Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Biodiversity in the Context of ‘Biodiversity – Mental Health’ Research
Vries, Sjerp De; Snep, Robbert - \ 2019
In: Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change / Marselle, Melissa R., Stadler, Jutta, Korn, Horst, Irvine, Katherine N., Bonn, Aletta, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030023171 - p. 159 - 173.
In this chapter the concept of biodiversity and its measurement and use in ‘biodiversity – mental health’ research is discussed, as well as access to and contact with biodiverse nature. It is pointed out that biodiversity is an ecological concept that originated in the context of nature conservation. It has evolved without consideration of its potential role in mental health promotion. In studying the latter, the concept of biodiversity is frequently adapted. Such adaptations are likely to occur at the expense of its relevance for nature conservation. Using the concept of biodiversity as originally intended may be fruitful for a different type of research question, focusing more on multi-functionality issues: can the same nature constitute a healthy, biodiverse ecosystem and enhance mental health simultaneously? By pointing out this and related issues, this chapter aims to support researchers and students in future research, and help both scientists and policy-makers to position and assess studies in this field.
Estimating combined loads of diffuse and point-source pollutants into the Borkena River, Ethiopia
Belachew, Eskinder Zinabu - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K.A. Irvine, co-promotor(en): P. Kelderman; J. van der Kwast. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9780367253455 - 150
Promoting Social Accountability for Equitable Fisheries Within Beach Management Units in Lake Victoria (Kenya)
Etiegni, Christine ; Kooy, Michelle ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2019
Conservation and Society 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 63 - 72.
accountability, co-management, decentralisation, fisheries, power, Lake Victoria, Kenya
The decentralisation of resource management through co-management assumes that the devolution of power benefits resource users. This assumption is often premised on the democratic election of leaders within resource user organisations. In this article, we investigate the validity of co-management assumptions about who benefits from a devolution of decision-making power through a case study analysis of political equity in fisherfolk organisations of Beach Management Units (BMUs) in Lake Victoria (Kenya). From the analysis of the distribution of political power, we identify how, where, and for whom greater accountability can work to address the current political inertia of fisherfolk, who form a majority of the BMU membership. We also identify the relationships between the empowerment of fisherfolk, the accountability of the BMU leaders, and the distribution of political power determining decision making in co-management. We conclude with identifying how other mechanisms of social accountability beyond elections can improve accountability of elected leaders of resource users for improved co-management outcomes.
Prognosis for long-term sustainable fisheries in the African Great Lakes
Irvine, Kenneth ; Etiegni, Christine ; Weyl, O.L.F. - \ 2019
Fisheries Management and Ecology 26 (2019)5. - ISSN 0969-997X - p. 413 - 425.
conservation, ecosystem approach, Malawi, management, Tanganyika, Victoria
Declines in fish yields and shifts in species composition are serious concerns in the African Great lakes of Tanganyika, Malawi (Nyasa/Niassa) and Victoria. Despite management and regulatory structures, all the lakes remain open‐access fisheries, severely depressing yields, economic returns and threatening biodiversity. While the lakes require an ecosystem‐based approach to management, this has not been realised because of a lack of institutional capacities, insufficient political will or simply being overwhelmed by the scale of the endeavour. Sustainable fisheries management can only be achieved through a refocus towards a stronger socio‐ecological approach and re‐evaluating how to realistically improve fish yield and environmental protection. This requires a combination of the following: (1) acceptance of suboptimal fish yields; (2) community‐enforced regulations that restrict access to fisheries and destruction of inshore habitats; (3) enhanced national and local institutional capacities and collaboration among the riparian states; and (4) major awareness and educational efforts that demonstrate the national and international importance of these lakes for food supply and biodiversity in pursuance of the Sustainable Development Goals. Without such actions, the prognosis for long‐term sustainable fisheries is bleak, and international projects and conferences will merely bear witness to further degradation of resources and the livelihoods they support.
Preface
Finlayson, Max ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; Dam, Anne A. van; Davidson, Nick C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. vii - x.
The Wetland Book : I: Structure and Function, Management, and Methods
Finlayson, Max ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; Dam, Anne A. van; Davidson, Nick C. - \ 2018
Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - 2238 p.

