Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biochar as a carrier : Trichoderma harzianum on Biochar to promote disease suppression in strawberry
Blok, Chris ; Diaz, Andrea ; Oud, Nina ; Streminska, Marta ; Huisman, Ming ; Khanh, Pham ; Fryda, Lydia ; Visser, Rianne - \ 2019
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Greenhouse Horticulture (Report / Wageningen University & Research, BU Greenhouse Horticulture WPR-893) - 44
For the ministry of economic affairs, ECN (Energy Centre Netherlands, part of TNO) develops energy production from renewable organic sources. Pyrolysis and gasification are technologies by which green bio gas and platform chemicals can be produced. Another option is to co-produce bio-energy and biochar. Biochar is the high-carbon low-solid product of the process. The economic feasibility of the latter processes dependents on the valorisation of biochar. A promising application is as (partial) peat replacement option in potting soil mixtures for greenhouse horticultural production. Wageningen University & Research Greenhouse Horticulture used biochar in dedicated research to accomplish two distinct goals. The first goal was to use biochar as an environmentally more friendly peat alternative in potting soil mixes for the production of strawberries. The second goal was to use biochar as carrier for beneficial micro–organisms for the production of strawberries. In a cultivation experiment the growth effects in a range of biochar–peat mixtures was studied. Trichoderma was added to protect the plant against a wilful addition of the disease Phytophthora. The results show 10, 20 and 30% v/v of biochar in a peat soil does not affect fresh or dry weight production of leaf and stem mass. The biochar addition does increase the fruit fresh weight production with about 5-10%. The addition of Trichoderma with biochar did not lead to an improved survival of the Trichoderma in the potting soil mixes. The added Phytophthora did not lead to a higher disease incidence, but the Phytophthora presence is lower in treatments with a higher dose of biochar.
Building an Artificial Stem Cell Niche: Prerequisites for Future 3D-Formation of Inner Ear Structures—Toward 3D Inner Ear Biotechnology
Groot, Simon C. de; Sliedregt, Karen ; Benthem, Peter Paul G. van; Rivolta, Marcelo N. ; Huisman, Margriet A. - \ 2019
The Anatomical Record (2019). - ISSN 1932-8486
3D - biotechnology - inner ear - stem cell

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in stem cells for the purpose of regenerative medicine to deliver a wide range of therapies to treat many diseases. However, two-dimensional cultures of stem cells are of limited use when studying the mechanism of pathogenesis of diseases and the feasibility of a treatment. Therefore, research is focusing on the strengths of stem cells in the three-dimensional (3D) structures mimicking organs, that is, organoids, or organ-on-chip, for modeling human biology and disease. As 3D technology advances, it is necessary to know which signals stem cells need to multiply and differentiate into complex structures. This holds especially true for the complex 3D structure of the inner ear. Recent work suggests that although other factors play a role, the extracellular matrix (ECM), including its topography, is crucial to mimic a stem cell niche in vitro and to drive stem cells toward the formation of the tissue of interest. Technological developments have led to the investigation of biomaterials that closely resemble the native ECM. In the fast forward moving research of organoids and organs-on-chip, the inner ear has hardly received attention. This review aims to provide an overview, by describing the general context in which cells, matrix and morphogens cooperate in order to build a tissue, to facilitate research in 3D inner ear technology. Anat Rec, 2019.

