture source measures were listedin 2017 to deal with the bottlenecks. For agriculture, the list with measures is updated in consultation with representatives of the agricultural sector, research and policy, developed and written in this present report. This study was performed by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food qualitybefore the Council of State made judgement regarding PAS.
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2017 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 147) - 131
    Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of gaseous emission as ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO),nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM10 andPM2.5). The emissions in 2017 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). The method calculatesthe NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2017 NH3 emissionsfrom livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure application onnature areas amounted to 120.5 million kg NH3, 3.9 million kg more than in 2016. Nitrogen excretion increased due to a largerfeed requirement for dairy cows and higher nitrogen levels in roughage. N2O emissions in 2017 were 21.3 million kg, slightlyabove the level of 2016 (20.7 million kg). The NO emission in 2017 amounted to 23.1 million kg compared to 22.5 million kg in2016. The CH4 emission decreased due to the shrinking of the dairy herd from 508 to 503 million kg. NMVOC emissionsamounted to 98 million kg in 2017 compared to 99 million kg in 2016. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.2 and0.6 million kg respectively, hardly changed compared to 2016. Some figures in the time series 1990-2016 were revised onbasis of new insights. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by two thirds since 1990, mainly as aresult of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO alsodecreased over the same period, but less strongly (38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injectioninto the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with slurry manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reducedby 14% between 1990 and 2017, caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
    A methodology for estimating the ammonia emission from crop residues at a national scale
    Ruijter, F.J. de; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2019
    Atmospheric Environment: X 2 (2019). - ISSN 2590-1621
    Ammonia - Ammonia volatilization - Arable crop - Crop residue - Grassland

    Crops and crop residues contribute to pollution of the environment by ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization. This study focusses on the volatilization from crop residues, defined as residues after a management action or frost i.e. residues that are left on the field after harvest, after killing by use of herbicides or after frost. The objective of this study was to develop a general methodology to calculate the volatilization from crop residues and to estimate their contribution to the NH 3 volatilization at a national scale. A regression model was developed to assess the NH 3 volatilization from crop residue based on the nitrogen (N) content of the residue (emission factor). Information on farm practices (degree of incorporation of residues, the application of crop killing and mowing frequency of grass), harvested crop areas, and N load in crop was used to calculate the emission from crop residues at national scale. The contribution of crop residues to the national NH 3 volatilization in the Netherlands was substantial and calculated at 1.9 million kg NH 3 -N. Grassland contributed about three quarters of total NH 3 volatilization from crop residues. Most volatilization occurs from the mowing losses (54%) and renovation of grassland (14%). Residues of arable crops also have a contribution of 14% to total volatilization. Within arable crops, potatoes are responsible for more than half of the NH 3 volatilization, with the largest contribution from seed potatoes, followed by sugar beet and cabbage crops. NH 3 volatilization from green manure crop residues (killed by freezing or spraying herbicides) is about half the volatilization from arable crop residues (7%). The developed general approach for estimating the NH 3 volatilization from crop residues was applied for the Netherlands but may also be applicable to other countries, taking into account their site specific emission factors and farm practices statistics.

    Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, NMVOC, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA), Update 2019
    Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt technical report 148) - 215
    The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated for animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a flow model for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Emissions from the application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated as well. The NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, as well as for carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with the criteria of international guidelines and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report provides an outline of and describes the background to the calculation of emissions according to the NEMA.
    A flexible semi-empirical model for estimating ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry
    Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Carozzi, Marco ; Chantigny, Martin ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Kupper, Thomas ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2019
    Atmospheric Environment 199 (2019). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 474 - 484.