The Wetland Book is a comprehensive resource aimed at supporting the trans- and multidisciplinary research and practice which is inherent to this field. Aware both that wetlands research is on the rise and that researchers and students are often working or learning across several disciplines, The Wetland Book is a readily accessible online and print reference which will be the first port of call on key concepts in wetlands science and management. This easy-to-follow reference will allow multidisciplinary teams and transdisciplinary individuals to look up terms, access further details, read overviews on key issues and navigate to key articles selected by experts.

Introduction to the wetland book 1 : Wetland structure and function, management, and methods
Davidson, Nick C. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; Dam, Anne A. van; Max Finlayson, C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 3 - 14.
Wetland function - Wetland management - Wetland methods - Wetland policy - Wetland structure

The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a 'first port-of-call' reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic sections. Each section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

Editorial: Aquatic conservation in the age of the Sustainable Development Goals
Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2018
Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems 28 (2018)6. - ISSN 1052-7613 - p. 1264 - 1270.
biodiversity conservation, policy dialogue, public perception, Sustainable Development Goals, water quality
Effects of conversion of wetlands to rice and fish farming on water quality in valley bottoms of the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda
Uwimana, A. ; Dam, A.A. van; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2018
Ecological Engineering 125 (2018). - ISSN 0925-8574 - p. 76 - 86.
Agricultural development is critical for economic growth and food security. However, sediment and nutrient runoff generated by farming may cause pollution and water quality deterioration. This study assessed the water quality effects of conversion of valley bottom wetlands to agriculture in southern Rwanda. Three land use/cover (LULC) types (fishponds, rice, wetland plots) were studied in a replicated mesocosm setup. LULC characteristics (hydrology, biomass growth) and practices (land preparation, feed/fertilizer application) and associated changes in total nitrogen and phosphorus (TN, TP), suspended solids (TSS), and other water quality characteristics were measured from 2011 to 2013. Fish farming used about half the amount of water compared to rice farming (101 mm m−2 d−1 compared with 191 mm m−2 d−1). Higher TSS, TP and TN in inflows and outflows were associated mainly with human activities (cleaning of canals, ploughing, weeding, fertilizer application, fishpond drainage and dredging). As a result, fishponds and rice plots had consistently higher TSS concentrations in outflows (5-9506 and 7-2088 mg/L, respectively) than in inflows (7-120 and 9-483 mg/L, respectively). Peaks in TN and TP were associated with periods of farming activity. In wetland plots, TSS and TN significantly decreased from inlet to outlet, owing to the absence of disturbances and higher settling/adsorption, nutrient uptake and denitrification. Environmental restoration and sustainable agricultural production would be promoted by conservation farming and efficient water and fertilizer use. It is worth exploring the integration of fishponds for temporary storage of water, sediments and nutrients, and of natural wetlands as buffer zones for sediments and nutrients from farming during the critical periods of agricultural activity.
Effects of agricultural land use on sediment and nutrient retention in valley-bottom wetlands of Migina catchment, southern Rwanda
Uwimana, A. ; Dam, A.A. van; Gettel, G.M. ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 219 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 103 - 114.
Factors affecting the retention and export of water, sediments (TSS), nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) were examined in the Migina river catchment, southern Rwanda from May 2012 to May 2013. Landscape characteristics and seasonal changes in land use and land cover (LULC), rainfall, discharge, and area-specific net stream yields of TSS, TP and TN were measured monthly in 16 reaches of the Munyazi sub-catchment with five valley bottom LULC categories (grass/forest, ponds/reservoirs, ploughed, rice, and vegetables). Valley bottoms dominated by grass/forest and ponds/reservoir types were generally associated with positive net yields of nutrients and sediments, while those with agricultural land covers had a net negative yields, resulting in net export. Water was retained only in reaches with ponds/reservoirs. Seasonally, there was a strong relationship between net yield and discharge, with 93%, 60% and 67% of the annual TSS, TP and TN yields, respectively, transported during 115 days with rain. During low flow periods, all LULC types had positive net yields of TSS, TP and TN (suggesting retention), but during high flow periods had negative net yields (suggesting export). Significant effects of hillside land use on sediment and nutrient yields were also found. Stream and river water quality in Rwandan valley bottoms are at risk of further deterioration due to declining natural ecosystems (grassland and forest) and increasing agricultural and urban development. It is important to adopt appropriate land management practices (minimal tillage, optimization of water use, strategic implementation of retention ponds and vegetation buffer zones) to intercept TSS, TP and TN in runoff from storm water and agricultural areas. Special attention is needed for critical periods of the year when farming activities (e.g. land preparation, fertilizer application) coincide with high flow events.