Erosion of archaeological sites: Quantifying the threat using optically stimulated luminescence and fallout isotopes
Huisman, H. ; Kort, J.W. de; Ketterer, M.E. ; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Heiden, M. van der; Soest, Maud van; Egmond, Fenny van - \ 2019
Geoarchaeology: an international journal 34 (2019)4. - ISSN 0883-6353 - p. 478 - 494.
Although visible evidence shows that erosion has damaged many archaeological sites, especially when tilled, there has hitherto been scant attention to its quantitative assessment. Accordingly, the archaeology communities lack insight into whether long‐term threats to the stability and integrity of soils at these sites allow these cultural repositories to be preserved for future human generations. Of the techniques that are available to measure erosion rates, few have been tested on the timescales needed. We selected three archaeological sites with high expected erosion rates. We combined optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating with analyses of radioactive fallout isotope distributions to assess erosion patterns and rates. An age–depth representation of OSL single‐aliquot results was developed to determine past erosion, and to identify stable land surfaces on centennial to millennia timescales. Fall‐out isotopes of cesium (Cs) and plutonium (Pu) were suitable for shorter timescales: The 240Pu/239Pu ratios and a correlation between activities of 239+240Pu and 137Cs demonstrated the weapons testing fallout origin of these isotopes in the ~1952–1966 timeframe. Erosion rates in recent decades ranged from 2 to 6 mm/year on the studied sites. Our results indicate that erosion is not only tied to the past, but keeps on threatening archaeological sites.
Fraud vulnerability in the Dutch milk supply chain : Assessments of farmers, processors and retailers
Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. ; Hettinga, K.A. ; Liu, N. ; Heck, J. ; Schrijver, G.H. ; Gaiardoni, L. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2019
Food Control 95 (2019). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 308 - 317.
Dairy supply chain - Fraud factor - Fraud mitigation - Milk adulteration - Organic farm - Vulnerability assessment

Food fraud surfaces regularly, anywhere in the world. Not only the companies involved in food fraud suffer from losses when food fraud occurs, other actors in the supply chain and branch of industry are often painted with the same brush. Milk has been a common fraud target in the past and, therefore, fraud is a concern for companies involved in milk production. In order to manage and prevent fraud in the milk supply chain, a good insight into the vulnerabilities of companies and their supply chain networks is pivotal. The aim of the current study is to understand (a) the fraud vulnerability of the general milk supply chain in the Netherlands and its tiers (farmers, processors, retailers) and (b) the differences in fraud vulnerability of farmers producing organic milk, green intermediate ‘pasture milk’ and conventional milk. The SSAFE food fraud assessment tool was slightly adapted to the milk supply chain and used to examine the fraud vulnerability of the 38 businesses of the three tiers in the study: 30 farmers, 4 milk processors and 4 retailers. Forty-eight fraud factors related to opportunities, motivations and control measures were examined. Subsequently, key fraud factors were identified. The three tier groups showed major similarities in motivation related fraud factors, and large differences in fraud opportunities and controls. There were also differences observed between the organic and non-organic farmers, with organic farmers being slightly more vulnerable than their non-organic counterparts. From this study it appears that the milk supply chain in the Netherlands is low to medium vulnerable to fraud but the key factors contributing to the vulnerability differ between the tiers (farmers, processors, retailers). Management of the fraud risks requires consideration of these differences.

Estuarine fish passes in the northern Netherlands provide contrasting windows of opportunity for migrating fish species (#188)
Huisman, Jeroen - \ 2018
Evergreen – bollen Plantengroei bevorderende rhizobacteriën
Dam, M.F.N. van; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Huisman, Huei Ming ; Greve, Gerdit ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Archeologisch onderzoek in de omgeving van het prehistorische vuursteenmijnveld te Rijckholt - St.Geertruid : De resultaten van 2011, 2012 en 2013
Brinkkemper, O. ; Bruinink, A.C. ; Deeben, J. ; Guralnik, B. ; Hoebe, P. ; Huisman, H. ; Kort, J.W. de; Laarman, F. ; Meirvenne, M. van; Orbons, J. ; Os, B. van; Parys, V. van; Schreurs, J. ; Theunissen, L. ; Verhegge, J. ; Versendaal, Alice ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2018
Amersfoort : Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057993022 - 371 p.
Formation of a symbiotic host-microbe interface: the role of SNARE-mediated regulation of exocytosis
Huisman, Rik - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.H.J. Bisseling, co-promotor(en): E.H.M. Limpens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463323178 - 158

At the heart of endosymbiosis microbes are hosted inside living cells in specialized membrane compartments that from a host-microbe interface, where nutrients and signal are efficiently exchanged. Such symbiotic interfaces include arbuscules produced by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and organelle-like symbiosomes formed during the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Also during pathogenic interactions, microbes such as biotrophic fungi and oomycetes are hosted in specialized membrane compartments called haustoria. The formation of such new membrane compartments requires a major reorganization of the host endomembrane system, with a special role for the targeting of secretory/exocytotic vesicles and their cargo to the newly forming interfaces. In this thesis, I studied how exocytotic membrane traffic is regulated to facilitate the formation and maintenance of a host-microbe interface. Therefore, I especially focussed on the role of SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins, as key components of the exocytotic machinery, in symbiotic interface formation.

