The disaster chronotope : Spatial and temporal learning in governance of extreme events
Blair, Berill ; Lovecraft, A.L. ; Hum, R. - \ 2018
In: Governance of Risk, Hazards and Disasters / Fiorino, Giuseppe, Bonati, Sara, Calandra, Lina Maria, London : Routledge (Routledge Studies in Hazards, Disaster Risk and Climate Change ) - ISBN 9781138206823 - p. 43 - 64.
How does the type of disaster affect the learning among key stakeholder groups? This chapter provides a framework of disaster governance through examination of local and global response strategies based on the spatial and temporal attributes (or chronotope) of disaster events and related discourse. A series of case studies builds on the concept of “panarchy” in resilience and adaptation sciences to reveal the interaction between disasters and the capacity of various stakeholder groups to adjust the rules and assumptions that underlie disaster governance. With particular focus on patterns of learning, we map our findings in a matrix to reveal disasters as complex social-ecological processes at three levels: (1) the small fast-moving local system, (2) the nation-state as the intermediate level in speed and size, and (3) the global community of nation-states as the largest, slowest moving social system.
|Scenarios thinking for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Region
Lovecraft, A.L. ; Preston, B.L. ; Absar, S.M. ; Blair, Berill ; Cost, D. ; Ernst, K.M. ; Fresco, N. ; Hillmer-Pegram, K. ; Hum, R. ; Lee, O. ; Machavariani, G. ; Wesche, S. - \ 2017
In: Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic Oslo : - ISBN 9788279711032 - p. 217 - 238.
A number of biophysical and socio-economic drivers will have a significant influence on future vulnerability, risk, resilience, and adaptation planning in the Bering-Chuckchi-Beaufort (BCB) region ( Chapters 4-7). The trajectories of some of those drivers are amenable to modeling, forecasting, or projection. However, the future is inherently uncertain, particularly over long time horizons. Scenarios have been used for over 50 years as a tool for exploring such uncertainty in order to identify key driving forces and critical unknowns, as well as to generate shared understanding among stakeholders regarding the potential for, and implications of, alternative futures (van Notten et al., 2003; Bishop et al., 2007; Avango et al., 2013). This chapter provides a general overview of scenarios and their value for understanding the implications of a changing climate within the broader context of global change. The chapter includes a review of how scenarios have been used previously to understand climate change vulnerability, risk, and resilience, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic. It also introduces a new series of qualitative regional and subregional socioeconomic scenarios for the BCB region, peering into the future to 2050, and discusses their implications for climate change impacts as well as adaptation planning and implementation.
The Refugee Camp as Warscape: Violent Cosmologies, “Rebelization,” and Humanitarian Governance in Kakuma, Kenya
Jansen, Bram J. - \ 2016
Humanity: an International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development 7 (2016)3. - ISSN 2151-4372 - p. 429 - 441.
This paper approaches Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya as a “warscape” and explores the role that multiple understandings and experiences with violence play in the everyday organization of the camp. The dynamics of war-related imageries and various forms of past, present and symbolic violence translate into power processes and forms of spatial and social ordering that are explored as processes of place making. Rather than seeing violence as something exceptional, this paper explores how over the years of its existence since 1992 the camp was shaped by the narratives, experiences and understandings of violence and rebel histories, and the associations between refugees and armed movements.
The potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate against climate change in forests and agro ecosystems of Zimbabwe
Mujuru, L. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Marcel Hoosbeek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739285 - 209
koolstofvastlegging - klimaatverandering - bossen - agro-ecosystemen - mitigatie - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - koolstofcyclus - koolstof - zimbabwe - carbon sequestration - climatic change - forests - agroecosystems - mitigation - soil carbon sequestration - carbon cycle - carbon - zimbabwe
Climate change adversely affects human livelihoods and the environment through alteration of temperatures, rainfall patterns, sea level rise and ecosystem productivity. Developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change because they directly depend on agriculture and natural ecosystem products for their livelihoods. Mitigation of climate change impacts includes practices that can store carbon (C) in soil and biomass thus, reducing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gasses. In addition, planted and natural forests that store large amounts of C, can become key resources for mitigating and reducing vulnerability to climate change, whilst infertile agricultural soils require large amounts of chemical and/or organic fertilisers to improve productivity. Increasing awareness about climate change mitigation has led to realisation of a need for sustainable land management practices and promoting soil C sequestration to reduce the greenhouse effects.
