Potentials of biological oxidation processes for the treatment of spent sulfidic caustics containing thiols
Sipma, J. ; Svitelskaya, A.V. ; Mark, B. van der; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lettinga, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Janssen, A.J.H. - \ 2004
Water Research 38 (2004)20. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4331 - 4340.
methylated sulfur-compounds - thioparus tk-m - dimethyl sulfide - hydrogen-sulfide - mercaptan oxidase - peat biofilter - methanethiol - degradation - kinetics - removal
This research focused on the biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics from refineries, which contain mainly hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol (MT) and ethanethiol (ET). Also various organic compounds can be present such as BTEX. Biological oxidation of 2.5 mM NIT in batch experiments occurred after NIT was first auto-oxidized into dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) whereafter oxidation into sulfate was completed in 350h. DMDS as sole substrate was completely oxidized within 40 h. Therefore, DMDS formation seems to play an important role in detoxification of MT. Biological oxidation of ET and buthanethiol was not successful in batch experiments. Complete oxidation of NIT and ET was observed in flow-through reactor experiments. Simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and NIT was achieved when treating a synthetic spent caustic, containing 10 mM sulfide and 2.5 mM NIT, in a bubble column reactor with carrier material at a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. Addition of 7.5 mM phenol, a common pollutant of spent caustics, did not adversely affect the biological oxidation process and phenol was completely removed from the effluent. Finally, three different spent caustics solutions from refineries were successfully treated. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anaerobic sludge granulation
Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Castro Lopes, S.I. de; Lettinga, G. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2004
Water Research 38 (2004)6. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1376 - 1389.
rioolslib - anaërobe behandeling - korrels - afvalwaterbehandeling - sewage sludge - anaerobic treatment - granules - waste water treatment - uasb reactors - start-up - molecular-mechanism - blanket reactors - bed reactors - hydrophobicity - pelletization - architecture - performance
This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stages of the formation of anaerobic granules follow the same principles as biofilm formation of bacteria on solid surfaces. There exist strong evidence that inert carriers play an important positive role in granulation. Most researchers conclude that Methanosaeta concilii is a key organism in granulation. Only the Cape Town Hypothesis presumes that an autotrophic hydrogenotrophic organism, i.e., Methanobacterium strain AZ, growing under conditions of high H-2-pressures, is the key organism in granulation. Many authors focus on the initial stage of granulation, and only a few contributions discuss the latter stages in granulation: granule maturation and multiplication. Granule enhancing factors in the latter stages predominantly rely on manipulation of the selection pressure, through which selectively heavier sludge particles are retained in the UASB reactor. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development of a novel Process for the Biological conversion of H2S and Methanethiol to Elemental Sulfur
Sipma, J. ; Janssen, A.J.H. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2003
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 82 (2003)1. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 1 - 11.
afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - zwavel - rioolafvalwater - slib - methanol - reductie - bioreactoren - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - sulfur - sewage effluent - sludges - methanol - reduction - bioreactors - granular sludge reactor - methylotrophic methanogen - sp-nov - waste-water - estuarine methanogen - sulfide - degradation - sediments - dimethylsulfide - bacterium
The feasibility of anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing methanethiol (MT), an extremely volatile and malodorous sulfur compound, was investigated in lab-scale bioreactors. Inoculum biomass originating from full-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities was used. Several sludges were tested for their ability to degrade MT
The feasibility of anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing methanethiol (MT), an extremely volatile and malodorous sulfur compound, was investigated in lab-scale bioreactors. Inoculum biomass originating from full-scale anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities was used. Several sludges, tested for their ability to degrade MT, revealed the presence of organisms capable of metabolizing MT as their sole source of energy. Furthermore, batch tests were executed to gain a better understanding of the inhibition potential of MT. It was found that increasing MT concentrations affected acetotrophic organisms more dramatically than methylotrophic organisms. Continuous reactor experiments, using two lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors (R1 and R2), aimed to determine the maximal MT load and the effect of elevated sulfide concentrations on MT conversion. Both reactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of about 7 hours, a temperature of 30degreesC, and a pH of between 7.3 and 7.6. At the highest influent MT concentration applied, 14 mM in R1, corresponding to a volumetric loading rate of about 50 mM MT per day, 87% of the organic sulfur was recovered as hydrogen sulfide (12.2 mM) and the remainder as volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). Upon decreasing the HRT to 3.5 to 4.0 h at a constant MT loading rate, the sulfide concentration in the reactor decreased to 8 mM and MT conversion efficiency increased to values near 100%. MT conversion was apparently inhibited by the high sulfide concentrations in the reactor. The specific MT degradation rate, as determined after 120 days of operation in R1, was 2.83 +/- 0.27 mmol MT g VSS-1 day(-1). During biological desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon phases, such as with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), the combined removal of hydrogen sulfide and MT is desired. In R2, the simultaneous addition of sodium sulfide and MT was therefore studied and the effect of elevated sulfide concentrations was investigated. The addition of sodium sulfide resulted in enhanced disintegration of sludge granules, causing significant washout of biomass. Additional acetate, added to stimulate growth of methanogenic bacteria to promote granulation, was hardly converted at the termination of the experimental period. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55°C) methanol degradation in sulfate reducing granular sludge reactors
Vallero, M.V.G. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lettinga, G. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2003
Water Research 37 (2003)10. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2269 - 2280.