In Chapter 1, I introduce the different symbioses in which host-microbe interfaces are formed, and the role of the host-microbe interface in these symbioses. Further, I introduce the evolutionary relationship between the different symbioses: AM symbiosis is the most ancient endosymbiosis in plants, which provided the blueprint for different symbioses that evolved later; other symbiotic microbes including rhizobia co-opted the signalling program and adaptations to membrane trafficking required for arbuscule formation, to be hosted inside cells. Finally, I will introduce the symbiosis dedicated SNAREs as key regulators of exocytosis to form a host-microbe interface.

In Chapter 2, we tested the long-standing hypothesis that pathogens make use of the AM symbiotic program to allow the formation of haustoria. To test this, we set up a pathosystem using the biotrophic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora that is able to form haustoria in Medicago truncatula root cells. Using M. truncatula mutants impaired in AM and rhizobium symbioses, we demonstrated that neither the common symbiotic signalling genes, nor symbiosis dedicated regulators of vesicle trafficking are required for haustorium formation. This showed that biotrophic pathogens like P. palmivora, do not hijack the symbiotic program to be accommodated inside plant cells.

In Chapter 3, we identified the t-SNARE SYP132α as a key regulator of both arbuscule and symbiosome formation. During vesicle fusion, a vesicle SNARE (v-SNARE) on the vesicle forms a complex with a target membrane SNAREs (t-SNAREs) on the target membrane. Previous work in our lab identified specific exocytotic v-SNAREs required for arbuscule and symbiosome formation. We identified the t-SNARE counterpart SYP132, and demonstrated that in most dicot plants SYP132 is spliced into two spliceforms; SYP132α and SYP132β. Interestingly, alternative splicing of SYP132 leading to the dominant use of a SYP132α-specific last exon coincides with the accommodation of AM fungi in arbuscule forming root cortex cells and rhizobium bacteria in nodule cells. Using a spliceform-specific RNAi construct, we showed that SYP132α is specifically required for the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in both AM symbiosis and rhizobium symbiosis. Furthermore, we showed that during arbuscular collapse, the two spliceforms localize differently to healthy and degrading arbuscule branches. These results indicated that alternative splicing of SYP132 allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

The evolutionary expansion of SNAREs in plants has been hypothesized to have allowed the adaptation of exocytosis to different biological processes. In Chapter 4, we studied what makes the symbiotic SNAREs so special in comparison to their non-symbiotic family members, of which many are also expressed in arbuscule cells. We hypothesized that symbiotic SNAREs define a distinct secretory pathway, that ensures specificity of protein delivery to the host-microbe interface. We show that all tested SYP1 family proteins, and most of the non-symbiotic VAMP72 members, were able to complement the defect in arbuscule formation upon knock-down of their symbiotic counterparts when expressed at sufficient levels. This functional redundancy is in line with the ability of all tested v- and t-SNARE combinations to form SNARE complexes at the peri-arbuscular membrane. This showed that the symbiotic SNAREs do not selectively interact to define a distinct vesicle trafficking pathway, but that their essential role in arbuscule formation can be largely explained by their dominant expression level. Interestingly, the symbiotic t-SNARE SYP132α appeared to occur less in SNARE complexes with v-SNAREs compared to the non-symbiotic syntaxins in the arbuscule cells, suggesting a more strict regulation of symbiotic SNARE complexes at the interface.

