Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The origin and widespread occurrence of Sli-based self-compatibility in potato
    Clot, Corentin R. ; Polzer, Clara ; Prodhomme, Charlotte ; Schuit, Cees ; Engelen, Christel J.M. ; Hutten, Ronald C.B. ; Eck, Herman J. van - \ 2020
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics (2020). - ISSN 0040-5752

    Self-compatible (SC) diploid potatoes allow innovative potato breeding. Therefore, the Sli gene, originally described in S. chacoense, has received much attention. In elite S. tuberosum diploids, spontaneous berry set is occasionally observed. We aimed to map SC from S. tuberosum origin. Two full-sib mapping populations from non-inbred diploids were used. Bulks were composed based on both pollen tube growth and berry set upon selfing. After DNA sequencing of the parents and bulks, we generated k-mer tables. Set algebra and depth filtering were used to identify bulk-specific k-mers. Coupling and repulsion phase k-mers, transmitted from the SC parent, mapped in both populations to the distal end of chromosome 12. Intersection between the k-mers from both populations, in coupling phase with SC, exposed a shared haplotype of approximately 1.5 Mb. Subsequently, we screened read archives of potatoes and wild relatives for k-mers specific to this haplotype. The well-known SC clones US-W4 and RH89-039-16, but surprisingly, also S. chacoense clone M6 were positives. Hence, the S. tuberosum source of SC seems identical to Sli. Furthermore, the candidate region drastically reduced to 333 kb. Haplotype-specific KASP markers were designed and validated on a panel of diploid clones including another renown SC dihaploid G254. Interestingly, k-mers specific to the SC haplotype were common in tetraploid varieties. Pedigree information suggests that the SC haplotype was introduced into tetraploid varieties via the founder “Rough Purple Chili”. We show that Sli is surprisingly widespread and indigenous to the cultivated gene pool of potato.

    Tracking disease resistance deployment in potato breeding by enrichment sequencing
    Armstrong, Miles R. ; Vossen, Jack ; Lim, Tze Yin ; Hutten, Ronald C.B. ; Xu, Jianfei ; Strachan, Shona M. ; Harrower, Brian ; Champouret, Nicolas ; Gilroy, Eleanor M. ; Hein, Ingo - \ 2019
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2019)2. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 540 - 549.
    breeding - crops - disease resistance genes - dRenSeq - potato - tracking of NLRs

    Following the molecular characterisation of functional disease resistance genes in recent years, methods to track and verify the integrity of multiple genes in varieties are needed for crop improvement through resistance stacking. Diagnostic resistance gene enrichment sequencing (dRenSeq) enables the high-confidence identification and complete sequence validation of known functional resistance genes in crops. As demonstrated for tetraploid potato varieties, the methodology is more robust and cost-effective in monitoring resistances than whole-genome sequencing and can be used to appraise (trans) gene integrity efficiently. All currently known NB-LRRs effective against viruses, nematodes and the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can be tracked with dRenSeq in potato and hitherto unknown polymorphisms have been identified. The methodology provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency of future disease resistance breeding in crops by directing parental and progeny selection towards effective combinations of resistance genes.

    Omics analyses of potato plant materials using an improved one-class classification tool to identify aberrant compositional profiles in risk assessment procedures
    Kok, Esther ; Dijk, Jeroen van; Voorhuijzen, Marleen ; Staats, Martijn ; Slot, Martijn ; Lommen, Arjen ; Venema, Dini ; Pla, Maria ; Corujo, Maria ; Barros, Eugenia ; Hutten, Ronald ; Jansen, Jeroen ; Voet, Hilko van der - \ 2019
    Food Chemistry 292 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 350 - 358.
    Compositional analysis - Genetically modified organism - GMO - Omics profiling - Risk assessment

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess potato omics profiles of new varieties for meaningful differences from analogous profiles of commercial varieties through the SIMCA one-class classification model. Analytical profiles of nine commercial potato varieties, eleven experimental potato varieties, one GM potato variety that had acquired Phytophtora resistance based on a single insert with potato-derived DNA sequences, and its non-GM commercial counterpart were generated. The ten conventional varieties were used to construct the one-class model. Omics profiles from experimental non-GM and GM varieties were assessed using the one-class SIMCA models. No potential unintended effects were identified in the case of the GM variety. The model showed that varieties that were genetically more distant from the commercial varieties were recognized as aberrant, highlighting its potential in determining whether additional evaluation is required for the risk assessment of materials produced from any breeding technique, including genetic modification.