anaërobe behandeling - afvalwaterbehandeling - methanol - reductie - natriumchloride - sulfaten - rioolafvalwater - slib - anaerobic treatment - waste water treatment - methanol - reduction - sodium chloride - sulfates - sewage effluent - sludges - sp-nov - processing wastewaters - sodium inhibition - bacteria - methanogenesis - temperature - antagonism - digestion
The effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55degreesC) methanol conversion in the presence of excess of sulfate (COD/SO42-=0.5) was investigated in two 6.5L lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors inoculated with granular sludge previously not adapted to NaCl
The effect of NaCl on thermophilic (55degreesC) methanol conversion in the presence of excess of sulfate (COD/SO42-=0.5) was investigated in two 6.5L lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors inoculated with granular sludge previously not adapted to NaCl. Methanol was almost completely used for sulfate reduction in the absence of NaCl when operating at an organic loading rate of 5 g COD L-1 day(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 10 h. The almost fully sulfidogenic sludge consisted of both granules and flocs developed after approximately 100 days in both reactors. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) outcompeted methane producing archaea (MPA) for methanol, but acetate represented a side-product, accounting for maximal 25% of the total COD converted. Either MPA or SRB did not use acetate as substrate in activity tests. High NaCl concentrations (25 g L-1) completely inhibited methanol degradation, whereas low salt concentrations (2.5 g NaCl L-1) provoked considerable changes in the metabolic fate of methanol. The MPA were most sensitive towards the NaCl shock (25 g L-1). In contrast, the addition of 2.5 g L-1 of NaCl stimulated MPA and homoacetogenic bacteria. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of sulphate on methanol conversion in mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors
Weijma, J. ; Chi, T.M. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2003
Process Biochemistry 38 (2003)9. - ISSN 1359-5113 - p. 1259 - 1266.
thermophilic methanosarcina - carbon source - reduction - methanogenesis - strain - ethanol - energy
Mesophilic (30 °C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors were fed with an influent containing sulphate (2 g l-1) and methanol (1.33 g l-1). More than 90% of the methanol was mineralised to methane, while only ˜5–10% of the methanol was used for sulphate reduction. This pattern was independent of short-term pH variations in the range from 5 to 8, addition of acetate as co-substrate and type of granular seed sludge (methanogenic and sulphidogenic). On average 0.4 gSO42- lreactor-1 per day was reduced under these conditions. Also applying 1-day temperature shocks of 65 or 80 °C did not stimulate sulphate reduction. Sulphite, added as an alternative acceptor, appeared to be disproportionated to sulphate and sulphide. Results show that methanol conversion to methane in upflow sludge bed reactors is very stable in the presence of sulphate. This suggests that under mesophilic conditions, methanol is not a suitable feedstock for sulphate-reducing processes in such reactors.
|Biotechnological treatment of sulfate containing wastewaters
Vallero, M.V.G. ; Sipma, J. ; Annachhatre, A. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. - \ 2003
In: Recent Advances in Marine Biotechnology. Vol. 8. Bioremedation / Fingerman, M., Nagabhushanam, R., Enfield : Science Publishers - ISBN 9781578082452 - p. 233 - 268.