    This work describes a semi-empirical dynamic model for predicting ammonia volatilization from field-applied slurry. Total volatilization is the sum of first-order transfer from two pools: a "fast" pool representing slurry in direct contact with the atmosphere, and a “slow” one representing fractions less available for emission due to infiltration or other processes. This simple structure is sufficient for reproducing the characteristic course of emission over time. Values for parameters that quantify effects of the following predictor variables on partitioning and transfer rates were estimated from a large data set of emission from cattle and pig slurry (490 field plots in 6 countries from the ALFAM2 database): slurry dry matter, application method, application rate, incorporation (shallow or deep), air temperature, wind speed, and rainfall rate. The effects of acidification were estimated using a smaller dataset. Model predictions generally matched the measured course of emission over time in a reserved data subset used for evaluation, although the model over- or under-estimated emission for many individual plots. Mean error was ca. 12% of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (and as much as 82% of measured emission) for 72 h cumulative emission, and model efficiency (fraction of observed variation explained by the model) was 0.5–0.7. Most of the explanatory power of the model was related to application method. The magnitude and sign of (apparent) model error varied among countries, highlighting the need to understand why measured emission varies among locations. The new model may be a useful tool for predicting fertilizer efficiency of field-applied slurries, assessing emission factors, and quantifying the impact of mitigation. The model can readily be applied or extended, and is available as an R package (ALFAM2, https://github.com/sashahafner/ALFAM2) or a simple spreadsheet (http://www.alfam.dk).
    Minder ammoniakemissie uit de melkveehouderij in het veenweidegebied : 25% reductie een haalbaar doel
    Verloop, Koos ; Verhoeff, Teus ; Oenema, Oenema ; Hoving, Idse ; Meerkerk, Barend ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Migchels, Gerard ; Haan, Michel de; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1129) - 31
    Development of a spray drift model for spray applications in fruit orchards
    Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van der; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Wenneker, M. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport WPR-566) - 71
    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2016 : Berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt technical report 119) - 124
    Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2016 were calculated using the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA). Some figures in the time series 1990-2015 were revised. The method calculates the NH3 emission from livestock manure based on the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. In 2016 NH3 emissions from livestock manure, fertilizer and other sources in agriculture, from hobby farms, private parties and manure disposal in nature areas amounted to 116.8 million kg NH3, 1.3 million kg more than in 2015. Nitrogen excretion increased due to expansion of the dairy herd, but because of a larger share of low emission housing and more manure exports outside agriculture, the increase in NH3 emission remained limited. N2O emissions in 2016 were 21.1 million kg at virtually the same level as in 2015(21.2). NO emissions in 2016 totaled 22.8 million kg compared to 22.6 million kg in 2015. CH4 emissions increased from 496 to512 million kg due to the expansion of the dairy herd. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5, 6.5 and 0.6 million kg respectively, did not change compared to 2015. NH3 emissions from livestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretion rates by livestock and low emission manure application. Emissions of N2O and NO also decreased over the same period, but less strongly (38% and 31% respectively), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and the shift from poultry housing systems with liquid manure towards solid manure systems. CH4 emissions reduced by 13% between 1990 and 2016 caused by a decrease in livestock numbers and increased feed efficiency of dairy cattle.
    Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands – update 2018 : calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
    Vonk, J. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Lagerwerf, L.A. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 115) - 176
    The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) are calculated from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils and carbon dioxide (CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission calculations with NEMA.
    The ALFAM2 database on ammonia emission from field-applied manure : Description and illustrative analysis
    Hafner, Sasha D. ; Pacholski, Andreas ; Bittman, Shabtai ; Burchill, William ; Bussink, Wim ; Chantigny, Martin ; Carozzi, Marco ; Génermont, Sophie ; Häni, Christoph ; Hansen, Martin N. ; Huijsmans, Jan ; Hunt, Derek ; Kupper, Thomas ; Lanigan, Gary ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Misselbrook, Tom ; Meisinger, John J. ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Nyord, Tavs ; Pedersen, Simon V. ; Sintermann, Jörg ; Thompson, Rodney B. ; Vermeulen, Bert ; Voylokov, Polina ; Williams, John R. ; Sommer, Sven G. - \ 2018
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 258 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1923 - p. 66 - 79.