    Bioimpuls, biologische aardappelveredeling
    Hutten, Ronald - \ 2018
    Hutten catering : How to organize innovation for vital consumers in a sustainable food system?
    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M. ; Zhao, Yuan - \ 2018
    International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 21 (2018)5. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 583 - 593.
    Corporate social responsibility - Food service - Food system - Innovation - Responsible consumption - Sustainability

    Hutten Catering is the only family-owned company listed among the top 10 catering companies in the Netherlands, yet it also has been the fastest growing company in this market for more than a decade. Catering companies face small margins and tight R & D budgets, yet their strategic position in the food system offers them unique opportunities to contribute to people's health and improve sustainability. Hutten Catering is located in a region with many potential innovation partners, supporting its integration of multiple suppliers, customers, and third parties in its innovation center, Food Squad. This center focuses on building sustainable supply chains that can reduce food waste; innovating specialist foods, such as for health care patients; and enabling vital lifestyles. With its many opportunities but limited budget, can Food Squad engage in more and larger projects, and thus further its impact on society, if it were to operate as an independent organization?

    QTL mapping in diploid potato by using selfed progenies of the cross S. tuberosum × S. chacoense
    Meijer, D. ; Viquez-Zamora, M. ; Eck, H.J. van; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Su, Y. ; Rothengatter, R. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Lindhout, W.H. ; Heusden, A.W. van - \ 2018
    Euphytica 214 (2018)7. - ISSN 0014-2336
    Diploid potato - Homozygosity - Inbreeding - Self-compatibility

    Usually, mapping studies in potato are performed with segregating populations from crosses between highly heterozygous diploid or tetraploid parents. These studies are hampered by a high level of genetic background noise due to the numerous segregating alleles, with a maximum of eight per locus. In the present study, we aimed to increase the mapping efficiency by using progenies from diploid inbred populations in which at most two alleles segregate. Selfed progenies were generated from a cross between S. tuberosum (D2; a highly heterozygous diploid) and S. chacoense (DS; a homozygous diploid clone) containing the self-incompatibility overcoming S locus inhibitor (Sli-gene). The Sli-gene enables self-pollination and the generation of selfed progenies. One F2 population was used to map several quality traits, such as tuber shape, flesh and skin color. Quantitative trait loci were identified for almost all traits under investigation. The identified loci partially coincided with known mapped loci and partially identified new loci. Nine F3 populations were used to validate the QTLs and monitor the overall increase in the homozygosity level.