|Strategies for the environmental management of chains
Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2002
In: Water recycling and resources recovery in Industry: Analysis, technologies and implementation / Lens, P., Hulshoff-Pol, L., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., - p. 109 - 131.
milieubescherming - productie - kwaliteit voor industriële verwerking - ketenmanagement - environmental protection - production - industrial processing quality - supply chain management
The ways to reduce the discharge of pollutants are diverse. End-of-pipe measures, cleaner production technologies and environmentally oriented product design is the spectrum in which solutions can be found. To implement such measures, and ultimately close industrial cycles, companies have to organize themselves to reach that goal. Closed production systems in this perspective are not a technological problem, but an organisational problem. In organizational terms, closed systems are also distinguished. DuPont's director of logistics (Clifford Sayre) defined Supply Chain Management (SCM) as a closed loop: 'It starts with the customer and it ends with the customer. Through the loop flow all materials and finished goods, information, even all transactions.' Chain co-operation is also becoming an economic necessity. One of the most significant paradigm shifts of modern business management is that individual businesses no longer compete as solely autonomous entities, but rather as supply chains (Christopher 1998). Strictly speaking, the supply chain is not a chain of businesses with one-to-one, business-to-business relationships, but a network of multiple businesses and relationships. Executives are becoming aware that the successful co-ordination, integration and management of key business processes across members of the supply chain will determine the ultimate success of the single enterprise (Van der Vorst 2000). Lambert and Cooper (2000) underline this growing awareness of executives in their research agenda for Supply Chain Management (SCM). According to them, a top priority in SCM should be research to develop a normative model that can guide managers in their efforts to develop and manage their supply chains. The managerial trend of developing chains also fits in with the ideas to cope with environmental damage
Degradation of Methanethiol in a Continuously Operated Upflow Anaerobic Sludge-Blanket Reactor
Sipma, J. ; Bree, R. van; Janssen, A.J.H. ; Arena, B. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2002
Water Environment Research 74 (2002)3. - ISSN 1061-4303 - p. 15 - 22.
The feasibility of anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing volatile organic sulfur compounds was investigated using biomass originating from an anaerobic wastewater treatment facility treating brewery wastewater. Interest focused mainly on the degradation of methanethiol (MT), an extremely volatile and malodorous sulfur compound. Formation of hydrogen sulfide from methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was observed. Batch experiments showed that methanethiol was predominantly used by methanogenic bacteria as the sole source of energy and carbon. Methane was formed on MT degradation, and in the presence of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), a specific inhibitor of methanogens, MT conversion was strongly inhibited. During the MT degradation, DMS and DMDS were the other primary compounds found. Relatively small quantities of DMS were present; whereas the DMDS concentrations could accumulate as a result of the relatively fast rate at which methanethiol autoxidizes in the presence of minor amounts of molecular oxygen. It was shown that DMS and DMDS could be biologically degraded, resulting in the formation of methane and hydrogen sulfide. In a continuous experiment using a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket (UASB) reactor with a volume of 2.0 L, the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of methanethiol was tested. The reactor was operated at a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 6 hours, temperature of 30 degrees C, and pH of 7.3 to 7.6. The maximal MT conversion efficiency in the continuous experiment was reached after approximately 70 days and exceeded 97t an influent concentration of 6 mM, corresponding to a MT loading rate of 25 mM/d. The specific MT degradation rate, as determined after 40 days of operation in the UASB, measured 1.1 /- 0.1 mM MT/g volatile suspended solids.d. These results show that anaerobic treatment of MT-containing waste streams is an interesting alternative for currently used physicochemical treatment methods.