Since the alternative splicing of SYP132 does not affect the total transcript levels, we hypothesized that there must be a functional difference between SYP132α and –β, potentially leading to subtle phenotypes that may have gone undetected in the Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated complementation approach applied in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, we therefore generated and characterized a stable mutant line in which all SYP132 transcripts are constitutively spliced into the non-symbiotic SYP132β form. Although this mutant is normally colonized by AM fungi, with no effects on arbuscule morphology, it has a severely reduced biomass after mycorrhization. This hints to a yet unknown role for SYP132α to control arbuscule functionality, and offers an explanation for the evolutionary conservation of the SYP132 alternative splicing in dicot plants. Finally, using fluorescent timer fusions to both SYP132 isoforms, we showed that the difference in localization of the two proteins during arbuscular collapse is the result of a different (endocytic) turnover of the two spliceforms at the healthy/functional arbuscule branches, possibly due to a difference in interactions with VAMPs. Together, our data show that, although both SYP132 isoforms can mediate arbuscule formation, SYP132α is functionally different from SYP132β, which may reveal new aspects of the control of nutrient exchange.

In Chapter 6, I discuss the data generated during my thesis research in relation to additional symbiosis dedicated regulators of exocytosis, as well as in relation to other biological processes that depend on specific secretory SNAREs. Following our conclusion that the symbiotic SNAREs do not mark a separate exocytosis pathway, but are functionally different from non-symbiotic SNAREs, I will speculate on the possible scenarios in which symbiosis dedicated SNAREs are specialized for host-microbe interface functionality.

Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study
Huisman, Merel J. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Vermeulen, Esther ; Muilwijk, Mirthe ; Snijder, Marieke B. ; Nicolaou, Mary N. ; Valkengoed, Irene G.M. Van - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2072-6643
HELIUS study - HSHF - Multi-ethnic - T2D - Western dietary pattern
The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on this association in minority populations is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the HSHF dietary pattern and its role in the unequal burden of T2D prevalence in a multi-ethnic population in The Netherlands. We included 4694 participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS study. Dutch participants scored the highest on the HSHF dietary pattern, followed by the Turkish, Moroccan, African Surinamese, and South-Asian Surinamese participants. Prevalence ratios (PR) for T2D were then calculated using multivariate cox regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors. Higher adherence to an HSHF diet was not significantly related to T2D prevalence in the total study sample (PR 1.04 high versus low adherence, 95% CI: 0.80-1.35). In line, adjustment for HSHF diet score did not explain the ethnic differences in T2D. For instance, the PR of the South-Asian Surinamese vs. Dutch changed from 2.76 (95% CI: 2.05-3.72) to 2.90 (95% CI: 2.11-3.98) after adjustment for HSHF. To conclude, a western dietary pattern high in sugar and saturated fat was not associated with T2D, and did not explain the unequal burden in prevalence of T2D across the ethnic groups.
Differences in fraud vulnerability in various food supply chains and their tiers
Ruth, S.M. van; Luning, P.A. ; Silvis, I.C.J. ; Yang, Y. ; Huisman, W. - \ 2018
Food Control 84 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 375 - 381.
Bananas - Fish - Meat - Milk - Olive oil - Spices
Food fraud results from the interaction of motivated offenders with opportunities, and lack of control measures. The vulnerability to food fraud varies across chain actors (tiers) though, but insights on prime fraud drivers and enablers, as well as chain areas where vulnerabilities might exist are lacking. In the current study the fish, meat, milk, olive oil, organic bananas, and spice supply chains were assessed for their fraud vulnerabilities. The differences and similarities in vulnerabilities across the supply chains, as well as between groups of chain actors were evaluated using the SSAFE food fraud vulnerability assessment tool. Multiple correspondence analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering were applied for exploratory data analysis, and differences between chains and actors were assessed by analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Thirteen fraud factors related to opportunities and motivations scored high across all supply chains indicating their importance as fraud drivers and enablers. Control measures varied considerably across supply chains and actor groups, with technical (hard) controls generally being more in place than managerial (soft) controls. Approximately half of the fraud factors were impacted by the type of commodity chain, and one out of seven of the fraud factors by the actor group. From the current sample group overall fraud vulnerability appeared highest for the spice chain, which was followed by the olive oil, meat, fish, milk and organic banana chains. Among the actor groups, the wholesale/traders group appeared most vulnerable, followed by retailers and processors. The current results provide new insights in the fraud factors determining fraud vulnerability in various supply chains, and the (dis)similarities in fraud vulnerability across supply chains and actor groups which helps to combat future food fraud.
Data from sediment sampling campaign, Sand Motor
Huisman, B.J.A. ; Bart, L. ; Schipper, M.A. de; Meirelles, S. ; Sirks, E.E. ; Tonnon, P.K. ; Zwaag, J. van der; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2017
composition - NeMo project - sampling - Sand Motor - sediment
Sediment sampling data from measurement campaign at the Sand Motor
Kelmond-Beekerveld (gemeente Beek); erosieonderzoek in het kader van het TOPsites project
Huisman, D.J. ; Kort, J.W. de; Derickx, W. ; Heiden, M. van der; Egmond, Fenny van; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Soest, M. van; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992742 - 92 p.
Nivellering en erosie zijn een algemeen bekend
probleem voor geaccidenteerde terreinen
waarop akkerbouw plaatsvindt. Grond zonder
vegetatie is gevoelig voor erosie, terwijl ploegen
zorgt voor vervlakking en nivellering van reliëfverschillen.
Verschillende tests zijn gedaan, met
name in het buitenland, om de snelheid van
deze nivellering en erosie te karakteriseren.
De resultaten zijn echter niet eenduidig, mede
omdat verschillende tijdschalen worden
Om beter grip te krijgen op de snelheid van
erosie en nivellering op archeologische vindplaatsen
als gevolg van akkerbouw zijn vijf
locaties uitgezocht. Met opzet is gekozen voor
locaties waarvan de verwachting is dat erosie/
nivellering sterk is, zodat ze kunnen worden
gezien als worst-case scenario. Binnen die groep
is gekozen voor vindplaatsen waar eerder
relevante gegevens zijn verzameld over
degradatie en conservering. Twee (Beek-
Kelmond en Meerssen – Onderste Herkenberg)
liggen in het Limburgse lössgebied; drie andere
(Schouwen, Grote Houw en Tjessens) zijn
terpen/wierden. Op deze locaties worden
verschillende technieken ingezet om erosie en
nivellering door de tijd in kaart te brengen.
Uit het onderzoek op de vroegneolitische
(Lineaire Bandkeramiek) vindplaats Kelmond-
Beekerveld blijkt dat er aanwijzingen zijn voor
van significante erosie, met name op het steilste
deel van de helling. Hoewel het meeste