    Evidence for selection pressure from resistant potato genotypes but not from fungicide application within a clonal Phytophthora infestans population
    Stellingwerf, J.S. ; Phelan, S. ; Doohan, F.M. ; Ortiz, V. ; Griffin, D. ; Bourke, A. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Cooke, D.E.L. ; Kildea, S. ; Mullins, E. - \ 2018
    Plant Pathology 67 (2018)7. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 1528 - 1538.
    Host resistance - Phytophthora infestans - Population genetics - Potato - SSR genotyping
    Insight into pathogen population dynamics provides a key input for effective disease management of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Phytophthora infestans populations vary from genetically complex to more simple with a few clonal lineages. The presence or absence of certain strains of P. infestans may impact the efficacy of fungicides or host resistance. Current evidence indicates that genetically, the Irish populations of P. infestans are relatively simple with a few clonal lineages. In this study, P. infestans populations were genetically characterized based on samples collected at the national centre for potato breeding during the period 2012-16. The dominance of clonal lineages within this P. infestans population was confirmed and the potential selection pressure of fungicide treatment (2013-15) and host resistance (2016) on this clonal P. infestans population was then investigated. It was found that fungicide products did not notably affect the genetic structure of sampled populations relative to samples from untreated control plants. In contrast, samples taken from several resistant potato genotypes were found to be more often of the EU_13_A2 lineage than those taken from control King Edward plants or potato genotypes with low resistance ratings. Resistant potato varieties Sarpo Mira and Bionica, containing characterized R genes, were found to strongly select for EU_13_A2 strains.
    Bioimpuls aardappelveredeling : samenwerking tussen boeren, veredelaars en onderzoekers
    Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Engelen, C.J.M. ; Hutten, R.C.B. - \ 2017
    - 1 p.
    Bioimpuls aardappelveredeling, phytophtora-resistentie en moleculaire merkers
    Engelen, C.J.M. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Kodde, L.P. ; Vossen, J.H. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2017
    BIOIMPULS-2 2015-2019: Een rijk palet aan phytophthora resistentiegenen voor bescherming van de aardappel in blad en knol : Groene Veredeling Aardappel
    Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Dullaert, H. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Engelen, C.J.M. ; Alles, R. ; Boer, A.E.J. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 6 p.
    Visualization of BRI1 and SERK3/BAK1 nanoclusters in Arabidopsis roots
    Hutten, Stefan J. ; Hamers, Danny S. ; Toorn, Marije Aan Den; Esse, Wilma Van; Nolles, Antsje ; Bücherl, Christoph A. ; Vries, Sacco C. De; Hohlbein, Johannes ; Borst, Janwillem - \ 2017
    PLoS ONE 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones that are perceived at the plasma membrane (PM) by the ligand binding receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR LIKE KINASE 3/BRI1 ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (SERK3/BAK1). To visualize BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry in the plane of the PM, variable-angle epifluorescence microscopy (VAEM) was employed, which allows selective illumination of a thin surface layer. VAEM revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of BRI1-GFP and SERK3/BAK1-mCherry at the PM, which we attribute to the presence of distinct nanoclusters. Neither the BRI1 northeSERK3/BAK1 nanocluster density is affected by depletion of endogenous ligands or application of exogenous ligands. To reveal interacting populations of receptor complexes, we utilized selective-surface observation-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (SSO-FLIM) for the detection of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Using this approach, we observed hetero-oligomerisation of BRI1 and SERK3 in the nanoclusters, which did not change upon depletion of endogenous ligand or signal activation. Upon ligand application, however, the number of BRI1-SERK3/BAK1 hetero-oligomers was reduced, possibly due to endocytosis of active signalling units of BRI1-SERK3/BAK1 residing in the PM. We propose that formation of nanoclusters in the plant PM is subjected to biophysical restraints, while the stoichiometry of receptors inside these nanoclusters is variable and important for signal transduction.
    Towards a ‘next level’ IPM approach for potato late blight management.
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2016
    Geert Kessel, Jack Vossen, Ronald Hutten, Bert Lotz, Huub Schepers, Bert Evenhuis and Anton Haverkort, 10 January 2016. Towards a ‘next level’ IPM approach for potato late blight management.
    Hevige phytophthora-uitbraak 2016 benadrukt noodzaak resistente rassen
    Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Engelen, C.J.M. - \ 2016
    Aardappelwereld 2016 (2016)9. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 32 - 33.
    phytophthora infestans - aardappelen - biologische landbouw - ziekteresistentie - resistentie van variëteiten - rassen (planten) - plantenveredeling - phytophthora infestans - potatoes - organic farming - disease resistance - varietal resistance - varieties - plant breeding
    De biologische aardappelteelt heeft het in 2016 weer zwaar te verduren gehad met de hevige uitbraak van Phytophtora infestans. Door aanhoudende regenval in juni en juli waren veel telers genoodzaakt om hun percelen met aangetaste aardappelen al vroeg in het seizoen te branden. Gecombineerd met de late pootdatum hebben velen een (te) lage opbrengst van hun vatbare rassen dit jaar. "DIt bevestigt nog maar weer eens de noodzaak van resistente rassen", zo stellen Edith Lammerts van Bueren, Ronald Hutten en Christel Engelen, van het project Bioimpuls waar de deelnemers hard aan nieuwe resistente rassen werken.
    Towards Sustainable Potato Late Blight Resistance by Cisgenic R Gene Pyramiding
    Kwang-Ryong Jo, ; Zhu, S. ; Bai, Y. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Vossen, J.H. - \ 2016
    In: Plant Pathogen Resistance Biotechnology / Collinge, David B., Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118867761 - p. 171 - 191.
    This chapter provides an overview of the possibilities of genetic modification (GM) potato breeding in general and specifically to combat the most important disease, late blight. Potato plants are vulnerable to a number of pests and diseases. An enigmatic question concerns whether individual Rpi genes can confer sufficient broad-spectrum resistance to impart durability. The presence of Rpi genes or transcripts as determined using molecular markers does not warrant their functional expression. Late blight resistance resources from crossable species can be deployed for intragenic or cisgenic breeding strategies. The chapter presents and discusses a pipeline for cisgenic late blight resistance breeding that was developed at Wageningen UR Plant Breeding. If only two Rpi genes are present, often isolates can be identified that overcome recognition mediated by one Rpi gene but not by the other. The late blight-resistant GM potato which was probably closest to commercialization was “Fortuna”.
    Characterization and Transcriptional Profile of Genes Involved in Glycoalkaloid Biosynthesis in New Varieties of Solanum tuberosum L.
    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto ; Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi De; Voorhuijzen, M.M. ; Staats, Martijn ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Dijk, J.P. Van; Kok, E.J. ; Frazzon, Jeverson - \ 2016
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (2016)4. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 988 - 996.
    GAMEs - gene expression - glycoalkaloids - SGT1 and SGT3 genes - Solanum tuberosum