The C storage potential of agricultural soils is compounded by conventional tillage practices, covering large areas with only small portions of fields dedicated to conservation farming practices. Maintaining soil and crop productivity under these agricultural systems becomes a major challenge especially in rain-fed arid and semi-arid regions, characterised by long annual dry spells. Conservation tillage practices, such as no-till and reduced tillage, have been reported to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural systems as they reduce soil disturbance, whereas conventional tillage has been criticised for causing soil C losses, accelerating soil erosion and displacing of soil nutrients, despite benefits, such as reduced soil compaction, weed control and preparation of favourable seedbed, which have been reported under conventional tillage. The identification of appropriate agricultural management practices is critical for realisation of the benefits of Soil C sequestration and reducing emissions from agricultural activities.
This thesis was planned to improve our understanding on how tillage, fertilisation, tree planting or natural forest conservation can enhance C sequestration and thus mitigate climate change. The main goal was to quantify the influence of tillage, fertilisation and plantation forestry practices on C and N dynamics in bulk soil and density separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions relative natural forest. Tillage treatments under reduced tillage (RP), no tillage (DS) and conventional tillage (CT) were compared with natural forests (NF) in sandy Haplic Arenosols and clayey Rhodic Ferralsols. Impacts of fertilisation were assessed from three fertility treatments; unfertilised control (control), nitrogen fertiliser (N Fert) and nitrogen fertiliser plus cattle manure (N Fert + manure) in conventionally tilled fields on Arenosols (sandy soil) and Luvisols (clayey soil) along two soil fertility gradients. Similarly, C and N storage in tree farming was studied using a Pinus patula chronosequence. Soil sampling followed randomised complete block design with four replications in agricultural systems and two replicates in each plantation age stands and natural forest. Sodium polytungstate (density 1.6 g cm-3) was used to isolate organic matter into free light fraction (fLF), occluded light fraction (oLF) and mineral associated heavy fraction (MaHF). Carbon an N were analysed by dry combustion and C and N stocks calculated using bulk density, depth and C and N concentration. The RothC model was used to match density separated fractions with conceptual model pools for agricultural and natural forest soils.
Findings from tillage studies showed significantly larger C and N stocks in natural forests than tillage systems despite the open access use of the natural forests. The C and N stocks were significantly lower in sandy than clayey soils. At 0–10 cm depth, SOC stocks increased under CT, RP and DS by 0.10, 0.24, 0.36 Mg ha−1yr−1 and 0.76, 0.54, 0.10 Mg ha−1yr−1 on sandy and clayey soils respectively over a four year period while N stocks decreased by 0.55, 0.40, 0.56 Mg ha−1yr−1 and 0.63, 0.65, 0.55 Mg ha−1yr−1 respectively. Under prevailing climatic and management conditions, improvement of residue retention could be a major factor that can distinguish the potential of different management practices for C sequestration.
Among the fertility treatments, there were significantly higher SOC and TON stocks under N Fert and N Fert + manure at 0-10 cm soil depth in Luvisols. Although this effect was not significant at 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm depth. On Arenosols, N Fert had highest C and N at all depths except at 0-10 cm. The storage of C and N on Luvisols, followed: control < N Fert < N Fert + manure whereas Arenosols had control < N Fert + manure < N Fert. Compared with control, N Fert and N Fert + manure enhanced fLF C on homefields and outfields by 19%, 24% and 9%, 22% on Luvisols and 17%, 26% and 26%, 26% respectively on Arenosols. Homefields on Luvisols, under N Fert and N Fert + manure had similar equilibrium levels, which were 2.5 times more than control.
Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric CO2 storing C in soil and biomass although the C storage potential varies with forest type and plant species composition. In this research, storage of C and N were highest in moist forest and lowest in the Miombo woodland. In both natural and planted forests, above ground tree biomass was the major ecosystem C pool followed by forest floor’s humus (H) layer. The mineral soil had 45%, 31% and 24% of SOC stored at the 0–10, 10–30 and 30–60 cm soil depths respectively. Stand age affected C and N storage significantly having an initial decline after establishment recovering rapidly up to 10 years, after which it declined and increased again by 25 years. Average soil C among the Pinus compartments was 12 kg m-2, being highest at 10 years and lowest in the 1 year old stands. Organic N was also highest at 10 years and least at 25 years. The proportional mass of fLF and oLF in Miombo woodlands was similar while the other stands had higher fLF than oLF. The highest LF was in the moist forest. In the Pinus patula stands the fLF C contributed between 22−25%, the oLF C contributed 8−16% and MaHF C contributed between 60−70% to total SOC. Carbon in MaHF and oLF increased with depth while the fLF decreased with depth in all except the 1 and the 10 year old stands. Conversion of depleted Miombo woodlands to pine plantations can yield better C gains in the short and long run whilst moist forests provide both carbon and biodiversity. Where possible moist forests should be conserved and enrichment planting done in degraded areas to sustain them and if possible the forests can be considered as part of future projects on reduced emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). It is believed that REDD+ can promote both conservation and socio economic welfare, including poverty alleviation by bringing together the development of the forest and climate change link in African forests and woodlands. The focus on the monetary valuation and payment for environmental services can contribute to the attraction of political support for soil conservation. Developing countries therefore, need to formulate enabling economic and institutional land management policies that have positive impacts on poverty alleviation, food security and environmental sustainability.
Soil C models are used to predict impacts of land management on C storage. The RothC 2.63 model was used for estimating SOC stock under selected land management practices on the clayey and sandy soils of Zimbabwe. There is greater potential to store more C in clayey soils than sandy soils and in practices that receive more organic inputs. Results show that the RothC model pool of HUM + IOM is related to the measured MaHF from density fractionation and that the model can be used to estimate SOC stock changes on Zimbabwean agricultural and forest soils. The relationship between equilibrium levels estimated by the RothC model and those estimated using the Langmuir equation was good. A 1.5˚ C rise in temperature was found to cause the A and B systems on clayey soils to sequester more C. The results also show that, when holding all the other factors constant, the model is sufficiently sensitive to a rise in temperatures with sandy soils reaching an equilibrium much earlier than clayey soils. The modelling approach represents one of the most promising methods for the estimation of SOC stock changes and allowed us to evaluate the changes in SOC in the past period on the basis of measured data. However, since the data were obtained from short term experiments (4−9 years), further ground validation can be hampered by the lack of long-term experimental trials in the southern African region. The deficiency of adequate experimental sites also limits further work on model uncertainties. The understanding soil quality and dynamics however, helps to design sustainable agricultural systems, while achieving the urgently needed win-win situation in enhancing productivity and sequestering C.
Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus Italien strain for oncolytic virotherapy of tumors
Wei, D. ; Sun, N. ; Nan, G. ; Wang, Y. ; Liu, H.Q. ; Peeters, B.P.H. ; Chen, Z.N. ; Bian, H. - \ 2012
Human Gene Therapy 23 (2012)7. - ISSN 1043-0342 - p. 700 - 710.
protein cleavage site - hepatitis-c virus - fusion protein - cancer-therapy - vaccine vector - foreign gene - phase-i - pv701 - expression - infection
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a naturally oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective for cancer therapy. Tumor virotherapy using NDV emerged in the 1950s and has advanced more recently by the increased availability of reverse genetics technology. In this study, we constructed a reverse genetics system based on the virulent and oncolytic NDV Italien strain, and generated two recombinant NDVs carrying a gene encoding either enhanced green fluorescent protein or firefly luciferase. We evaluated the replication and antitumor characteristics of these viruses in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that the insertion of exogenous reporter genes did not affect NDV replication and sensitivity to type I interferon. The recombinant NDVs kept the property of tumor-selective replication both in vitro and in vivo and strongly induced syncytium formation leading to cell death. Moreover, the recombinant NDVs significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing athymic mice (p=0.017) and suppressed the loss of body weight after intratumoral injection. Taken together, our study provides a novel platform to develop recombinant oncolytic viruses based on the NDV Italien strain and shows the efficiency of recombinant NDV Italien for oncolytic virotherapy of tumors.