colluvium op zijn laatst gevormd is tijdens de
late middeleeuwen, zijn er duidelijke aanwijzingen
dat erosie actief was in de afgelopen
decennia, en op dit moment ook nog plaatsvindt.
De snelheid waarop de erosie plaatsvindt is
aanzienlijk; in de afgelopen 50 jaar is enkele
decimeters aan grond verdwenen van de site,
met name rond de hellingknik. De oudere
datering van het colluvium en de aanwezigheid
van een grote concentratie sporen op het steilste
deel van de helling zijn aanwijzingen dat deze
erosie komt na een langere periode van landschappelijke
De vergelijking van de maaiveldhoogtes uit
verschillende jaren en de variaties daarin (met
name de vergelijking tussen de twee generaties
van het Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland)
duiden op erosie, maar deze resultaten op zich
zijn niet overtuigend. De combinatie van 137Cs en
239+240Pu metingen enerzijds en OSL metingen
anderzijds geven wel uitkomsten die geschikt
zijn voor het identificeren en kwantificeren van
erosie en colluviatie.
Veel van de hier geteste methoden bleken niet
geschikt om de erosiesnelheden te meten. In de
meeste gevallen waren ze te onnauwkeurig
(bijvoorbeeld 137Cs oppervlaktekartering), waren
de effecten te onduidelijk (AHN/LIDAR
verschillen) of waren er oncontroleerbare
variaties in de gehaltes van bepaalde tracers.
De tracers 137Cs en 239+240Pu gaven als enige wel
waardes waaraan recente erosie kon worden
afgelezen. De schatting van de snelheden is
gebaseerd op een aantal aannames, waardoor
de schattingen vooral als indicatie moeten
worden gezien. Nader onderzoek naar het
gebruik van deze isotopencombinatie zou de
betrouwbaarheid van de schatting kunnen
OSL bleek vooral geschikt om erosie en depositie
op tijdschalen van (tientallen) eeuwen te
bepalen. Het is daarmee een goede ondersteunende
techniek – in combinatie met tracers – om
de landschappelijke ontwikkeling en erosiegevoeligheid
van een vindplaats te onderzoeken.
Voor toekomstig onderzoek, waarbij het
schatten van mate van erosie van belang is, is
het aan te raden om een combinatie van 137Cs en
239+240Pu als tracers en OSL als ondersteuning en
landschapsontwikkeling toe te passen. Een extra
voordeel van deze combinatie is dat ze ook een
indicatie kunnen geven van de mate van bioturbatie
op een vindplaats en de timing ervan.
Ten aanzien van het monument zelf kunnen een
aantal aanbevelingen worden gedaan. Uit het
onderzoek blijkt dat er sprake is van stevige
erosie op delen van het terrein. Omdat veel van
de sporen direct onder de bouwvoor liggen, is de
vindplaats zeer kwetsbaar. Eenmaal dieper
ploegen dan de bouwvoor brengt schade en
informatieverlies met zich mee. Een gebruik van
het monument als grasland verdient daarom de
Erosie-onderzoek op de Grote Houw Oost in het kader van TOPsites
Huisman, D.J. ; Heiden, M. van der; Derickx, W. ; Kort, J.W. de; Reimann, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Thasing, S. ; Egmond, Fenny van; Soest, M. van; Verplanke, P. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992780
Grote Houw is één van de vier locaties waar in
het kader van het TOPsites project onderzoek is
uitgevoerd naar de snelheid van erosie. Doel was
om te proberen vast te stellen hoe snel op deze
locatie erosie plaatsvindt. Bijkomende doelen
waren (1) om te testen welke methodes het
meest geschikt zijn in een dergelijke context om
erosiesnelheden te meten en (2) om te onderzoeken
in hoeverre erosie schade toebrengt aan
de archeologische vindplaats.
Grote Houw – een terrein van zeer hoge archeologische
waarde – bevat een deel van een
complexe dubbelwierde. De verschillende
methodes die werden getest voor het meten van
de erosiesnelheden gaven variabele resultaten:
• Een vergelijking van de maaiveldhoogtes
volgens AHN1, AHN2 en een nieuwe groundbased
LIDAR opname leverde geen duidelijk
beeld op.
• Met booronderzoek zijn aanwijzingen voor
erosie gevonden in de vorm van variaties in
diktes van de bouwvoor.
• Een intensieve veldkartering leverde een
duidelijk beeld van de vondspreiding in relatie
tot de ligging van de wierde. Er waren echter
geen eenduidige aanwijzingen voor het recent
opploegen van vondstmateriaal.
• Vijf profielputten werden gegraven om de
bodemopbouw te bestuderen – met aandacht
voor de dikte van de bouwvoor en het evt.
aanwezig zijn van colluvium.
• OSL analyses (uit de profielputten) bleken
vooral geschikt om erosie- en sedimentatieprocessen
op langere tijdschalen te
onderzoek. Daarbij was de spreiding aan
dateringen binnen één monster van groter
belang dan een absolute datering. De
metingen gaven een duidelijk beeld van de
ontstaansgeschiedenis van de wierde. Erosie
of colluviumvorming was niet duidelijk aan te
• Met metingen van de gehaltes aan 137Cs en
plutonium in het profiel bleek het wel
mogelijk om schattingen van erosiesnelheden
te maken over de periode van ca. 1960
(detonatie van waterstofbommen in de
atmosfeer) tot nu. Schatting is dat gedurende
deze 50 jaar maximaal 2 mm/jaar erosie is
• De resultaten van 137Cs oppervlaktemetingen
waren op deze locatie niet geschikt om erosie
vast te stellen.
Meerssen – Onderste Herkenberg; erosieonderzoek in het kader van TOPsites
Huisman, D.J. ; Groot, T. de; Kort, J.W. de; Derickx, W. ; Egmond, F.M. van; Heiden, M. van der; Reimann, T. ; Rensink, E. ; Saey, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Parys, V. Van; Soest, M. van; Meirvenne, M. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2017
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - ISBN 9789057992797 - 112 p.
Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors
Ruth, Saskia M. van; Huisman, Wim ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2017
Trends in Food Science and Technology 67 (2017). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 70 - 75.
Counterfeiting - Criminology - Food adulteration - Fraud risk - Vulnerability assessment

Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However, knowledge on what determines food fraud vulnerability is limited. Scope and approach In the current study a new food fraud vulnerability concept is explored. The concept is based on the criminological routine activity theory and key food fraud vulnerability factors are subsequently extracted and identified. Key findings and conclusions Opportunities, motivations and control measures are defined in this concept as the three main elements of food fraud vulnerability. They can be subdivided into technical opportunities, opportunities in time and place, economic drivers, culture and behavior, as well as technical and managerial control measures. They are further detailed in 31 fraud vulnerability factors. Food fraud vulnerability threats may originate from both the external and the internal environment of a business which means that several vulnerability factors need to be considered at multiple environmental levels, i.e. the level of the business itself, its suppliers, its customers, the wider chain and at the (inter)national level. The concept was further developed into a practical food fraud vulnerability self-assessment tool with 50 questions and answering grids. This will be a valuable first step towards fraud prevention and will assist in the global combat on food fraud.

Migration of banks along the Kapuas River, West Kalimantan
Vermeulen, B. ; Huisman, A.K. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Pramulya, M. - \ 2016
In: River Flow - Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics, RIVER FLOW 2016. - CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9781138029132 - p. 1249 - 1253.

In this study we analyse the migration rates along the Kapuas River, West Kalimantan. The migration rates are analysed by digitizing sets of Landsat images. Cloud detection and cloud shadow detection is used to mask the images, then they are combined to obtain water bodies. The difference between images from different years between 1973 and 2013 is used to obtain migration rates. A stream reconaissance was performed along the River to validate the results. The results of the stream reconaissance show good agreement with the Landsat based erosion rates.

Erosion and Errors : Testing the Use of Repeated LIDAR Analyses and Erosion Modelling for the Assessment and Prediction of Erosion of Archaeological Sites?
Huisman, H. ; Heeres, Glenn ; Os, Bertil van; Derickx, Willem ; Schoorl, J.M. - \ 2016
Conservation and Management of Archaeological sites 18 (2016)1-3. - ISSN 1350-5033 - p. 205 - 216.
Slope soil erosion is one of the main threats to archaeological sites. Several methods were applied to establish the erosion rates at archaeological sites. Digital elevation models (DEMs) from three different dates were used. We compared the elevations from these three models to estimate erosion. We also applied the landscape evolution model LAPSUS with the available DEMs as basis. Spatial processing errors and effects of tillage and harvesting practices explain most of the DEM elevation differences between the recordings. Increased DEM resolution does not result in more precise or reliable erosion. The present technological level of landscape evolution modelling makes it possible to indicate areas most vulnerable to soil displacement by surface runoff erosion and tillage. Future research, using sediment and surface dating techniques such as deposit of radionuclides, heavy metals and OSL dating will provide a more accurate estimation of erosion rates and the subsequent impact on archaeological sites.
Heading south or north: novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea : Novel insights on European silver eel Anguilla anguilla migration in the North Sea
Huisman, Jeroen ; Verhelst, Pieterjan ; Verhelst, Pieterjan ; Deneudt, K. ; Goethals, Peter ; Moens, Tom ; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J. ; Nolting, Carsten ; Reubens, Jan ; Schollema, Peter Paul ; Winter, Hendrik V. ; Mouton, Ans - \ 2016
Marine Ecology Progress Series 554 (2016). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 257 - 262.
Conservation - European eel - Marine migration - Telemetry