    Before commercial release, new potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties must be evaluated for content of toxic compounds such as glycoalkaloids (GAs), which are potent poisons. GA biosynthesis proceeds via the cholesterol pathway to α-chaconine and α-solanine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total glycoalkaloid (TGA) content and the expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. TGA content was measured by HPLC-MS, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions were performed to determine the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes. We searched for cis-elements of the transcription start site using the PlantPAN database. There was a relationship between TGA content and the relative expression of GAME, SGT1, and SGT3 genes in potato tubers. Putative promoter regions showed the presence of several cis-elements related to biotic and abiotic stresses and light. These findings provide an important step toward understanding TGA regulation and variation in potato tubers.

    Durable Late Blight Resistance in Potato Through Dynamic Varieties Obtained by Cisgenesis : Scientific and Societal Advances in the DuRPh Project
    Haverkort, A.J. ; Boonekamp, P.M. ; Hutten, R. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Lotz, L.A.P. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Vossen, J.H. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2016
    Potato Research (2016). - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 35 - 66.
    Cisgenesis - Conventional breeding - Food security - Multi-gene resistance - True-to-type

    From 2006 through 2015, a research project on Durable Resistance in potato against Phytophthora (DuRPh) was carried out at Wageningen University and Research Centre. Its objective was to develop a proof of principle for durable resistance against late blight by cisgenesis. This public-funded project aimed at stimulating research on genetic modification and public debate on innovative genetic techniques. It was decided to clone and transfer late blight resistance (R) genes of crossable wild potato species (cisgenes) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation without non-potato genes. A stack of multiple R genes were planned to be inserted into established varieties, thereby creating a dynamic variety in which the composition of the stacks may vary over space and time. Cisgenic plants were selected based on the expression of all inserted R genes and trueness-to-type. Within the project, 13 R genes from wild potato species were genetically mapped and three of them were cloned. Four varieties were transformed with one to three R genes. This was initially done using kanamycin resistance provided by a selectable marker gene of synthetic origin in order to quickly test the performance and stability of the introduced R genes and stacked R gene combinations. Once the functioning thereof was confirmed, marker-free transformations were conducted; thus, true cisgenic events were selected. The results about the different R genes, their chromosomal location, their specificity, the background dependence, the maximum size of a stack, its regeneration time and associated somaclonal variation frequency and its stability were studied. After selection and characterisation in the laboratory, the best cisgenic events were assessed in field trials for late blight resistance. This showed that inserted R genes were capable of turning a susceptible variety into a resistant one. Maximising longevity of the resistance was assured through resistance management research. It was shown that stacking of multiple R genes and monitoring how to deploy these stacks spatially and temporally could reduce fungicide use by over 80%. Communications through media and field demonstrations were manifold to allow public and policymakers to decide if cisgenesis is an acceptable tool to make potato farming more sustainable. Future deployment of the DuRPh strategy will depend largely on its status as a genetically modified crop or its exemption thereof. Worldwide near eradication of late blight would increase global annual potato production by close to 80 million tons, thereby contributing considerably to the needed additional global future food supply.

    Duurzame resistentie tegen de aardappelziekte Phytophthora door cisgene modificatie (DuRPh) : Een overzicht van resultaten en reacties uit de samenleving
    Toussaint, H.A.J.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University & Research - 6
    Het DuRPh-programma liet duidelijk zien dat bestaande, succesvolle aardappelrassen met cisgene modificatie met meerdere resistentiegenen, duurzaam resistent gemaakt kunnen worden tegen Phytophthora. Het telen van aardappelrassen met stapeling van resistentiegenen kan grote voordelen hebben voor milieu en economie. Op de lange termijn kunnen telers voor meer dan 80% besparen op het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (veelal fungiciden) door toepassing van een strategie voor resistentiemanagement, zelfs wanneer Phytophthora één of meer resistentiegenen heeft doorbroken. De wetenschappelijke kennis van de positie en functie van resistentiegenen tegen Phytophthora in wilde kruisbare verwanten van de cultuuraardappel, is dankzij het DuRPh-onderzoek enorm toegenomen. Deze nieuwe kennis bleek reeds waardevol in conventionele veredelingsprogramma’s, zoals voor rassen voor de biologische landbouw, doordat die kennis moleculaire merkers opgeleverd heeft waarmee resistentiegenen in kruisingsprogramma’s gemakkelijk gevolgd kunnen worden. De methoden van het identificeren en isoleren van genen van wilde aardappelsoorten en het inbrengen van deze genen in bestaande aardappelrassen, zijn in het onderzoek verder verbeterd.
    Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)
    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto ; Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi De; Voorhuijzen, M.M. ; Staats, Martijn ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Dijk, J.P. Van; Kok, Esther ; Frazzon, Jeverson - \ 2015
    PLoS ONE 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