    Ammonia - Cattle - Emission - Manure - Pig - Slurry
    Ammonia (NH3) emission from animal manure contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation, and the loss of reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems. Estimates of NH3 emission are necessary for national inventories and nutrient management, and NH3 emission from field-applied manure has been measured in many studies over the past few decades. In this work, we facilitate the use of these data by collecting and organizing them in the ALFAM2 database. In this paper we describe the development of the database and summarise its contents, quantify effects of application methods and other variables on emission using a data subset, and discuss challenges for data analysis and model development. The database contains measurements of emission, manure and soil properties, weather, application technique, and other variables for 1895 plots from 22 research institutes in 12 countries. Data on five manure types (cattle, pig, mink, poultry, mixed, as well as sludge and "other") applied to three types of crops (grass, small grains, maize, as well as stubble and bare soil) are included. Application methods represented in the database include broadcast, trailing hose, trailing shoe (narrow band application), and open slot injection. Cattle manure application to grassland was the most common combination, and analysis of this subset (with dry matter (DM) limited to <15%) was carried out using mixed- and fixed-effects models in order to quantify effects of management and environment on ammonia emission, and to highlight challenges for use of the database. Measured emission in this subset ranged from <1% to 130% of applied ammonia after 48 h. Results showed clear, albeit variable, reductions in NH3 emission due to trailing hose, trailing shoe, and open slot injection of slurry compared to broadcast application. There was evidence of positive effects of air temperature and wind speed on NH3 emission, and limited evidence of effects of slurry DM. However, random-effects coefficients for differences among research institutes were among the largest model coefficients, and showed a deviation from the mean response by more than 100% in some cases. The source of these institute differences could not be determined with certainty, but there is some evidence that they are related to differences in soils, or differences in application or measurement methods. The ALFAM2 database should be useful for development and evaluation of both emission factors and emission models, but users need to recognize the limitations caused by confounding variables, imbalance in the dataset, and dependence among observations from the same institute. Variation among measurements and in reported variables highlights the importance of international agreement on how NH3 emission should be measured, along with necessary types of supporting data and standard protocols for their measurement. Both are needed in order to produce more accurate and useful ammonia emission measurements. Expansion of the ALFAM2 database will continue, and readers are invited to contact the corresponding author for information on data submission. The latest version of the database is available at http://www.alfam.dk.
    A model for estimating seasonal trends of ammonia emission from cattle manure applied to grassland in the Netherlands
    Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Vermeulen, G.D. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Goedhart, P.W. - \ 2018
    Atmospheric Environment 173 (2018). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 231 - 238.
    Ammonia emission - Application techniques - Grassland - Manure - Model - Weather
    Field data on ammonia emission after liquid cattle manure (‘slurry’) application to grassland were statistically analysed to reveal the effect of manure and field characteristics and of weather conditions in eight consecutive periods after manure application. Logistic regression models, modelling the emission expressed as a percentage of the ammonia still present at the start of each period as the response variable, were developed separately for broadcast spreading, narrow band application (trailing shoe) and shallow injection. Wind speed, temperature, soil type, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content and dry matter content of the manure, application rate and grass height were selected as significant explanatory variables. Their effects differed for each application method and among periods. Temperature and wind speed were generally the most important drivers for emission. The fitted regression models were used to reveal seasonal trends in NH3 emission employing historical meteorological data for the years 1991–2014. The overall average emission was higher in early and midsummer than in early spring and late summer. This seasonal trend was most pronounced for broadcast spreading followed by narrow band application, and was almost absent for shallow injection. However, due to the large variation in weather conditions, emission on a particular day in early spring can be higher than on a particular day in summer. The analysis further revealed that, in a specific scenario and depending on the application technique, emission could be reduced with 20–30% by restricting manure application to favourable days, i.e. with weather conditions with minimal emission levels.
    Probabilistic approach for a countrywide risk assessment
    Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Massop, H.T.L. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 2017
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