Assessing wetland services for improved development decision-making: a case study of mangroves in coastal Bangladesh
Rahman, M.M. ; Jiang, Yong ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2018
Wetlands Ecology and Management 26 (2018)4. - ISSN 0923-4861 - p. 563 - 580.
Mangroves provide valuable ecosystem services for the wellbeing of coastal communities. Assessment and valuation of these mangroves services are increasingly advocated in development and conservation decision-making. Translating the values of services into more explicit monetary terms requires understanding of stakeholder activities, socio-economic context and local organizational structure to effectively support decision-making. Based on a survey of 100 households of three villages of Sundarban in Bangladesh, mangroves services to local communities were identified and their economic values estimated. The households perceived 18 mangroves services, of which capture fisheries, fuel energy, storm protection, habitat for fish breeding and nursery grounds and aesthetic enjoyment were ranked the most important. For provisioning services, households obtained important monetary benefits annually from capture fishery (US$ 976 per ha), fuel energy (US$ 80 per ha), honey (US$ 53 per ha) and fodder (US$ 26 per ha). The average annual willingness to pay for storm protection, erosion control and habitat for fish breeding and nursery services were estimated, respectively, as US$ 13 per ha, US$ 2 per ha and US$ 9 per ha. However, unsustainable exploitation and salinity intrusion impacted the services provided by mangroves. This study provides an important insight into the services and values of mangroves for local welfare, and thus can inform policy for protection and better use of mangrove resources.
Evaluating the effect of diffuse and point source nutrient transfers on water quality in the Kombolcha River Basin, an industrializing Ethiopian catchment
Zinabu, Eskinder ; Kelderman, Peter ; Kwast, Johannes Van Der; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2018
Land Degradation and Development 29 (2018)10. - ISSN 1085-3278 - p. 3366 - 3378.
Many catchments in sub‐Saharan Africa are subject to multiple pressures, and
addressing only point sources from industry does not resolve more widespread diffuse pollution from sediment and nutrient loads. This paper reports on a preliminary study of nutrient transfers into rivers in two catchments in the industrializing city of Kombolcha, North Central Ethiopia. Sampling of rivers and industrial effluents was done over two sampling periods in the wet season of 2013 and 2014. Catchments boundaries and land use map were generated from remote sensing and ground data. Higher total nitrogen (TN) concentrations were found from sub‐catchments with largest agricultural land use, whereas highest total phosphorus (TP) was associated with sub‐catchments with hilly landscapes and forest lands. Emissions from brewery and meat processing were rich in nutrients (median TN: 21–44 mg L−1; TP: 20–58 mg L−1) but contributed on average only 10% (range 4–80%) of the TN and 13% (range 3–25%) of the TP loads. Nutrient concentrations in the rivers exceeded environmental quality standards for aquatic life protection, irrigation, and livestock water supply. In Ethiopia, more than 85% of farmers operate on less than 2 ha of land, with
concomitant pressure for more intensive farming. Land is exclusively owned by the State, reducing a sense of land stewardship. As the City of Kombolcha moves to agricultural intensification and increased industrialization, attention is needed to fill gaps in monitoring of nutrient pollution in rivers and use information to reconcile development with land use and its degradation.
Wetland ecosystem services
Groot, Dolf de; Brander, Luke ; Max Finlayson, C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book / Finlayson, C.M., Everard, M., Irvine, K., McInnes, R.J., Middleton, B.A., van Dam, A.A., Davidson, N.C., Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 323 - 333.
Coastal wetlands - Concept - Description and examples - Economic valuation - Inland wetlands - Millennium ecosystem assessment - The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity - Wetland ecosystem services

Wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide are hugely valuable to people worldwide in many ways: For livelihood, for their biodiversity and existence values and for their economic benefits. Yet many of these services, such as the recharge of groundwater, water purification or cultural values are not immediately obvious when one looks at a wetland and most are public services that are not traded in conventional markets. This chapter gives a brief introduction into the concept of wetlands ecosystems services and their values.