The European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is a critically endangered fish species that migrates from coastal and freshwater habitats to the Sargasso Sea to spawn. However, the exact migration routes and destination of European eel are still unknown. We are the first to observe southward migrating silver eels in the North Sea. Eels were tagged with acoustic transmitters in 3 different river catchments in Western Europe and swam to the Dutch-Belgian coastal zone during their spawning migration. Therefore, at least part of the Western European population of eels migrates towards the English Channel, in contrast with the Nordic migration route hypothesis. This different migratory route may affect the energy reserve available for spawning and therefore the contribution of these eels to the population. As such, increasing our knowledge of marine eel migrations contributes to the goal of achieving sustainable eel stock management.

Modeling soil processes : Review, key challenges, and new perspectives
Vereecken, H. ; Schnepf, A. ; Hopmans, J.W. ; Javaux, M. ; Or, D. ; Roose, T. ; Vanderborght, J. ; Young, M.H. ; Amelung, W. ; Aitkenhead, M. ; Allison, S.D. ; Assouline, S. ; Baveye, P. ; Berli, M. ; Brüggemann, N. ; Finke, P. ; Flury, M. ; Gaiser, T. ; Govers, G. ; Ghezzehei, T. ; Hallett, P. ; Hendricks Franssen, H.J. ; Heppell, J. ; Horn, R. ; Huisman, J.A. ; Jacques, D. ; Jonard, F. ; Kollet, S. ; Lafolie, F. ; Lamorski, K. ; Leitner, D. ; Mcbratney, A. ; Minasny, B. ; Montzka, C. ; Nowak, W. ; Pachepsky, Y. ; Padarian, J. ; Romano, N. ; Roth, K. ; Rothfuss, Y. ; Rowe, E.C. ; Schwen, A. ; Šimůnek, J. ; Tiktak, A. ; Dam, Jos van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Vogel, H.J. ; Vrugt, J.A. ; Wöhling, T. ; Wöhling, T. ; Young, I.M. - \ 2016
Vadose Zone Journal 15 (2016)5. - ISSN 1539-1663 - 57 p.

The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosystem services, with considerable uncertainty remaining in the quality of predictions and several challenges that remain yet to be addressed. First, there is a need to improve exchange of knowledge and experience among the different disciplines in soil science and to reach out to other Earth science communities. Second, the community needs to develop a new generation of soil models based on a systemic approach comprising relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes to address critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of soil processes and their interactions. Overcoming these challenges will facilitate exchanges between soil modeling and climate, plant, and social science modeling communities. It will allow us to contribute to preserve and improve our assessment of ecosystem services and advance our understanding of climate-change feedback mechanisms, among others, thereby facilitating and strengthening communication among scientific disciplines and society. We review the role of modeling soil processes in quantifying key soil processes that shape ecosystem services, with a focus on provisioning and regulating services. We then identify key challenges in modeling soil processes, including the systematic incorporation of heterogeneity and uncertainty, the integration of data and models, and strategies for effective integration of knowledge on physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. We discuss how the soil modeling community could best interface with modern modeling activities in other disciplines, such as climate, ecology, and plant research, and how to weave novel observation and measurement techniques into soil models. We propose the establishment of an international soil modeling consortium to coherently advance soil modeling activities and foster communication with other Earth science disciplines. Such a consortium should promote soil modeling platforms and data repository for model development, calibration and intercomparison essential for addressing contemporary challenges.

A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis
Huisman, Rik ; Hontelez, Jan ; Mysore, Kirankumar S. ; Wen, Jiangqi ; Bisseling, Ton ; Limpens, Erik - \ 2016
New Phytologist 211 (2016)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1338 - 1351.
Alternative splicing - Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) - Arbuscule - Host-microbe interface - N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) - Rhizobium - Symbiosis - Symbiosome

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

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