Assessment and characterization of the diet of an isolated population in the Bolivian Andes
Berti, P.R. ; Jones, A.D. ; Cruz Agudo, Y. ; Larrea Macias, S. ; Borja, R. ; Sherwood, S.G. - \ 2010
American Journal of Human Biology 22 (2010)6. - ISSN 1042-0533 - p. 741 - 749.
fatty-acids - food - validation - community - children - recall
Objectives: The goal of this research is to characterize the composition and nutrient adequacy of the diets in the northern region of the Department of Potosí, Bolivia. Communities in this semiarid, mountainous region are isolated and impoverished having the highest rates of child malnutrition and under-five mortality in the Americas. Methods: A total of 2,222 twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were conducted in 30 communities during May and November 2006 and May and November 2007. Food composition data were compiled from diverse published sources and integrated with the recall data to estimate intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and seven micronutrients. Diets were characterized in terms of food sources, seasonality, and nutrient adequacy. Results: The diet relies heavily on the potato and other tubers (54% of dietary energy) and grains (30% of dietary energy). Although crop production is seasonal, off-season consumption of chuño helps to minimize seasonal fluctuations in dietary energy intake. Despite relative monotony, intakes of iron, vitamin C, most B vitamins, and vitamin A in adults are probably adequate; riboflavin, calcium, and vitamin A intakes in children are low. Nevertheless, extremely low dietary fat intakes (approximately 3–9% of dietary energy from fat) likely prevent adequate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins as well as lead to deficiencies of essential fatty acids. Conclusions: Dietary inadequacies, especially of fats, may explain much of the poor health observed in northern Potosí. An improved diet may be possible through increasing production and intake of local fat-rich food sources such as small animals. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Inhibition of septic shock in mice by an oligopeptide from the beta-chain of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone
Khan, N.A. ; Khan, A. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Benner, R. - \ 2002
Human Immunology 63 (2002). - ISSN 0198-8859 - p. 1 - 7.
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a heterodimeric placental glycoprotein hormone required in pregnancy. In human pregnancy urine and in commercial hCG preparations (c-hCG) it occurs in a variety of forms, including breakdown products. Several reports have suggested modulation of the immune system by intact hormone, but such effects of breakdown products have not been reported. In a related article (Hum Immunol 62:1315, 2001), it is reported that a 400–2000 Dalton (Da) fraction from c-hCG and from human pregnancy urine inhibits Th1-mediated diabetes in NOD mice. The active component(s) were called natural (immuno)modulatory pregnancy factor(s) (NMPF). This study reports that a single treatment with the same low molecular weight NMPF fraction up to 24-h after high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection inhibited septic shock in mice. This counteracting effect of NMPF paralleled the downregulation of the effects of LPS on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by spleen cells, on the plasma level of liver aminotransferase, and on the expression of several splenic lymphocyte and macrophage surface markers. Based on the primary structure of the -chain of hCG a synthetic hexapeptide Valine-Leucin-Proline-Alanine-Leucine-Proline (VLPALP) was designed, which demonstrated it to have the same protective effects as the 400–2000 Da NMPF fraction. These results indicate a new strategy for the treatment of septic shock and the potential of therapeutic use of this synthetic oligopeptide.
|Adapt. 24h energy metab. dur.8 week cons. low energy diet(4.2MJ/d).Hum. energy metab.Phys. activ.& energy exp. measurem. epidem. res. based dir.& indir. calor
Boer, J.O. de; Es, A.J.H. van; Raaij, J.M.A. van; Hautvast, J.G.A.J. - \ 1985
In: Euro-Nut Rpt.5. A concerted action project on nutrition in the European Community / van Es, A.J.H., Wageningen : - p. 204 - 204.
|Concerted action proj. nutrit.in EC. Hum. energy metab. Phys. act. & energy expenditure measurements in epidemiol. res. based upon direct & indirect calorim
Es, A.J.H. van - \ 1985
Wageningen : Unknown Publisher (Euro Nut Report 5) - 247 p.