Capacity development for wetland management
Gevers, Ingrid ; Koopmanschap, Esther M.J. ; Irvine, Kenneth ; Finlayson, C.M. ; Dam, Anne A. van - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 1935 - 1942.
Capacity development - Experiential learning - Stakeholder participation - Wetland management - Wise use

Despite increasing awareness of the importance of wetland ecosystem services and an increase in the number of countries with policies aimed at preventing degradation and destruction of wetlands, effective protection and restoration is often constrained by the limited capacity of governmental and non-governmental organizations responsible for wetland management. This article defines capacity development in terms of the knowledge, skills and attitudes of people, and highlights the levels at which capacity development takes place: Individual, organisational and institutional. Capacity development is presented as a long-term, integrated process of collaborative and experiential learning by all stakeholders. A number of structured steps in the capacity development process is outlined: Assessment, during which gaps in capacity are identified; vision development, which describes the future goal of the capacity development effort; strategy development, which focuses on the specific interventions needed to achieve the vision; action planning and implementation; evaluation of impact, sustainability, relevance and effectiveness; and monitoring of the progress made. The article concludes with some recent examples of wetland capacity development initiatives.

Rethinking the Use of Seabed Sediment Temperature Profiles to Trace Submarine Groundwater Flow
Kurylyk, B.L. ; Irvine, D.J. ; Mohammed, A.A. ; Bense, V.F. ; Briggs, M.A. ; Loder, J.W. ; Geshelin, Y. - \ 2018
Water Resources Research 54 (2018)7. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4595 - 4614.
continental slope - heat as a groundwater tracer - ocean hydrogeology - offshore groundwater - submarine groundwater discharge - submarine hydrogeology

Submarine groundwater fluxes across the seafloor facilitate important hydrological and biogeochemical exchanges between oceans and seabed sediment, yet few studies have investigated spatially distributed groundwater fluxes in deep-ocean environments such as continental slopes. Heat has been previously applied as a submarine groundwater tracer using an analytical solution to a heat flow equation assuming steady state conditions and homogeneous thermal conductivity. These assumptions are often violated in shallow seabeds due to ocean bottom temperature changes or sediment property variations. Here heat tracing analysis techniques recently developed for terrestrial settings are applied in concert to examine the influences of groundwater flow, ocean temperature changes, and seabed thermal conductivity variations on deep-ocean sediment temperature profiles. Temperature observations from the sediment and bottom ocean water on the Scotian Slope off eastern Canada are used to demonstrate how simple thermal methods for tracing groundwater can be employed if more comprehensive techniques indicate that the simplifying assumptions are valid. The spatial distribution of the inferred groundwater fluxes on the slope suggests a downward groundwater flow system with recharge occurring over the upper-middle slope and discharge on the lower slope. We speculate that the downward groundwater flow inferred on the Scotian Slope is due to density-driven processes arising from underlying salt domes, in contrast with upward slope systems driven by geothermal convection. Improvements in the design of future submarine hydrogeological studies are proposed for thermal data collection and groundwater flow analysis, including new equations that quantify the minimum detectable flux magnitude for a given sensor accuracy and profile length.