Optimisation of sulphate reduction in a methanol-fed thermophilic bioreactor
Weijma, J. ; Bots, E.A.A. ; Tandlinger, G. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2002
Water Research 36 (2002). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 1825 - 1833.
afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - sulfaten - methanol - reductie - slib - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - sulfates - methanol - reduction - sludges
Several methods were tested to optimise sulphate reduction and minimise methane formation in thermophilic (65°) expanded granular sludge bed reactors fed with a medium containing sulphate and methanol. Lowering the pH from 7.5 to 6.75 resulted in a rapid decrease of methane formation and a concomitant increase in sulphate reduction. The inhibition of methane formation was irreversible on the short-term. Lowering the COD/SO42- ratio (COD: chemical oxygen demand) from 6 to 0.34 (g/g) rapidly favoured sulphate reduction over methanogenesis. Continuous addition of 2 g L-1 2-bromoethanesulphonate was ineffective as complete inhibition of methanogenesis was obtained only for two days. Inhibition of methanogens by sulphide at pH 7.5 was only effective when the total sulphide concentration was above 1200 mg S L-1. For practical applications, a relatively short exposure to a slightly acidic pH in combination with operating the reactor at a volumetric methanol-COD loading rate close to the maximum volumetric sulphide-COD formation rate.
|Interspecies electron transfer in suspended and aggregated methanogenic propionate-degrading consortia
Bok, F.A.M. de; Plugge, C.M. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2002
In: Granulation and auto-immobilisation processes in wastewater treatment : Farewell seminar Dr. Ir. Look Hulshoff Pol October 11, 2002, Wageningen, the Netherlands / van Lier, J.B., Lexmond, M., Vos, H., - p. 47 - 59.
afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe behandeling - slib - immobilisatie - microbiële afbraak - methaan - oxidatie - elektronenoverdracht - formiaten - propionaten - waste water treatment - anaerobic treatment - sludges - immobilization - microbial degradation - methane - oxidation - electron transfer - formates - propionates
Propionate is a key intermediate in the conversion of complex organic matter under methanogenic conditions. Oxidation of propionate to acetate is energetically unfavorable under standard conditions. Therefore, micro organisms are only able to gain energy from this conversion if the concentrations of the products, and H2 or formate in particular, are kept low by methanogens. This implies that obligate syntrophic consortia are required for propionate oxidation. Because of their poor energetics and their role in methanogenic conversions, syntrophic propionate oxidizing bacteria have gained quite some attention in the past. The authors present an overview of what is currently know about these organisms and pay special attention to the role of H2 and formate in interspecies electron transfer during syntrophic propionate oxidation
|Biological recovery of metals, sulfur and water in the mining and metallurgical industry
Weijma, J. ; Copini, C.F.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Schultz, C.E. - \ 2002
In: Water Recycling and Recovery in Industry / Lens, P.N.L., Hulshoff Pol, L.W., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., London, UK : IWA Publishing - ISBN 9781843390053 - p. 605 - 622.
terugwinning - metalen - zwavel - bodemschatten - hulpbronnenbehoud - biologische technieken - biologische behandeling - mijnbouw - metallurgie - recovery - metals - sulfur - mineral resources - resource conservation - biological techniques - biological treatment - mining - metallurgy
Metals of particular interest in acid mine drainage and industrial wastewaters include copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, manganese, aluminum, lead, nickel, silver, mercury, chromium, uranium and iron, in a concentration that can range from 106 to 102 g/l. The composition of such wastewater reflects the particular combination of heavy metals and production process. Presently, removal by precipitation as metal hydroxide is the most widely used treatment method for water contaminated with heavy metals. This is because of the simplicity and the low costs of this method. For the same reasons, sulfate removal is mostly accomplished by precipitation with Ca2+, added as lime. However, more stringent legislation in future and an increasing scarcity of resources creates a need for heavy metal and sulfate removal technologies with a better performance. Thus, treatment processes should aim to recover valuable metals and other possible resources from waste streams such as sulfur compounds and process water. The biological reduction of sulfate to sulfide is catalysed by bacteria
|Physico-chemical wastewater treatment
Mels, A.R. ; Teerikangas, E. - \ 2002
In: Water Recycling and Resource Recovery in Industry / Lens, P.N.L., Hulshoff Pol, L.W., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., London, UK : IWA Publishing - ISBN 9781843390053 - p. 433 - 452.