    Durable cisgenic resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato and perspectives for applications in Africa
    Gheysen, G. ; Heremans, B. ; Droogenbroeck, B. van; Custers, R. ; Vossen, J.H. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Haverkort, A.J. - \ 2015
    In: Potato and sweetpotato in Africa: transforming the value chains for food and nutrition security / Low, J., Nyongesa, M., Quinn, S., Parker, M., Nairobi, Kenya : CABI - ISBN 9781780644202 - p. 122 - 127.
    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint in potato production. A promising strategy to combat late blight in potato is to combine different resistance genes to achieve durable resistance. Resistance genes from wild relatives can be introduced by breeding or by transformation. Single resistance genes are not durable because mutant pathogens that avoid recognition will easily be selected. Genetic engineering is a straightforward method allowing introduction of a combination of natural resistance genes into a potato cultivar without altering other agronomic characteristics. Since these genes can also be introduced by conventional breeding methods, the resulting potato plants are called cisgenic, in contrast to transgenic potatoes that have received DNA from non-crossable species. Three R genes conferring resistance to P. infestans (Rpi), Rpi-sto1 (Solanum stoloniferum), Rpi-vnt1.1 (Solanum venturii) and Rpi-blb3 (Solanum bulbocastanum), were cloned and transformed separately or as a combination into the susceptible cultivar Désirée. The transformed clones were screened for late blight resistance using a detached leaf assay, and they were also evaluated for true-to-type performance under greenhouse conditions. To evaluate the performance of the resistance genes or combinations in realistic conditions, selected clones were tested in field trials in The Netherlands and Belgium in 2011 and 2012. This was done in comparison with the susceptible parent Désirée, and other susceptible and resistant cultivars. In both years plots were not treated with fungicides against P. infestans. In contrast to 2011, the summer of 2012 was humid resulting in high natural disease pressure. Nevertheless the two seasons showed similar results with clear differences between the susceptible reference clones and the genetically modified resistant clones. About 20 resistance genes against P. infestans have currently been mapped or cloned and more will follow. Therefore a collection can be generated of double or triple R gene-containing resistant cultivars that have the potential to make potato cultivation more sustainable. Based on the current potato cultivation area in East Africa, the effect of using cultivars with durable resistance on increasing potato yield in East Africa can be predicted.
    Transformation of the potato variety Désirée with single or multiple resistance genes increases resistance to late blight under field conditions
    Haesaert, G. ; Vossen, J.H. ; Droogenbroeck, B. van; Custers, R. ; Loose, M. De; Landschoot, S. ; Haverkort, A.J. ; Heremans, B. ; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Gheysen, G. - \ 2015
    Crop Protection 77 (2015). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 163 - 175.
    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, remains the most devastating disease in potato resulting in economic costs that sum up 5.2 billion euros, globally. The use of resistant varieties is a powerful, viable and environmentally friendly alternative or supplement for the current, commonly deployed chemical control strategies. In this study, we set out to improve the susceptible potato variety Desiree by transformation with single or multiple late blight (R) resistance genes. Rpi-sto1, Rpi-vnt1.1 and a stack of Rpi-sto1:Rpi-vnt1.1:Rpi-blb3, were transformed and eight, eight, and ten independent transformants (events) respectively, were selected because of absence of vector backbone, low T-DNA copy number, responsiveness to the cognate Avr effectors, P. infestans resistance in detached leaf assays (DLAs) and preliminary field experiments. The performance of the selected events was studied under field conditions in The Netherlands and Belgium, after P. infestans inoculation and/or to natural late blight infection during two consecutive growing seasons. All selected events were more resistant than the non-transformed susceptible reference clone. The different individual R genes, however, contributed to different levels of resistance. The selected events were also compared to conventionally bred late blight resistant varieties with (partially) known R gene content. Generally, it was found that plants with single R genes showed a lower level of resistance than plants with R gene stacks. Only the events harbouring three late blight R genes remained unaffected until the end of the growing season, in both locations and in both growing seasons.
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