The burden of cardiovascular diseases among us states, 1990-2016
Roth, Gregory A. ; Johnson, Catherine O. ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Ahmed, Muktar ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Ansari, Hossein ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Awoke, Tadesse ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bärnighausen, Till ; Bedi, Neeraj ; Bennett, Derrick ; Bensenor, Isabela ; Biadgilign, Sibhatu ; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos ; Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Davletov, Kairat ; Dharmaratne, Samath ; Ding, Eric L. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino ; Farid, Talha ; Farvid, Maryam S. ; Feigin, Valery ; Fernandes, João ; Frostad, Joseph ; Gebru, Alemseged ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Gona, Philimon Nyakauru ; Griswold, Max ; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa ; Hankey, Graeme J. ; Hassen, Hamid Yimam ; Havmoeller, Rasmus ; Hay, Simon ; Heckbert, Susan R. ; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter ; James, Spencer Lewis ; Jara, Dube ; Kasaeian, Amir ; Khan, Abdur Rahman ; Khera, Sahil ; Khoja, Abdullah T. ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Daniel ; Kolte, Dhaval ; Lal, Dharmesh ; Larsson, Anders ; Linn, Shai ; Lotufo, Paulo A. ; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mazidi, Mohsen ; Meier, Toni ; Mendoza, Walter ; Mensah, George A. ; Meretoja, Atte ; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Moran, Andrew Edward ; Nguyen, Grant ; Nguyen, Minh ; Ong, Kanyin Liane ; Owolabi, Mayowa ; Pletcher, Martin ; Pourmalek, Farshad ; Purcell, Caroline A. ; Qorbani, Mostafa ; Rahman, Mahfuzar ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Reitsma, Marissa Bettay ; Renzaho, Andre M.N. ; Rios-Blancas, Maria Jesus ; Safiri, Saeid ; Salomon, Joshua A. ; Sartorius, Benn ; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh ; Shaikh, Masood Ali ; Silva, Diego ; Stranges, Saverio ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele ; Thakur, J.S. ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Truelsen, Thomas ; Tuzcu, E.M. ; Tyrovolas, Stefanos ; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Vlassov, Vasiliy ; Vollset, Stein Emil ; Wakayo, Tolassa ; Weintraub, Robert ; Wolfe, Charles ; Workicho, Abdulhalik ; Xu, Gelin ; Yadgir, Simon ; Yano, Yuichiro ; Yip, Paul ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Zipkin, Ben ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Gakidou, Emmanuela ; Lim, Stephen S. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Vos, Theo ; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2018
JAMA Cardiology 3 (2018)5. - ISSN 2380-6583 - p. 375 - 389.
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, but regional variation within the United States is large. Comparable and consistent state-level measures of total CVD burden and risk factors have not been produced previously. Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of lost health due to CVD within the United States from 1990 to 2016 as well as risk factors driving these changes. Design, setting, and participants: Using the Global Burden of Disease methodology, cardiovascular disease mortality, nonfatal health outcomes, and associated risk factors were analyzed by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2016 for all residents in the United States using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling. Burden of disease was estimated for 10 groupings of CVD, and comparative risk analysis was performed. Data were analyzed from August 2016 to July 2017. Exposures: Residing in the United States. Main outcomes ans measures: Cardiovascular disease disability-Adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results: Between 1990 and 2016, age-standardized CVD DALYs for all states decreased. Several states had large rises in their relative rank ordering for total CVD DALYs among states, including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, Kansas, Alaska, and Iowa. The rate of decline varied widely across states, and CVD burden increased for a small number of states in the most recent years. Cardiovascular disease DALYs remained twice as large among men compared with women. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD DALYs in all states, but the second most common varied by state. Trends were driven by 12 groups of risk factors, with the largest attributable CVD burden due to dietary risk exposures followed by high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high total cholesterol level, high fasting plasma glucose level, tobacco smoking, and low levels of physical activity. Increases in risk-deleted CVD DALY rates between 2006 and 2016 in 16 states suggest additional unmeasured risks beyond these traditional factors. Conclusions and relevance: Large disparities in total burden of CVD persist between US states despite marked improvements in CVD burden. Differences in CVD burden are largely attributable to modifiable risk exposures.
Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda
Uwimana, Brigitte ; Dam, Anne van; Gettel, Gretchen ; Bigirimana, Bonfils ; Irvine, Kenneth - \ 2017
Environmental Management 60 (2017)3. - ISSN 0364-152X - p. 496 - 512.
Agriculture - Discharge - Land use - Nutrients - Water quality - Wetlands
Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013. In 2011, measurements were done at the outlets of 3 sub-catchments (Munyazi, Mukura and Akagera). Between May 2012 and May 2013 the measurements were done in 16 reaches of Munyazi dominated by rice, vegetables, grass/forest or ponds/reservoirs. Water quality was also measured during two rainfall events. Results showed seasonal trends in water quality associated with high water flows and farming activities. Across all sites, the total suspended solids related positively to discharge, increasing 2–8 times during high flow periods. Conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH decreased with increasing discharge, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus did not show a clear pattern. The total suspended solids concentrations were consistently higher downstream of reaches dominated by rice and vegetable farming. For total nitrogen and total phosphorus results were mixed, but suggesting higher concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus during the dry and early rainy (and farming) season, and then wash out during the rainy season, with subsequent dilution at the end of the rains. Rice and vegetable farming generate the transport of sediment as opposed to ponds/reservoir and grass/forest.
Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps
Hoekman, D.H. - \ 2017
In: The Wetland Book / Finlayson, C.M., Everard, Mark, Irvine, Kenneth, McInnes, Robert J., Middleton, Berth A., van Dam, Anne A., Davidson, Nick C., Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media - ISBN 9789400761728 - 10 p.
Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

Peat swamp forests are among the worlds most threatened and least known ecosystems. In Southeast Asia large areas of peat swamp forest have been deforested, converted for agricultural projects or into plantations (such as oil palm).