afvalwaterbehandeling - hulpbronnenbehoud - fysisch-chemische methoden - waste water treatment - resource conservation - physicochemical methods
Wastewater reclamation strategies aimed at closing industrial water cycles and recovery of valuable components will in most cases require a combination of wastewater treatment unit operations. Biological unit operations are commonly applied as the core treatment. In addition, physico-chemical unit operations are frequently required for pre- or post-treatment of the biological process in order to design the most optimal treatment configuration. This chapter presents a review of physico-chemical unit operations that are frequently applied in combination with biological treatment. Physico-chemical wastewater treatment includes all treatment unit operations that are not based on biological conversion. The underlying removal principles are based on either phase separation, molecular separation or chemical conversion
|Biodegradation of recalcitrant and xenobiotic compounds
Gonzalez-Gil, G. ; Kleerebezem, R. ; Mattiasson, B. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2002
In: Water Recycling and Resource Recovery in Industry Recovery / Lens, P.N.L., Hulshoff Pol, L.W., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., London, UK : IWA Publishing - ISBN 9781843390053 - p. 386 - 430.
|Environmental protection in industry for sustainable development
Lens, P.N.L. ; Vallero, M.V.G. ; Gonzalez-Gil, G. ; Rebac, S. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2002
In: Water Recycling and Resource Recovery in Industry / Lens, P.N.L., Hulshoff Pol, L.W., Wilderer, P., Asano, T., London, UK : IWA Publishing - ISBN 9781843390053 - p. 53 - 65.
|Water Recycling and Resource Recovery in Industry : analysis, technologies and implementation
Lens, P.N.L. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Wilderer, P. ; Asano, T. - \ 2002
London : IWA - ISBN 9781843390053 - 677
hergebruik van water - industrieel afval - watervoorraden - afvalwaterbehandeling - milieutechnologie - water reuse - industrial wastes - water resources - waste water treatment - environmental technology
|The sludge granulation phenomenon : its augmentation, manipulation and challenges (part 2)
Lettinga, G. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. - \ 2002
In: Granulation and auto-immobilisation processes in wastewater treatment - Papers of the Farewell Seminar of Dr.ir. Look Hulshoff Pol, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2002 / Lexmond, M.J. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology/LeAF, 2002 - p. 97 - 109.
|Anaerobic sludge granulation - mechanisms and structure (part 1)
Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Castro Lopes, S.I. de; Lens, P.N.L. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2002
In: Granulation and auto-immobilisation processes in wastewater treatment - Papers of the Farewell Seminar of Dr.ir. Look Hulshoff Pol, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2002 / Lexmond, M.J., Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen University - p. 5 - 26.
|BioDeNOx : Fe-EDTA as electron mediator between denitrification and iron reduction
Maas, P. van der; Weelink, S. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Klapwijk, A. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2002
In: Proceedings of the 95th Annual Conference of the Air & Waste Management Association, Baltimore, USA, 2002 - p. 7 - 7.
Competition for H2 between sulfate reducers, methanogens and homoacetogens in a gas-lift reactor
Weijma, J. ; Gubbels, F. ; Hulshoff Pol, L.W. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2002
Water Science and Technology 45 (2002). - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 75 - 80.
slib - rioolslib - waterstof - afvalwaterbehandeling - substraten - kinetica - sulfaten - anaërobe behandeling - sludges - sewage sludge - hydrogen - waste water treatment - substrates - kinetics - sulfates - anaerobic treatment
Reported values for growth kinetic parameters show an order in competitivity of heterotrophic sulfate reducing bacteria>methanogens>homoacetogens for the substrate hydrogen. This order suggests that methanogens can succesfully compete with consortia of heterotrophic SRB and homoacetogens when H2/CO2 is present as sole substrate. However, we found in experiments using gas-lift reactors inoculated with anaerobic sludge and fed with H2/CO2 and sulfate, that heterotrophic sulfate reduction rapidly and completely outcompeted methanogenesis, whereas a low amount of acetate was formed. Thus, in disagreement with the above competitivity order, hydrogen is more readily consumed by homoacetogenesis than by methanogenesis, indicating that the competition is not kinetically determined. The superior settling velocity of sulfidogenic-acetogenic sludge compared to that of methanogenic sludge suggests that the former sludge is better retained, which can explain the predominance of sulfate reduction/homoacetogenesis over methanogenesis.
|Granulation and auto-immobilisation processes in wastewater treatment - Papers of the Farewell Seminar of Dr.ir. Look Hulshoff Pol
Lexmond, M.J. - \ 2002
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology/LeAF - 111 p.