Drainage through canalisation has frequently severely disrupted water table level dynamics, resulting in CO2 emissions due to oxidisation and vulnerability to fire, especially during ‘El-Niño’ years. Water management is essential in addressing disturbances and rehabilitation of degraded tropical peatlands.

Radar satellite observations can be made frequently, also in the wet season.Because of a certain level of penetration of the radar waves, also observation below the canopy is possible. Particularly the L-band sensors on board the former JERS-1 and ALOS-1 satellites are superior to all other spaceborne sensors for assessment of flooding and drought conditions and, thus, hydrological cycles.
The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions : An interdisciplinary perspective
Nesshöver, Carsten ; Assmuth, Timo ; Irvine, Katherine N. ; Rusch, Graciela M. ; Waylen, Kerry A. ; Delbaere, Ben ; Haase, Dagmar ; Jones-Walters, Lawrence ; Keune, Hans ; Kovacs, Eszter ; Krauze, Kinga ; Külvik, Mart ; Rey, Freddy ; Dijk, Jiska van; Vistad, Odd Inge ; Wilkinson, Mark E. ; Wittmer, Heidi - \ 2017
Science of the Total Environment 579 (2017). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1215 - 1227.
Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Environmental governance - Sustainability
In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: (1) NBS need to be developed and discussed in relation to existing concepts to clarify their added value;(2) When considering and implementing NBS, the ‘relabelling’ of related concepts and the misuse of the concept have to be prevented in order to avoid misunderstanding, duplication and unintended consequences;(3) NBS as currently framed by the European Commission provides an opportunity for: a) transdisciplinary research into the design and implementation of solutions based on nature; and b) overcoming a bias towards development alternatives with narrow perspectives that focus on short-term economic gains and effectiveness;(4) The strength of the NBS concept is its integrative, systemic approach which prevents it from becoming just another “green communication tool” that provides justification for a classical model of natural resource exploitation and management measures.To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that ‘solutions’ contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term.
The PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework for spatial assessment of the physical impact and economic viability of land degradation mitigation technologies
Fleskens, Luuk ; Kirkby, Mike J. ; Irvine, Brian J. - \ 2016
Frontiers in Environmental Science 4 (2016)APR. - ISSN 2296-665X
Cost-benefit analysis - Integrated environmental modeling - Land degradation - Policy evaluation - Soil conservation

This paper presents the PESERA-DESMICE integrated model developed in the EU FP6 DESIRE project. PESERA-DESMICE combines a process-based erosion prediction model extended with process descriptions to evaluate the effects of measures to mitigate land degradation, and a spatially-explicit economic evaluation model to evaluate the financial viability of these measures. The model operates on a grid-basis and is capable of addressing degradation problems due to wind and water erosion, grazing, and fire. It can evaluate the effects of improved management strategies such as maintaining soil cover, retention of crop residues, irrigation, water harvesting, terracing, and strip cropping. These management strategies introduce controls to various parameters slowing down degradation processes. The paper first describes how the physical impact of the various management strategies is assessed. It then continues to evaluate the applicability limitations of the various mitigation options, and to inventory the spatial variation in the investment and maintenance costs involved for each of a series of technologies that are deemed relevant in a given study area. The physical effects of the implementation of the management strategies relative to the situation without mitigation are subsequently valuated in monetary terms. The model pays particular attention to the spatial variation in the costs and benefits involved as a function of environmental conditions and distance to markets. All costs and benefits are added to a cash flow and a discount rate is applied. This allows a cost-benefit analysis(CBA) to be performed over a comparative planning period based on the economic lifetime of the technologies being evaluated. It is assumed that land users will only potentially implement technologies if they are financially viable. After this framework has been set-up, various analyses can be made, including the effect of policy options on the potential uptake of mitigation measures and an analysis of where cost-effectiveness is highest. Apart from model description, we present case studies of the use of the framework to illustrate its functioning and relevance for policy-making.

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